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Avatud õppimine — miks ja kuidas?

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Ettekanne TLÜ Haridusteaduste instituudis, 5. november 2018.

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Avatud õppimine — miks ja kuidas?

  1. 1. Avatud õppimine — miks ja kuidas? Hans Põldoja
  2. 2. Hans Põldoja õppejuht, haridustehnoloogia dotsent Tallinna Ülikool, Digitehnoloogiate instituut Haridus: Aalto University, School of Arts, Design and Architecture (2016) Tallinna Pedagoogikaülikool (2003) hans.poldoja@tlu.ee http://www.hanspoldoja.net
  3. 3. Kuidas muuta õppimist õppijakesksemaks ja avatumaks?
  4. 4. Taust: avatud hariduse liikumine
  5. 5. https://creativecommons.org
  6. 6. https://ocw.mit.edu
  7. 7. (Plourde, 2013)
  8. 8. (Class Hack, n.d.)
  9. 9. Avatud õppimine TLÜ kursustel
  10. 10. https://opikeskkonnad.wordpress.com
  11. 11. https://oppematerjalid.wordpress.com
  12. 12. Ajaveebipõhise kursuse formaat • Kursuse ajaveeb • Õppijate personaalsed ajaveebid • Erinevad Veeb 2.0 vahendid (SlideShare, YouTube, Twitter, …) • Ülesanded kursuse ajaveebis • Õppijate kodutööd postitustena personaalsetes ajaveebides • Suhtlus kommentaaride kaudu • Teema kokkuvõtted kursuse ajaveebis
  13. 13. Miks kasutada õppetöös ajaveebe? • Parandada õppijate eneseväljendusoskust • Toetada õppijatevahelist koostööd • Luua võimalused tagasiside saamiseks kursusekaaslastelt • Tutvustada uusi õppemeetodeid • Rikastada õpikeskkonda • Motiveerida õppijaid • Avada õpikeskkond ülikoolivälistele osalejatele (Goktas & Demirel, 2012)
  14. 14. https://kristelopib.wordpress.com
  15. 15. Väljakutsed ajaveebide kasutamisel õppetöös • Suhtlus on fragmenteeritud erinevate ajaveebide vahel • Puuduvad õppetöö-spetsiifilised haldusvahendid • Kursuslaste teadlikkuse toetamine • Tasakaalu saavutamine õpitegevuste etteplaneerimisel (nn üle- skriptimise oht) (Põldoja, Duval, & Leinonen, 2016)
  16. 16. Väljataga, T., Põldoja, H., Laanpere, M. (2011). Open Online Courses: Responding to Design Challenges. In H. Ruokamo, M. Eriksson, L. Pekkala, & H. Vuojärvi (Eds.), Proceedings of the 4th International Network-Based Education 2011 Conference The Social Media in the Middle of Nowhere (pp. 68-75). Rovaniemi: University of Lapland. Proceedings of the NBE 2011 68 Open Online Courses: Responding to Design Challenges Terje Väljataga terje.valjataga@tlu.ee http://terjevaljataga.eu Hans Põldoja hans.poldoja@tlu.ee http://www.hanspoldoja.net Mart Laanpere mart.laanpere@tlu.ee Tallinn University Centre for Educational Technology Narva road 25, 10120 Tallinn, Estonia Tel: +372 6409 355, Fax: +372 6409 355 Open education and open educational resources movement as a recent trend in higher education focuses on providing free access to a wide range of educational resources and online courses. However, such a narrow approach fails to acknowledge the transformative and innovative opportunities openness can offer in higher education. The authors of the paper take a wider perspective to the concept of openness in formal higher education. In addition to open technology, content and knowledge sharing openness in course design is an important dimension to consider. Although open online course design solves many educational problems and challenges, at the same time it also creates new ones. This paper discusses about the re-occurring course design challenges that facilitators face while designing and running open courses. Through a multiple case study a variety of design responses to the design challenges is analyzed and demonstrated. Keywords: open online course model, open educational resources, pedagogical design, multiple case study 1 Introduction The concept of openness has multiple interpretations and dimensions in the context of higher education. Among others, it has been used by proponents of open classroom approach in 1970-ties and by distance education enthusiasts while establishing open universities”. The purpose was to solve a number of educational problems and challenges, for instance, to improve access to existing study programmes and attract more (or better) students following Huijser, Bedford, and Bull’s (2008) claim that everyone has the right to education. In general, openness in education is attributed to a barrier-free access to education in terms of time, affordability and admission requirements being freely available through the Internet. A recent trend is the open educational resources (OER) movement (Atkins, Brown & Hammond, 2007), which provides free access to a wide range of educational resources and online courses. OER and its importance has been widely documented and demonstrated (Downes, 2007). The key tenet of open education is that “education can be improved by making educational assets visible and accessible and by harnessing the collective wisdom of a community of practice and reflection” (p. 2) (Iiyoshi & Kumar, 2008). The notion of openness in education is clearly triggered by the opportunities technological development offers. In addition to growing access to Internet, the latest evolution of digital technology and Web has fostered a new culture of creating and sharing open content in online communities. It has been possible due to the blurred line between producers and consumers of content allowing shifted attention from access to information toward access to other people (Iiyoshi & Kumar, 2008). In the light of ongoing technological development, there are educators who are exploring ways to expand the notion of openness in education beyond public sharing of educational content. Iiyoshi & Kumar (2008) point out that with the concept of openness we might tend to grow our collections of educational tools and resources and miss the transformative and innovative opportunities “openness” can offer. One of the emerging practices in this direction is the open online course model.
