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Open Educational Practices at Tallinn University

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Presentation at the International workshop of the CURE project “Curriculum Reform for Promoting Democratic Principles and Civic Education in Israel and in Georgia, 22 August 2018, Tallinn University.

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Open Educational Practices at Tallinn University

  1. 1. Open Educational Practices at Tallinn University Hans Põldoja
  2. 2. Hans Põldoja Head of Studies, Associate Professor of Educational Technology Tallinn University, School of Digital Technologies Education: Aalto University, School of Arts, Design and Architecture (2016) Tallinn Pedagogical University (2003) hans.poldoja@tlu.ee http://www.hanspoldoja.net
  3. 3. How to make learning more open and personal?
  4. 4. Understanding the background: the Open Education movement
  5. 5. https://creativecommons.org
  6. 6. https://ocw.mit.edu
  7. 7. (Plourde, 2013)
  8. 8. (Class Hack, n.d.)
  9. 9. OER authoring platforms
  10. 10. LeMill
  11. 11. https://leplanner.net
  12. 12. Blog-based courses
  13. 13. https://oercourse.wordpress.com
  14. 14. https://viitamiskursus.wordpress.com
  15. 15. https://beta.wikiversity.org/wiki/Vikiülikooli_koolituspakkumised
  16. 16. https://opikeskkonnad.wordpress.com
  17. 17. https://ifi7313.wordpress.com
  18. 18. Course blog Learner blogs Blog-based open online courses
  19. 19. Course format • Course blog + learner blogs • Additional Web 2.0 and social media tools (Twitter, SlideShare, YouTube, …) • Open enrollment • Open educational resources • Assignments through blog posts • Feedback and discussion in comments
  20. 20. Benefits of using blogs • Supporting learners to develop and express their ideas • Supporting collaboration and group work • Getting feedback from others • Enriching the learning environment • Promoting new educational practices • Motivating learners (Goktas & Demirel, 2012)
  21. 21. Väljataga, T., Põldoja, H., Laanpere, M. (2011). Open Online Courses: Responding to Design Challenges. In H. Ruokamo, M. Eriksson, L. Pekkala, & H. Vuojärvi (Eds.), Proceedings of the 4th International Network-Based Education 2011 Conference The Social Media in the Middle of Nowhere (pp. 68-75). Rovaniemi: University of Lapland. Proceedings of the NBE 2011 68 Open Online Courses: Responding to Design Challenges Terje Väljataga terje.valjataga@tlu.ee http://terjevaljataga.eu Hans Põldoja hans.poldoja@tlu.ee http://www.hanspoldoja.net Mart Laanpere mart.laanpere@tlu.ee Tallinn University Centre for Educational Technology Narva road 25, 10120 Tallinn, Estonia Tel: +372 6409 355, Fax: +372 6409 355 Open education and open educational resources movement as a recent trend in higher education focuses on providing free access to a wide range of educational resources and online courses. However, such a narrow approach fails to acknowledge the transformative and innovative opportunities openness can offer in higher education. The authors of the paper take a wider perspective to the concept of openness in formal higher education. In addition to open technology, content and knowledge sharing openness in course design is an important dimension to consider. Although open online course design solves many educational problems and challenges, at the same time it also creates new ones. This paper discusses about the re-occurring course design challenges that facilitators face while designing and running open courses. Through a multiple case study a variety of design responses to the design challenges is analyzed and demonstrated. Keywords: open online course model, open educational resources, pedagogical design, multiple case study 1 Introduction The concept of openness has multiple interpretations and dimensions in the context of higher education. Among others, it has been used by proponents of open classroom approach in 1970-ties and by distance education enthusiasts while establishing open universities”. The purpose was to solve a number of educational problems and challenges, for instance, to improve access to existing study programmes and attract more (or better) students following Huijser, Bedford, and Bull’s (2008) claim that everyone has the right to education. In general, openness in education is attributed to a barrier-free access to education in terms of time, affordability and admission requirements being freely available through the Internet. A recent trend is the open educational resources (OER) movement (Atkins, Brown & Hammond, 2007), which provides free access to a wide range of educational resources and online courses. OER and its importance has been widely documented and demonstrated (Downes, 2007). The key tenet of open education is that “education can be improved by making educational assets visible and accessible and by harnessing the collective wisdom of a community of practice and reflection” (p. 2) (Iiyoshi & Kumar, 2008). The notion of openness in education is clearly triggered by the opportunities technological development offers. In addition to growing access to Internet, the latest evolution of digital technology and Web has fostered a new culture of creating and sharing open content in online communities. It has been possible due to the blurred line between producers and consumers of content allowing shifted attention from access to information toward access to other people (Iiyoshi & Kumar, 2008). In the light of ongoing technological development, there are educators who are exploring ways to expand the notion of openness in education beyond public sharing of educational content. Iiyoshi & Kumar (2008) point out that with the concept of openness we might tend to grow our collections of educational tools and resources and miss the transformative and innovative opportunities “openness” can offer. One of the emerging practices in this direction is the open online course model.
