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Design Patterns for Badge Systems
in Higher Education
Hans Põldoja, Pirje Jürgens, and Mart Laanpere
Tallinn University, E...
Open Badges
http://openbadges.org
(Class Hack, n.d.)
(Open Badges, n.d.)
Badge systems
Learning context
• Educational techology master programme
• Blog-based open online courses
https://oppematerjalid.wordpress.com
Supporting learners with different
learning styles
Learning styles by Honey and Mumford
• Activist
• Reflector
• Theorist
• Pragmatist
(Honey & Mumford, 1992)
The First Iteration:
Outcome-Based Badges
Basic knowledge badges
Basic
knowledge on
learning
objects and
repositories
Basic
knowledge on
authoring tools
Basic
knowl...
Arvutipõhine
testimine
Sisupaketi
koostaja
Uued
tehnoloogiad
Õpiobjektid Autorvahendid
Testiküsimuste
koostaja
e-Õpiku
koo...
Badge points
• Basic knowledge badges — 10 points (6 badges)
• Skills badges — 20 points (one of 3 badges)
• Advanced know...
Põldoja, H., & Laanpere, M. (2014). Exploring the
Potential of Open Badges in Blog-Based University
Courses. In Y. Cao, T....
The Second Iteration:
Multiple Levels of Badges
Badge points
• Basic knowledge badges — 10 points (6 badges)
• Skills badges — 20 points (one of 3 badges)
• Advanced know...
The Third Iteration:
Multiple Learning Pathways
Badge points
• Basic knowledge badges — 10 points
• Golden badges for basic knowledge — 15 points
• Broken badge for basic...
Recommended learning pathways
“Researcher”
• 6 blogging assingments on basic knowledge — 60 points
• Writing a literature review — 36 points
• Total 96 ...
“Practitioner”
• 6 blogging assingments on basic knowledge — 60 points
• Developing a learning resource — 24 points
• Tota...
“Non-blogger”
• Writing a literature review — 36 points
• Developing a learning resource — 24 points
• Presentation in the...
Learner perspectives on Open Badges
Learner control
• Learning contracts
• “...learners had the possibility to choose their paths: some learners
created learn...
Awareness
• “It really was a good way for me to keep track of my
progress”
• “If there was an automatic score table for ac...
Motivation
• “The motivating aspect of open badges was the possibility to
choose my own learning path and to find the assig...
Learning styles
• “I liked the idea that I could choose the types of assignments
that felt more natural to me”
Open Badges ecosystem
• “Maybe I would use it if we could earn open badges in
different courses” (about Mozilla Backpack)
...
Assessment criteria
• Assessment criteria for golden badges was deliberately not
specified
• “What is still unclear to me, ...
Badge metadata
• “When I opened the badge, there was no next level
information. I guess I expected the learning outcome. T...
Design Patterns for Outcome-Based
Badge Systems
Badge levels
• Pass/fail assessment is too limited for measuring the quality of
learners’ work and motivating them
• Badge...
Badge points
• Badge points enable to translate badges into course grades
Broken badges
• Broken badges are used to point out unwanted behaviour
(e.g. being late with the assignments)
Deconstructed badges
• Large learning activities should be deconstructed into
separate independent badges (e.g. peer revie...
Learning pathways
• Badge system should be designed so that it provides a
possibility of multiple learning pathways
• Most...
Personal learning contracts
• Learning contracts help learners to plan their learning goals and
strategies
• Learning cont...
Directions for further research
Directions for further research
• Mapping badge systems to institutional outcome-based
learning frameworks (learning outco...
References
• Honey, P., & Mumford, A. (1992). The Manual of Learning Styles.
Maidenhead: Peter Honey Publications.
Used images
• tommydgnr8, https://www.flickr.com/photos/theweddingoftheyear/
5993598429/
• Class Hack: Open Badges Anatomy,...
Hans Põldoja
hans.poldoja@tlu.ee
@hanspoldoja
Pirje Jürgens Mart Laanpere
This work is licensed under the Creative Commons...
Design Patterns for Badge Systems in Higher Education
Design Patterns for Badge Systems in Higher Education
Design Patterns for Badge Systems in Higher Education
Design Patterns for Badge Systems in Higher Education
Design Patterns for Badge Systems in Higher Education
Design Patterns for Badge Systems in Higher Education
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Design Patterns for Badge Systems in Higher Education

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Presentation at the ICWL 2016 - 15th International Conference on Web-based Learning. 26 October 2016, Rome, Italy.