  17. 17. Ajaveebipõhiste kursuste disainiprobleemid • Kuidas luua ja säilitada kogukonnatunnet? • Kuidas kavandada õppematerjale ja -tegevusi? • Kuidas jälgida osalemist ja suhtlust? • Kuidas anda tagasisidet? (Väljataga, Põldoja, & Laanpere, 201)
  18. 18. Kogukonnatunde loomine
  19. 19. Kogukonnatunde loomine • Enesetutvustused • Õpikeskkonna personaliseerimine • Õpilepingud • Kontaktpäevad
  20. 20. Enesetutvustused
  21. 21. Õpilepingud
  22. 22. Õpileping… ... defineerib kuidas ja mida õpitakse ning kuidas õpitut hinnatakse; ... on täielikult õppija kontrollida ja vastutada, tuutori roll vaid abistav ja suunav; ... põhineb õpivestlusel (ingl conversational learning procedure) ning arusaamal, et õppija on ainus, kes oskab öelda, kas ja kuidas tema arusaamad, mõtted, teadmised, oskused, tunded on õpiprotsessi käigus muutunud;
  23. 23. Õpileping... ... eeldab süstemaatilisust s.t. pidev reflekteerimine oma õpiprotsessi üle ning paralleelide tõmbamine koostatud lepingu ja tegelikkuse vahel; ... on vajalik, et mõista täiskasvanud õppija vajadusi, eelistusi, õpiprojekti eesmärke ja selle dünaamikat; tema nägemust õpiprotsessist ja keskkonna ülesehitusest; ... aitab õppijat dokumenteerida ja analüüsida oma väljakutseid, dilemmasid, probleeme, ebakindlust, kuid ka saavutusi ja edusamme; ... aitab tuvastada, mis suunas edasi liikuda ja areneda ning formuleerida järgmine õpiprojekt.
  24. 24. Õpilepingu struktuur • Teema — Mida ma soovin õppida? Mis valdkond? • Eesmärgid — Mis on minu õpiprojekti eesmärgid? Miks ma tahan just seda teemat õppida? Mis sunnib mind seda õppima? • Strateegiad — Kuidas ma kavatsen oma eesmärgid saavutada? Missugused tegevused ma pean läbi viima ja mis järjekorras? • Vahendid/ressursid — Missuguseid vahendeid ma kasutan eesmärkide saavutamiseks (inimesed, materjalid, tehnoloogia)? Kuidas ma neile ligi pääsen? • Hindamine — Kuidas ma tean, et ma olen oma eesmärgid saavutanud? Kuidas ma hindan oma saavutusi? Mis tõestab seda? - - - - - • Reflektsioon — Mis minu jaoks töötas ja mis mitte? Miks? Mis on need aspektid, mille kallal pean veel vaeva nägema? Mis on minu tugevad ja nõrgad küljed? Mida ma peaksin järgmisena tegema?