  22. 22. Challenges in blog-based courses • Coordinating and following the course activities • Creating and sustaining the learning community • Designing content and activities • Feedback and assessment
  23. 23. http://www.edufeedr.net
  24. 24. Põldoja, H., Duval, E., & Leinonen, T. (2016). Design and evaluation of an online tool for open learning with blogs. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 32(2), 64–81. http://dx.doi.org/ 10.14742/ajet.2450 Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 2016, 32(2). 64 ascilite Design and evaluation of an online tool for open learning with blogs Hans Põldoja Tallinn University, Estonia Erik Duval Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Belgium Teemu Leinonen Aalto University, Finland Blogs are used in higher education to support face-to-face courses, to organise online courses, and to open up courses for a wider group of participants. However the open and distributed nature of blogs creates problems that are not common in other learning contexts. Four key challenges related to the use of blogs in learning were identified from earlier research: fragmented discussions, a lack of coordination structures, weak support for awareness, and a danger of over-scripting. The EduFeedr system has been designed to address these issues. In this paper, the authors present their evaluation of its design and effectiveness in a total of 10 courses. The results indicate that learners find the EduFeedr system useful in following discussions and in comparing their progress with other learners. The coordination and awareness issues are seen as more important than the fragmentation of discussions and a danger of over-scripting. Introduction Blogs are used in higher education to provide a space for reflection, a forum for discussions, a portfolio of completed assignments, and for opening up courses for a wider group of participants. While some recent research has focused on the pedagogical aspects of using blogs in higher education, Sim and Hew (2010) suggest that one focus of future research should be the development of web technologies that will enhance the conversational and interactive aspects of blogging. Our study focuses on designing and evaluating an online tool that aims to address some of the issues that impede the use of blogs in online and blended learning courses. A blog is a website where the content is comprised of posts that are displayed in reverse chronological order. A typical blog is a personal website that is written by a single person; however it is also possible to have several authors. Readers can become engaged by writing comments on blog posts. Syndication technologies such as really simple syndication (RSS) and Atom enable readers to receive new posts and comments automatically. All blogs and their interconnections are often referred to as the blogosphere. The blogosphere can be seen both as a social network and as an ecosystem. The possibilities for using blogs in learning became evident soon after blogs emerged (Oravec, 2003; Williams & Jacobs, 2004). Sim and Hew (2010) identified six major applications for blogs in education: (a) maintaining a learning journal, (b) recording personal life, (c) expressing emotions, (d) communicating with others, (e) assessment, and (f) managing tasks. Kim (2008) suggests that the use of blogs may help to overcome various limitations of other computer- mediated communication systems, such as difficulties in managing communication, passiveness of students, lack of ownership, instructor-centeredness, and limited archives of communication. Previous studies show that reading other blogs and receiving feedback on one’s own blog posts were the more effective aspects of using blogs in learning (Churchill, 2009; Ellison & Wu, 2008). Blogs are useful in disciplines that require students to discuss, write, reflect, and make comments about content or ideas (Cakir, 2013). Blogging has been found particularly beneficial in teacher education because it can motivate learners, foster collaboration and cooperation, promote different instructional practices, and enrich the learning environment (Goktas & Demirel, 2012). Teachers who acquire these competences during the blogging assignments can later apply these methods in their own teaching.