Publication:

Põldoja, H., Jürgens, P., & Laanpere, M. (2016). Design Patterns for Badge Systems in Higher Education. In M. Spaniol, M. Temperini, D.K.W. Chiu, I. Marenzi, & U. Nanni (Eds.). Lecture Notes in Computer Science: Vol. 10013, Advances in Web-Based Learning - ICWL 2016 (pp. 40–49). Cham: Springer. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-47440-3_5

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Design Patterns for Badge Systems in Higher Education

  1. 1. Design Patterns for Badge Systems in Higher Education Hans Põldoja, Pirje Jürgens, and Mart Laanpere Tallinn University, Estonia
  2. 2. Open Badges
  3. 3. http://openbadges.org
  4. 4. (Class Hack, n.d.)
  5. 5. (Open Badges, n.d.)
  6. 6. Badge systems
  7. 7. Learning context • Educational techology master programme • Blog-based open online courses
  8. 8. https://oppematerjalid.wordpress.com
  9. 9. Supporting learners with different learning styles
  10. 10. Learning styles by Honey and Mumford • Activist • Reflector • Theorist • Pragmatist (Honey & Mumford, 1992)
  11. 11. The First Iteration: Outcome-Based Badges
  12. 12. Basic knowledge badges Basic knowledge on learning objects and repositories Basic knowledge on authoring tools Basic knowledge on computer- based assessment Basic knowledge on new technologies Basic knowledge on copyright of digital learning resources Basic knowledge on quality of digital learning resources Content package author Assessment test author e-Textbook author Advanced knowledge on learning objects and repositories Advanced knowledge on authoring tools Advanced knowledge on computer-based assessment Advanced knowledge on new technologies Advanced knowledge on copyright of digital learning resources Advanced knowledge on quality of digital learning resources Blogging assignment 1 Blogging assignment 2 Blogging assignment 3 Blogging assignment 4 Blogging assignment 5 Group assignment on developing a digital learning resource Blogging assignment 6 Literature review Describing the advantages and disadvantages of learning objects approach Searching for learning objects from learning object repositories by metadata and licenses Creating simple content packages, tests and e- textbooks, and describing these with metadata Following copyright principles for digital learning resources Evaluating the quality of a learning resources using an evaluation framework Using one authoring tool to create a more comprehensive digital learning resource Analyzing the current issues, research studies and trends in one sub- topic related to digital learning resources Learning outcomes Assignments Advanced knowledge badges Skills badges
  13. 13. Arvutipõhine testimine Sisupaketi koostaja Uued tehnoloogiad Õpiobjektid Autorvahendid Testiküsimuste koostaja e-Õpiku koostaja Autoriõigus Kvaliteet Õpiobjektid Autorvahendid Arvutipõhine testimine Uued tehnoloogiad Autoriõigus Kvaliteet Süvendatud teadmised ühel õppematerjalidega seotud teemal
  14. 14. Badge points • Basic knowledge badges — 10 points (6 badges) • Skills badges — 20 points (one of 3 badges) • Advanced knowledge badges — 20 points (one of 6 badges)
  15. 15. Põldoja, H., & Laanpere, M. (2014). Exploring the Potential of Open Badges in Blog-Based University Courses. In Y. Cao, T. Väljataga, J. K. T. Tang, H. Leung, & M. Laanpere (Eds.), New Horizons in Web Based Learning (Vol. 8699, pp. 172–178). Cham: Springer. http://doi.org/ 10.1007/978-3-319-13296-9_19 Exploring the Potential of Open Badges in Blog-Based University Courses Hans Põldoja(&) and Mart Laanpere Institute of Informatics, Tallinn University, Tallinn, Estonia {hans.poldoja,mart.laanpere}@tlu.ee Abstract. Recent developments with personal learning environments and open online courses have led educators to experiment with opening up their formal higher education courses. In these courses, the online learning activities take place in open learning environments based on various Web 2.0 tools such as blogs. Although this type of courses have a number of pedagogical benefits, they also raise issues related to private grading of students’ works and recognizing the learning of informal participants. This paper presents our exploratory study on addressing these issues by introducing open badges to master’s level course that takes place in a blog-based learning environment. Students’ perspectives on using open badges were evaluated through focus group interviews. The results of the study indicate, that badges could have a potential in formal higher edu- cation, if they are used more widely and provide an explicit choice of personal learning paths for learners. Keywords: Open badges Á Assessment Á Blog-based courses 1 Introduction One of the recent trends in education is the blending of formal and informal learning. This is supported by introducing social media, personal learning environments and various open educational practices to formal higher education [1, 2]. Students can enrich their learning experience by using open educational resources from other uni- versities and taking part in Massive Open Online Courses. In many cases, such developments have led university lecturers and professors to increase the degree of openness in their courses. One approach is to move online learning activities to open learning environments that are based on social media and Web 2.0 tools such as blogs. The use of blogs in online courses provides a number of pedagogical benefits such as motivating learners, enhancing the development and expression of ideas, fostering interaction, collaboration and group work, inviting feedback from other learners, and enriching the learning environment [3]. The use of blog-based learning environments also allows educators to open up their course for informal participants or members of professional communities who are not officially enrolled to the course. Open blog-based courses in formal higher education raise also a number of issues that are not present in traditional courses. For example, blog-based learning environ- ments typically lack special features that support private feedback and grading of © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2014 Y. Cao et al. (Eds.): ICWL 2014 Workshops, LNCS 8699, pp. 172–178, 2014. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-13296-9_19