  25. 25. https://signepr.wordpress.com/2015/09/10/opileping/
  26. 26. https://signepr.wordpress.com/2015/09/10/opileping/
  27. 27. https://signepr.wordpress.com/2015/09/10/opileping/
  28. 28. https://opikeskkonnad.wordpress.com/2018/09/26/kokkuvote-opilepingutest/
  29. 29. Blogroll
  30. 30. Kontaktpäevad • Ümberpööratud klassiruumi põhimõte (flipped classroom) • Postitustes esile kerkinud mõtete ja probleemide läbiarutamine
  31. 31. Õppematerjalide ja tegevuste kavandamine
  32. 32. Õppematerjalide ja -tegevuste kavandamine • Kursuse ajaline formaat • Õppijate kaasamine kursuse kavandamisse • Õpijuhis • Nädala ülesanne • Õppijate postitused ja arutelud õppematerjalina
  33. 33. Kursuse ajaline formaat • Lühikesed täienduskoolitused (6 nädalat) • Kindel graafik läbi kursuse (näiteks ülesanded esmaspäeval ja lahendused pühapäevaks) • Vahenädalad pikematel kursustel • Ülesanded üle 2 nädala
  34. 34. Nädal Teema Kontakttunnid Individuaalsed ülesanded Rühmatöö Lugemine ja katsetamine Kokku 03.09.2018 Sissejuhatus kursusesse 4 1 5 10.09.2018 Õpilepingu koostamine 3 1 4 17.09.2018 Ülevaade haridustehnoloogia ajaloost 1 1 2 24.09.2018 Ülevaade haridustehnoloogia ajaloost 6 1 7 01.10.2018 Ülevaade haridustehnoloogia ajaloost 2 1 3 08.10.2018 Õpikeskkonna ja võrgustiku roll õpiprotsessis 6 1 7 15.10.2018 Õpikeskkonna ja võrgustiku roll õpiprotsessis 4 2 1 7 22.10.2018 Õpihaldussüsteemid 6 2 1 9 29.10.2018 Õpihaldussüsteemid 4 2 2 1 9 05.11.2018 Personaalsed ja avatud õpikeskkonnad 6 2 1 9 12.11.2018 Personaalsed ja avatud õpikeskkonnad 4 2 2 1 9 19.11.2018 Nutiseadmetel põhinevad õpikeskkonnad 6 2 1 9 26.11.2018 Nutiseadmetel põhinevad õpikeskkonnad 4 2 2 1 9 03.12.2018 Rühmatöö 4 1 5 10.12.2018 Rühmatööde esitlused 4 1 4 1 10 24 45 20 15 104 Üks EAP vastab 26 tunnile üliõpilase poolt õppeks kulutatud tööle. 4 EAP mahuga kursuse puhul on üliõpilase töö maht kokku 104 tundi.
  35. 35. https://beta.wikiversity.org
  36. 36. Õpilepingute kokkuvõte
  37. 37. https://opikeskkonnad.wordpress.com
  38. 38. https://dti6001.wordpress.com
  39. 39. https://ifi7313.wordpress.com
  40. 40. Õpiülesannete kavandamine • Ülesannetes on ühendatud teoreetiline ja praktiline pool • Ülesanded suunavad reflekteerima • Ülesanded võimaldavad igal õppijal pakkuda välja oma originaalse lahenduse
  41. 41. http://opikopivingrid.blogspot.com/2010/11/opivorgustikud.html
  42. 42. Kursuse õppematerjalide avaldamine • WordPress — õppejõu konspekt • SlideShare — esitlused • YouTube — videod • Twitter — viited uudistele jms lühiteated • Mendeley — artiklite viited • Google Drive — materjalid, mida autoriõiguste tõttu ei saa avalikult jagada (nt skanneeritud raamatupeatükid)
  43. 43. https://www.slideshare.net/hanspoldoja
  44. 44. https://twitter.com/opikeskkonnad
  45. 45. https://www.mendeley.com
  46. 46. Osalemise ja suhtluse jälgimine
  47. 47. Ajaveebipõhine kursus arvudes • 15 nädalat • 15 õppijat + 1 õppejõud • 162 postitust (sh. 22 postitust õppejõult) • 239 kommentaari (sh. 44 kommentaari õppejõult) • 81 kursusesisest linki • 149 tundi õppejõu tööaega (Digitaalsete õppematerjalide koostamine, 2012)
  48. 48. EduFeedr
  49. 49. http://www.edufeedr.net
  50. 50. Visualiseerimisideed tulevikuks
  51. 51. Piret Seepa Anneli Rumm Triinu Pääsik Luisa Pani Urmas Orula Kaja Lattu Diana Fjodorova Stina Arge Elo Sepp Meeri Sild Irena Sink Tiina Soomre Tuisk Veronika Tuul Liina Vaimla Mari-Liis Viet Comments writtenComments received
  52. 52. Kommentaarid teemade kaupa Learning objects, repositories and metadata New technologies Questions and tests Copyright and Creative Commons Referencing Quality of learning resources Learning object authoring tools Topic Topic Title Comments 1 Learning objects, repositories and metadata 16 2 Learning object authoring tools 31 3 Computer-based assessment 44 4 E-textbooks, IWB’s and other new technologies 17 5 Copyright and Creative Commons 27 6 Working with sources and referencing 28 7 Quality of learning resources 15