  25. 25. Twitter
  26. 26. Challenges in blog-based courses • Coordinating and following the course activities • Creating and sustaining the learning community • Designing content and activities • Feedback and assessment
  27. 27. Personal introductions / About pages
  28. 28. Learning contracts
  29. 29. Learning contract template • Topic: What is the topic I wish to learn about? • Purpose: What is the purpose of my task? Why do I wish to learn about or learn to do a particular task? • Resources: What kind of technological, material and human resources do I need? How can I get access to these? • Strategy: How do I intend to go about learning this particular topic/task? What action may be involved and in what order will these be carried out? • Outcome evaluation: How will I know when I have completed the task/topic successfully? How shall I judge success? • Reflection: How well did I do? What has worked? What has not worked? Why? What remains to be learnt? What are my strengths and what are my weaknesses? What shall I do next?
  30. 30. Blog rolls
  31. 31. Challenges in blog-based courses • Coordinating and following the course activities • Creating and sustaining the learning community • Designing content and activities • Feedback and assessment
  32. 32. Publishing course content • WordPress pages for lecture notes • SlideShare for presentations • YouTube for videos and screencasts • Mendeley for research publications • Dropbox for resources that cannot be shared in public web (scanned book chapters, etc.)
  33. 33. Designing assignments • Assignments combine practical and theoretical learning goals • Assignments encourage reflection • Assignments allow each learner to come up with an original solution
  34. 34. Student posts as content
  35. 35. Different learning paths Basic knowledge badges Basic knowledge on learning objects and repositories Basic knowledge on authoring tools Basic knowledge on computer- based assessment Basic knowledge on new technologies Basic knowledge on copyright of digital learning resources Basic knowledge on quality of digital learning resources Content package author Assessment test author e-Textbook author Advanced knowledge on learning objects and repositories Advanced knowledge on authoring tools Advanced knowledge on computer-based assessment Advanced knowledge on new technologies Advanced knowledge on copyright of digital learning resources Advanced knowledge on quality of digital learning resources Blogging assignment 1 Blogging assignment 2 Blogging assignment 3 Blogging assignment 4 Blogging assignment 5 Group assignment on developing a digital learning resource Blogging assignment 6 Literature review Describing the advantages and disadvantages of learning objects approach Searching for learning objects from learning object repositories by metadata and licenses Creating simple content packages, tests and e- textbooks, and describing these with metadata Following copyright principles for digital learning resources Evaluating the quality of a learning resources using an evaluation framework Using one authoring tool to create a more comprehensive digital learning resource Analyzing the current issues, research studies and trends in one sub- topic related to digital learning resources Learning outcomes Assignments Advanced knowledge badges Skills badges
  36. 36. Challenges in blog-based courses • Coordinating and following the course activities • Creating and sustaining the learning community • Designing content and activities • Feedback and assessment
  37. 37. Commenting
  38. 38. Liking
  39. 39. Summary posts
  40. 40. Open Badges
  41. 41. Example data from a course • 15 weeks • 15 learners + 1 facilitator • 162 blog posts (incl. 22 from the facilitator) • 239 comments (incl. 44 from the facilitator) • 81 trackback links between the blogs
  42. 42. Open Badges
  43. 43. http://openbadges.org
  44. 44. (Class Hack, n.d.)
  45. 45. (Open Badges, n.d.)