  16. 16. The Second Iteration: Multiple Levels of Badges
  17. 17. Badge points • Basic knowledge badges — 10 points (6 badges) • Skills badges — 20 points (one of 3 badges) • Advanced knowledge badge — 20 points • Golden badges — 15 and 30 points
  18. 18. The Third Iteration: Multiple Learning Pathways
  19. 19. Badge points • Basic knowledge badges — 10 points • Golden badges for basic knowledge — 15 points • Broken badge for basic knowledge — 5 points • Learning resource author — 24 points (36 points for a golden badge) • Researcher — 36 points • Enlightener — 10 points • Wikipedist — 12 points
  20. 20. Recommended learning pathways
  21. 21. “Researcher” • 6 blogging assingments on basic knowledge — 60 points • Writing a literature review — 36 points • Total 96 points (grade A) • Workload 78 hours
  22. 22. “Practitioner” • 6 blogging assingments on basic knowledge — 60 points • Developing a learning resource — 24 points • Total 84 points (grade B) • Workload 68 hours
  23. 23. “Non-blogger” • Writing a literature review — 36 points • Developing a learning resource — 24 points • Presentation in the seminar — 10 points • Writing a Wikipedia article — 12 points • Total 82 points (grade B) • Workload 79 hours
  24. 24. Learner perspectives on Open Badges
  25. 25. Learner control • Learning contracts • “...learners had the possibility to choose their paths: some learners created learning objects, some wrote a literature review. This was possible only thanks to the open badges system that gave a good overview of the weight of the assignments and helped to plan the work” • “My goal was to get A and I liked that I could choose whether to do all the assignments or not, for example — I deliberately didn’t write one post…”
  26. 26. Awareness • “It really was a good way for me to keep track of my progress” • “If there was an automatic score table for achieved badge points in Moodle, it would have a practical value”
  27. 27. Motivation • “The motivating aspect of open badges was the possibility to choose my own learning path and to find the assignments that interest me the most” • “I planned to get B ... The first golden badge however made me make an effort, because just so little was missing from A”
  28. 28. Learning styles • “I liked the idea that I could choose the types of assignments that felt more natural to me”
  29. 29. Open Badges ecosystem • “Maybe I would use it if we could earn open badges in different courses” (about Mozilla Backpack) • “... the system is not complete. I can’t make my earned badges fully work for my benefit. I added my badges to Mozilla Backpack and shared in LinkedIn, but appa- rently this will be the end of its life cycle...”
  30. 30. Assessment criteria • Assessment criteria for golden badges was deliberately not specified • “What is still unclear to me, is the criteria of earning the badges. What were the deadlines, what was the criteria for the golden badge, and what is the amount of badge points?”
  31. 31. Badge metadata • “When I opened the badge, there was no next level information. I guess I expected the learning outcome. This would be useful information to possible employers who would also like to understand the “evidence” of what the person knows/can do and if these are the competences his company needs” • Badges described in Estonian are less useful internationally
  32. 32. Design Patterns for Outcome-Based Badge Systems
  33. 33. Badge levels • Pass/fail assessment is too limited for measuring the quality of learners’ work and motivating them • Badge systems should have multiple levels (e.g. regular badges, golden badges; Gold, Silver, Bronze)
  34. 34. Badge points • Badge points enable to translate badges into course grades
  35. 35. Broken badges • Broken badges are used to point out unwanted behaviour (e.g. being late with the assignments)
  36. 36. Deconstructed badges • Large learning activities should be deconstructed into separate independent badges (e.g. peer review badge for the literature review assignment)
  37. 37. Learning pathways • Badge system should be designed so that it provides a possibility of multiple learning pathways • Most common learning pathways could be recommended as readymade “packages” for learners
  38. 38. Personal learning contracts • Learning contracts help learners to plan their learning goals and strategies • Learning contracts provide an overview of the learning pathways that learners plan to take • Learning contracts could be used for self-assessment • Open badges, multiple learning pathways and personal learning contracts form a triangle of educational tools that complement each other when used together
  39. 39. Directions for further research
  40. 40. Directions for further research • Mapping badge systems to institutional outcome-based learning frameworks (learning outcomes of study programmes and course descriptions) • Designing more elaborated learning-style-based learning pathways
  41. 41. References • Honey, P., & Mumford, A. (1992). The Manual of Learning Styles. Maidenhead: Peter Honey Publications.
  42. 42. Used images • tommydgnr8, https://www.flickr.com/photos/theweddingoftheyear/ 5993598429/ • Class Hack: Open Badges Anatomy, http://classhack.com/post/ 45364649211/open-badge-anatomy-updated • Open Badges, http://openbadges.org/about/
  43. 43. Hans Põldoja hans.poldoja@tlu.ee @hanspoldoja Pirje Jürgens Mart Laanpere This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0/

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