Designing a web community for collaborative authoring of open educational resources
Designing a web community for
collaborative authoring of open
University of Art and Design Helsinki
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• Context of my research
• Research questions
• Theoretical background
• Design process
• Evaluation and current ﬁndings
• Next steps
• Putting this chaos together
Legal and economical
• Open educational resources
• Commons-based peer production (Benkler 2005;
Benkler, 2006) and open source development
• Free culture and open content (Lessig, 2004)
Simple licensing scheme
All resources created in LeMill
are published under Creative
ShareAlike 2.5 license
Media pieces can be also:
- CC Attribution
- Public Domain
- GNU FDL
Technical and design
• Online communities and social software (Preece,
2000; Shirky, 2003)
• Interaction design
• Information architecture
• Scenario based design (Carroll, 2000)
• Agile software development methods (Schwaber &
Beedle, 2001; Cohn, 2004)
Designed for teachers
• Design sessions
• User stories
Design session results
• Teachers are not very
interested in raw text
• Teachers are
interested in activities
• Learning resources
can be divided to
content, activities and
• Think aloud test and international focus group in
• International school testing January–May 2007
• Estonian focus group in May 2007
• International focus group in August 2007
How often do you visit LeMill?
How did you ﬁnd out about LeMill?
Do you follow what's going on? How?
How easy or difﬁcult was it to get started with LeMill?
Have you made new contacts in LeMill?
Have you read LeMill FAQ or other documentation?
How do you feel about working together on a content with other teachers?
What kind of support material teachers need?
Have you thought to invite somebody to work with you?
How much would it mean to you to know that someone is using material that you have created?
What kind of other software you are using to create learning resources?
What kind of Web 2.0 environments you are using in your teaching and learning?
What should we do to get more teachers to LeMill?
What kind of software you use to communicate with students, parents and friends?
LeMill focus group What is missing from LeMill?
Do you use any learning environment or learning management system?
Do you need additional learning resource templates? Which?
How do you see the roles of LeMill and the Portal in CALIBRATE project?
Are LeMill and the Portal supporting each other or are they competing for attention? Do you turn your attention to copyright issues related to learning resources?
Have you found from LeMill useful content made by other teachers?
Have you ever got lost in LeMill?
How did you use the content you found? Did you modify it according to your needs?
Is there something confusing in the user interface?
What motivates you to publish your learning resources in LeMill?
Are there operations that require too many steps to be completed?
How do you use LeMill content in your lessons?
Do you ﬁnd on-screen messages understandable and helpful?
• A lot of technical and usability problems :)
• Some features of LeMill are not used
• Different kind of learning resources are created in
• Different attitudes towards copyright issues and
• Collaborative authoring required a critical mass of
users and content. That is not achieved yet.
• Community building
• Mapping all existing digital learning resources in one
subject with Estonian national curriculum
• Publishing an open textbook about geography of
• Setting up local LeMill communities in Estonia and
Research-based design process
This image from an unpublished article is missing from online presentation
(Leinonen et al)
• Benkler,Y. (2005). Common Wisdom: Peer Production of Educational Materials. Center for Open and
• Benkler,Y. (2006). The Wealth of Networks: How Social Production Transforms Markets and Freedom.
Yale University Press.
• Carroll, J.M. (2000). Making Use. Scenario-Based Design of Human-Computer Interactions.
Massachusetts: The MIT Press.
• Cohn, M. (2004). User stories applied: For agile software development. Boston, Massachusetts: Addison-
• Hakkarainen, K., Lonka, K., & Lipponen, L., (1999). Tutkiva oppiminen. Älykkään toiminnan rajat ja niiden
ylittäminen. Porvoo: WSOY.
• Lave, J., Wenger, E. (1990). Situated Learning: Legitimate Periperal Participation. Cambridge, UK:
Cambridge University Press.
• Lessig, L. (2004). Free Culture: How Big Media Uses Technology and the Law to Lock Down Culture and
Control Creativity. The Penguin Press.
• Põldoja, H., Leinonen, T.,Väljataga, T., Ellonen, A., Priha, M. (2006). Progressive Inquiry Learning Object
Templates (PILOT). International Journal on E-Learning. 5 (1), 103-111. Chesapeake,VA: AACE.
• Preece, J. (2000). Online Communities: Designing Usability and Supporting Sociability. Wiley.
• Schwaber, K., Beedle M. (2001). Agile software development with Scrum. Upper Saddle River, New
Jersey: Prentice Hall.
• Shirky, C. (2003). A Group Is Its Own Worst Enemy. Retrieved 3 October 2007 from http://