  46. 46. Badge systems
  47. 47. https://oppematerjalid.wordpress.com
  48. 48. The first iteration: outcome-based badges
  49. 49. Basic knowledge badges Basic knowledge on learning objects and repositories Basic knowledge on authoring tools Basic knowledge on computer- based assessment Basic knowledge on new technologies Basic knowledge on copyright of digital learning resources Basic knowledge on quality of digital learning resources Content package author Assessment test author e-Textbook author Advanced knowledge on learning objects and repositories Advanced knowledge on authoring tools Advanced knowledge on computer-based assessment Advanced knowledge on new technologies Advanced knowledge on copyright of digital learning resources Advanced knowledge on quality of digital learning resources Blogging assignment 1 Blogging assignment 2 Blogging assignment 3 Blogging assignment 4 Blogging assignment 5 Group assignment on developing a digital learning resource Blogging assignment 6 Literature review Describing the advantages and disadvantages of learning objects approach Searching for learning objects from learning object repositories by metadata and licenses Creating simple content packages, tests and e- textbooks, and describing these with metadata Following copyright principles for digital learning resources Evaluating the quality of a learning resources using an evaluation framework Using one authoring tool to create a more comprehensive digital learning resource Analyzing the current issues, research studies and trends in one sub- topic related to digital learning resources Learning outcomes Assignments Advanced knowledge badges Skills badges
  50. 50. Arvutipõhine testimine Sisupaketi koostaja Uued tehnoloogiad Õpiobjektid Autorvahendid Testiküsimuste koostaja e-Õpiku koostaja Autoriõigus Kvaliteet Õpiobjektid Autorvahendid Arvutipõhine testimine Uued tehnoloogiad Autoriõigus Kvaliteet Süvendatud teadmised ühel õppematerjalidega seotud teemal
  51. 51. Badge points • Basic knowledge badges — 10 points (6 badges) • Skills badges — 20 points (one of 3 badges) • Advanced knowledge badges — 20 points (one of 6 badges)
  52. 52. Põldoja, H., & Laanpere, M. (2014). Exploring the Potential of Open Badges in Blog-Based University Courses. In Y. Cao, T. Väljataga, J. K. T. Tang, H. Leung, & M. Laanpere (Eds.), New Horizons in Web Based Learning (Vol. 8699, pp. 172–178). Cham: Springer. http://doi.org/ 10.1007/978-3-319-13296-9_19 Exploring the Potential of Open Badges in Blog-Based University Courses Hans Põldoja(&) and Mart Laanpere Institute of Informatics, Tallinn University, Tallinn, Estonia {hans.poldoja,mart.laanpere}@tlu.ee Abstract. Recent developments with personal learning environments and open online courses have led educators to experiment with opening up their formal higher education courses. In these courses, the online learning activities take place in open learning environments based on various Web 2.0 tools such as blogs. Although this type of courses have a number of pedagogical benefits, they also raise issues related to private grading of students’ works and recognizing the learning of informal participants. This paper presents our exploratory study on addressing these issues by introducing open badges to master’s level course that takes place in a blog-based learning environment. Students’ perspectives on using open badges were evaluated through focus group interviews. The results of the study indicate, that badges could have a potential in formal higher edu- cation, if they are used more widely and provide an explicit choice of personal learning paths for learners. Keywords: Open badges Á Assessment Á Blog-based courses 1 Introduction One of the recent trends in education is the blending of formal and informal learning. This is supported by introducing social media, personal learning environments and various open educational practices to formal higher education [1, 2]. Students can enrich their learning experience by using open educational resources from other uni- versities and taking part in Massive Open Online Courses. In many cases, such developments have led university lecturers and professors to increase the degree of openness in their courses. One approach is to move online learning activities to open learning environments that are based on social media and Web 2.0 tools such as blogs. The use of blogs in online courses provides a number of pedagogical benefits such as motivating learners, enhancing the development and expression of ideas, fostering interaction, collaboration and group work, inviting feedback from other learners, and enriching the learning environment [3]. The use of blog-based learning environments also allows educators to open up their course for informal participants or members of professional communities who are not officially enrolled to the course. Open blog-based courses in formal higher education raise also a number of issues that are not present in traditional courses. For example, blog-based learning environ- ments typically lack special features that support private feedback and grading of © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2014 Y. Cao et al. (Eds.): ICWL 2014 Workshops, LNCS 8699, pp. 172–178, 2014. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-13296-9_19
  53. 53. The second iteration: multiple levels of badges
  54. 54. Badge points • Basic knowledge badges — 10 points (6 badges) • Skills badges — 20 points (one of 3 badges) • Advanced knowledge badge — 20 points • Golden badges — 15 and 30 points
  55. 55. The third iteration: multiple learning pathways