  53. 53. Põldoja, H., Duval, E., & Leinonen, T. (2016). Design and evaluation of an online tool for open learning with blogs. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 32(2), 64–81. http://dx.doi.org/ 10.14742/ajet.2450 Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 2016, 32(2). 64 ascilite Design and evaluation of an online tool for open learning with blogs Hans Põldoja Tallinn University, Estonia Erik Duval Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Belgium Teemu Leinonen Aalto University, Finland Blogs are used in higher education to support face-to-face courses, to organise online courses, and to open up courses for a wider group of participants. However the open and distributed nature of blogs creates problems that are not common in other learning contexts. Four key challenges related to the use of blogs in learning were identified from earlier research: fragmented discussions, a lack of coordination structures, weak support for awareness, and a danger of over-scripting. The EduFeedr system has been designed to address these issues. In this paper, the authors present their evaluation of its design and effectiveness in a total of 10 courses. The results indicate that learners find the EduFeedr system useful in following discussions and in comparing their progress with other learners. The coordination and awareness issues are seen as more important than the fragmentation of discussions and a danger of over-scripting. Introduction Blogs are used in higher education to provide a space for reflection, a forum for discussions, a portfolio of completed assignments, and for opening up courses for a wider group of participants. While some recent research has focused on the pedagogical aspects of using blogs in higher education, Sim and Hew (2010) suggest that one focus of future research should be the development of web technologies that will enhance the conversational and interactive aspects of blogging. Our study focuses on designing and evaluating an online tool that aims to address some of the issues that impede the use of blogs in online and blended learning courses. A blog is a website where the content is comprised of posts that are displayed in reverse chronological order. A typical blog is a personal website that is written by a single person; however it is also possible to have several authors. Readers can become engaged by writing comments on blog posts. Syndication technologies such as really simple syndication (RSS) and Atom enable readers to receive new posts and comments automatically. All blogs and their interconnections are often referred to as the blogosphere. The blogosphere can be seen both as a social network and as an ecosystem. The possibilities for using blogs in learning became evident soon after blogs emerged (Oravec, 2003; Williams & Jacobs, 2004). Sim and Hew (2010) identified six major applications for blogs in education: (a) maintaining a learning journal, (b) recording personal life, (c) expressing emotions, (d) communicating with others, (e) assessment, and (f) managing tasks. Kim (2008) suggests that the use of blogs may help to overcome various limitations of other computer- mediated communication systems, such as difficulties in managing communication, passiveness of students, lack of ownership, instructor-centeredness, and limited archives of communication. Previous studies show that reading other blogs and receiving feedback on one’s own blog posts were the more effective aspects of using blogs in learning (Churchill, 2009; Ellison & Wu, 2008). Blogs are useful in disciplines that require students to discuss, write, reflect, and make comments about content or ideas (Cakir, 2013). Blogging has been found particularly beneficial in teacher education because it can motivate learners, foster collaboration and cooperation, promote different instructional practices, and enrich the learning environment (Goktas & Demirel, 2012). Teachers who acquire these competences during the blogging assignments can later apply these methods in their own teaching.
  54. 54. Tagasiside ja hindamine
  55. 55. Digitaalsed õpimärgid
  56. 56. (Class Hack, n.d.)