  56. 56. Põldoja, H., Jürgens, P., & Laanpere, M. (2016). Design Patterns for Badge Systems in Higher Education. In M. Spaniol, M. Temperini, D.K.W. Chiu, I. Marenzi, & U. Nanni (eds.), Advances in Web-Based Learning — ICWL 2016 (Vol. 10013, lk 40– 49). Cham: Springer. http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1007/978-3-319-47440-3_5 Design Patterns for Badge Systems in Higher Education Hans Põldoja (✉) , Pirje Jürgens, and Mart Laanpere Tallinn University, Narva mnt 25, 10120 Tallinn, Estonia {hans.poldoja,pirje.jurgens,mart.laanpere}@tlu.ee Abstract. Open Badges as a method for assessment and recognition of learning originates from the context of informal learning. Thus, it cannot be introduced into formal higher education without reconsidering the existing assessment processes.This paper presentsexperiencesfrom three years of using Open Badges in a master level course. In each iteration, the badge system was revised based on learners’ feedback. Special attention was given to supporting learners with different learning styles. To summarize our findings, this paper proposes a set of design patterns for developing badge systems in higher education. While the learning styles proved to be useful as generic design guidelines for separating two alternative learning pathways for the course, more research is needed on advanced learning-style-based learning pathways. Keywords: Open Badges · Assessment · Higher education 1 Introduction Open Badges (OB’s) is a web technology for recognizing and verifying knowledge, competencies or involvements gained in online or offline settings. In a basic sense, badges are digital images that contain embedded information about the accomplish‐ ments. The development of the Open Badges technology started in 2010, when a group of open education activists came up with the initial concept during the Mozilla Drumbeat Festival. Inspired by the use of digital badges in gaming and various social apps, they proposed that badges could be used for verifying learning. The technical specification of the Open Badges Infrastructure (OBI) was developed together with the Mozilla Foundation and released in 2012. While digital badges are typically used within a single environment, OBI was developed as an open standard that allows people to collect badges from different issuers. The initial scenarios about using open badges focused on informal learning contexts [1]. However, in recent years there have been a number of studies about using badges in schools [2, 3] and in higher education [4–6]. Introducing open badges to formal higher education courses provides an opportunity to reconsider the existing assessment procedures. Recent research on open badges has proposed a number of reasons for adopting badges. Ahn, Pellicone, and Butler [7] see badges as motivators for behavior, pedagogical tools for promoting particular learning activities, and credentials for recognizing learning achievements. While Jovanovic and Devedzic [8] identify similar roles for open badges, they discuss additional benefits such as supporting alternative forms of assessment (e.g. peer-assessment), providing learners © Springer International Publishing AG 2016 D.K.W. Chiu et al. (Eds.): ICWL 2016, LNCS 10013, pp. 40–49, 2016. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-47440-3_5
  57. 57. Badge points • Basic knowledge badges — 10 points • Golden badges for basic knowledge — 15 points • Broken badge for basic knowledge — 5 points • Learning resource author — 24 points (36 points for a golden badge) • Researcher — 36 points • Enlightener — 10 points • Wikipedist — 12 points
  58. 58. Recommended learning pathways
  59. 59. “Researcher” • 6 blogging assingments on basic knowledge — 60 points • Writing a literature review — 36 points • Total 96 points (grade A) • Workload 78 hours
  60. 60. “Practitioner” • 6 blogging assingments on basic knowledge — 60 points • Developing a learning resource — 24 points • Total 84 points (grade B) • Workload 68 hours
  61. 61. “Non-blogger” • Writing a literature review — 36 points • Developing a learning resource — 24 points • Presentation in the seminar — 10 points • Writing a Wikipedia article — 12 points • Total 82 points (grade B) • Workload 79 hours
  62. 62. Pathways and learning styles • Practical pathway for activists and pragmatists • Theoretical pathway for theorists and reflectors
  63. 63. Seven themes from learners’ feedback
  64. 64. Learner control • Learning contracts • “...learners had the possibility to choose their paths: some learners created learning objects, some wrote a literature review. This was possible only thanks to the open badges system that gave a good overview of the weight of the assignments and helped to plan the work” • “My goal was to get A and I liked that I could choose whether to do all the assignments or not, for example — I deliberately didn’t write one post…”
  65. 65. Awareness • “It really was a good way for me to keep track of my progress” • “If there was an automatic score table for achieved badge points in Moodle, it would have a practical value”
  66. 66. Motivation • “The motivating aspect of open badges was the possibility to choose my own learning path and to find the assignments that interest me the most” • “I planned to get B ... The first golden badge however made me make an effort, because just so little was missing from A”
  67. 67. Learning styles • “I liked the idea that I could choose the types of assignments that felt more natural to me”
  68. 68. Open Badges ecosystem • “Maybe I would use it if we could earn open badges in different courses” (about Mozilla Backpack) • “... the system is not complete. I can’t make my earned badges fully work for my benefit. I added my badges to Mozilla Backpack and shared in LinkedIn, but apparently this will be the end of its life cycle...”
  69. 69. Assessment criteria • Assessment criteria for golden badges was deliberately not specified • “What is still unclear to me, is the criteria of earning the badges. What were the deadlines, what was the criteria for the golden badge, and what is the amount of badge points?”
  70. 70. Badge metadata • “When I opened the badge, there was no next level information. I guess I expected the learning outcome. This would be useful information to possible employers who would also like to understand the “evidence” of what the person knows/can do and if these are the competences his company needs” • Badges described in Estonian are less useful internationally
  71. 71. Design patterns for open learning
  72. 72. Alexander, C., Ishikawa, S., & Silverstein, M. (1977). A Pattern Language: Towns, Buildings, Construction. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
  73. 73. (Alexander et al., 1977)
  74. 74. (Alexander et al., 1977)
  75. 75. Põldoja, H. (2016). The Structure and Components for the Open Education Ecosystem: Constructive Design Research of Online Learning Tools. Helsinki: Aalto University.
  76. 76. Design patterns • 12 design patterns for collaborative authoring of open educational resources (LeMill and PILOT) • 12 design patterns for blog-based open online courses (EduFeedr and LeContract)
  77. 77. Patterns for collaborative authoring of OER’s
  78. 78. Pattern 1: Authoring template This pattern deals with providing a clear structure for creating new learning resources. It may be difficult to start creating a new learning resource from the scratch. Having a certain predefined structure for new learning resources would help teachers to get started. A large collection of peer produced learning resources would benefit from having a consistent structure and layout. Consistent structure contributes to the quality of learning resources. On the other hand, it is important to achieve balance between predefined structure and flexibility for the authors. Therefore: The learning resource authoring tool should provide a set of pedagogical templates that scaffold teachers and content producers in creating new resources. LeMill provided six pedagogical templates for creating learning resources: web page, presentation, exercise, lesson plan, school project, and PILOT. Web page is a generic template while other templates provide a more predefined structure. Authoring templates consist of different types of sections that are called blocks in LeMill. For example, web pages in LeMill consist of text blocks, media pieces and embed blocks. The exercise template has additional blocks for various question types. Templates may also scaffold the use of new pedagogical methods, such as the PILOT template in LeMill. This is a central design pattern, that is related to a number of smaller design patterns. Learning resources based on authoring templates have a DRAFT (2) status, support EMBEDDING (3) and LINKEDNESS (4), are published under a SINGLE LICENSE (5), and could be developed into TRANSLATIONS (6) or ADAPTATIONS (7). Two special types of authoring templates are METHOD DESCRIPTIONS (8) and TOOL DESCRIPTIONS (9). As a central design pattern, authoring template is addressing a number of design challenges: (C3) assuring the quality of collaboratively created open educational resources; (C4) lack of collaboration and peer production of learning materials, (C5) lack of reuse, revising and remixing, and (C2) scaffolding the use of new pedagogical methods. Short description Conflicting forces Recommended configuration Related patterns and design challenges
  79. 79. Design challenges and patterns for collaborative authoring of OER’s C1 Digital learning resources are mainly used for individual learning and for presentations C2 Scaffolding the use of new pedagogical methods C3 Assuring the quality of collaboratively created open educational resources C4 Lack of collaboration and peer production of learning materials C5 Lack of reuse, revising and remixing C6 Multilingualism C7 Providing localization and reusability while retaining authentic context C8 Limited findability and poor usability C9 Poor use of the underlying principles of the Web P1 Authoring template P2 Draft P3 Embedding P4 Linkedness P5 Single license P6 Translations P7 Adaptations P8 Method descriptions P9 Tool descriptions P10 Collection P11 Teaching and learning story P12 Featured resources Design challenges Design patterns
  80. 80. Patterns for blog-based open online courses
  81. 81. Design challenges and patterns for blog-based open online courses C10 Supporting learners with setting up their personal learning goals and strategies C11 Keeping the learner motivation throughout the course C12 The danger of over- scripting C13 Establishing and keeping the community gravity C14 The fragmentation of discussions in blog-based courses C15 Lack of coordination structures for managing blog- based courses C16 Lack of awareness support mechanisms C17 Commenting and versioning of learning contracts P13 Being open for lurking P14 Open enrollment P18 Blogroll P19 Course tag P23 Learning analytics visualizations P15 Nicknames P16 About page P17 Personal learning contract P20 Aggregated discussions P21 Reflective assignments P22 Summary posts P24 Open badges for assessment Design challenges Design patterns
  82. 82. Patterns for blog-based open online courses
  83. 83. Design challenges and patterns for blog-based open online courses C10 Supporting learners with setting up their personal learning goals and strategies C11 Keeping the learner motivation throughout the course C12 The danger of over- scripting C13 Establishing and keeping the community gravity C14 The fragmentation of discussions in blog-based courses C15 Lack of coordination structures for managing blog- based courses C16 Lack of awareness support mechanisms C17 Commenting and versioning of learning contracts P13 Being open for lurking P14 Open enrollment P18 Blogroll P19 Course tag P23 Learning analytics visualizations P15 Nicknames P16 About page P17 Personal learning contract P20 Aggregated discussions P21 Reflective assignments P22 Summary posts P24 Open badges for assessment Design challenges Design patterns
  84. 84. Six design patterns for outcome- based badge systems
  85. 85. Badge levels • Pass/fail assessment is too limited for measuring the quality of learners’ work and motivating them • Badge systems should have multiple levels (e.g. regular badges, golden badges; Gold, Silver, Bronze)
  86. 86. Badge points • Badge points enable to translate badges into course grades
  87. 87. Broken badges • Broken badges are used to point out unwanted behaviour (e.g. being late with the assignments)
  88. 88. Deconstructed badges • Large learning activities should be deconstructed into separate independent badges (e.g. peer review badge for the literature review assignment)
  89. 89. Learning pathways • Badge system should be designed so that it provides a possibility of multiple learning pathways • Most common learning pathways could be recommended as readymade “packages” for learners
  90. 90. Personal learning contracts • Learning contracts help learners to plan their learning goals and strategies • Learning contracts provide an overview of the learning pathways that learners plan to take • Learning contracts could be used for self-assessment • Open badges, multiple learning pathways and personal learning contracts form a triangle of educational tools that complement each other when used together
  91. 91. Open Education Ecosystem
  92. 92. Open education ecosystem … a learning ecosystem that consists of tools, services, resources and stakeholders who share a common set of values. The core value that defines the extent of the open education ecosystem is openness.
  93. 93. (based on Gütl & Chang, 2008) Open education ecosystem
  94. 94. Learning stakeholders of the open education ecosystem
  95. 95. Learning utilities of the open education ecosystem
  96. 96. Open should be the default, closed should be an option!
  97. 97. References • Class Hack, Open Badge Anatomy (Updated): http://classhack.com/post/ 45364649211/open-badge-anatomy-updated • Goktas, Y., & Demirel, T. (2012). Blog-enhanced ICT courses: Examining their effects on prospective teachers’ ICT competencies and perceptions. Computers & Education, 58(3), 908–917. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2011.11.004 • Gütl, C., & Chang, V. (2008). Ecosystem-based Theoretical Models for Learning in Environments of the 21st Century. International Journal of Emerging Technologies in Learning, 3(3), 50–60. http://doi.org/10.3991/ijet.v3i1.742 • Plourde, M. (2013). MOOC (massive open online course). Retrieved from https:// et.wikipedia.org/wiki/MOOC#/media/File:MOOC_poster_mathplourde.jpg
  98. 98. This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0/ Hans Põldoja hans.poldoja@tlu.ee Tallinn University School of Digital Technologies http://www.hanspoldoja.net https://www.slideshare.net/hanspoldoja

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