  57. 57. (Open Badges, 2013)
  58. 58. Õpimärkide kasutuselevõtu põhjused • Privaatne hindamine avatud õpikeskkonnas • Kursust mitteametlikult läbivate õppijate tunnustamine
  59. 59. Esimene katse — 2014
  60. 60. Ülesanded Õpiväljundid Õpimärgid Kirjeldada õpiobjektide lähenemise eeliseid ja puuduseid Otsida repositooriumitest metaandmete ja litsentsitingimuste järgi õpiobjekte Koostada lihtsamaid sisupakette, teste ja e-õpikuid ning kirjeldada neid metaandmetega Järgida õppematerjalide koostamisel autoriõiguse põhimõtteid Hinnata hindamismudeli põhjal õppematerjali kvaliteeti Koostada põhjalikuma õppematerjali ühe autorvahendi abil Analüüsida ühe digitaalsete õppematerjalidega seotud teema aktuaalseid probleeme, uurimusi ja tulevikusuundi Põhiteadmised õpiobjektidest ja repositooriumidest Põhiteadmised õppematerjalide autorvahenditest Põhiteadmised arvutipõhisest testimisest Põhiteadmised õppematerjalide uutest tehnoloogiatest Põhiteadmised õppematerjalide autoriõigustest Põhiteadmised õppematerjalide kvaliteedist Sisupaketi koostaja Testiküsimuste koostaja e-Õpiku koostaja Süvendatud teadmised õpiobjektidest ja repositooriumidest Süvendatud teadmised õppematerjalide autorvahenditest Süvendatud teadmised arvutipõhisest testimisest Süvendatud teadmised õppematerjalide uutest tehnoloogiatest Süvendatud teadmised õppematerjalide autoriõigustest Süvendatud teadmised õppematerjalide kvaliteedist Blogimisülesanne 1 Blogimisülesanne 2 Blogimisülesanne 3 Blogimisülesanne 4 Blogimisülesanne 5 Õppematerjali koostamise rühmatöö Blogimisülesanne 6 Kirjanduse analüüs Õpimärkide seosed ülesannete ja õpiväljunditega
  61. 61. Arvutipõhine testimine Sisupaketi koostaja Uued tehnoloogiad Õpiobjektid Autorvahendid Testiküsimuste koostaja e-Õpiku koostaja Autoriõigus Kvaliteet Õpiobjektid Autorvahendid Arvutipõhine testimine Uued tehnoloogiad Autoriõigus Kvaliteet Süvendatud teadmised ühel õppematerjalidega seotud teemal
  62. 62. Õpimärkide kaalud • Põhiteadmiste õpimärgid — 10 punkti • Õppematerjali koostamise õpimärgid — 20 punkti • Kirjanduse analüüsi õpimärk — 20 punkti
  63. 63. Põldoja, H., & Laanpere, M. (2014). Exploring the Potential of Open Badges in Blog-Based University Courses. In Y. Cao, T. Väljataga, J. K. T. Tang, H. Leung, & M. Laanpere (Eds.), New Horizons in Web Based Learning (Vol. 8699, pp. 172–178). Cham: Springer. http://doi.org/ 10.1007/978-3-319-13296-9_19 Exploring the Potential of Open Badges in Blog-Based University Courses Hans Põldoja(&) and Mart Laanpere Institute of Informatics, Tallinn University, Tallinn, Estonia {hans.poldoja,mart.laanpere}@tlu.ee Abstract. Recent developments with personal learning environments and open online courses have led educators to experiment with opening up their formal higher education courses. In these courses, the online learning activities take place in open learning environments based on various Web 2.0 tools such as blogs. Although this type of courses have a number of pedagogical benefits, they also raise issues related to private grading of students’ works and recognizing the learning of informal participants. This paper presents our exploratory study on addressing these issues by introducing open badges to master’s level course that takes place in a blog-based learning environment. Students’ perspectives on using open badges were evaluated through focus group interviews. The results of the study indicate, that badges could have a potential in formal higher edu- cation, if they are used more widely and provide an explicit choice of personal learning paths for learners. Keywords: Open badges Á Assessment Á Blog-based courses 1 Introduction One of the recent trends in education is the blending of formal and informal learning. This is supported by introducing social media, personal learning environments and various open educational practices to formal higher education [1, 2]. Students can enrich their learning experience by using open educational resources from other uni- versities and taking part in Massive Open Online Courses. In many cases, such developments have led university lecturers and professors to increase the degree of openness in their courses. One approach is to move online learning activities to open learning environments that are based on social media and Web 2.0 tools such as blogs. The use of blogs in online courses provides a number of pedagogical benefits such as motivating learners, enhancing the development and expression of ideas, fostering interaction, collaboration and group work, inviting feedback from other learners, and enriching the learning environment [3]. The use of blog-based learning environments also allows educators to open up their course for informal participants or members of professional communities who are not officially enrolled to the course. Open blog-based courses in formal higher education raise also a number of issues that are not present in traditional courses. For example, blog-based learning environ- ments typically lack special features that support private feedback and grading of © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2014 Y. Cao et al. (Eds.): ICWL 2014 Workshops, LNCS 8699, pp. 172–178, 2014. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-13296-9_19
  64. 64. Teine katse — 2015
  65. 65. Õpimärkide kaalud • Põhiteadmiste õpimärgid — 10 punkti • Õppematerjali koostamise õpimärgid — 20 punkti • Kirjanduse analüüsi õpimärk — 20 punkti • Kuldõpimärgid — 15 ja 30 punkti
  66. 66. Kolmas katse — 2016
  67. 67. Õpimärkide kaalud • Põhiteadmised … — 10 punkti • Põhiteadmised … kuldõpimärk — 15 punkti • Põhiteadmised … poolik õpimärk — 5 punkti • Uurija — 36 punkti • Õppematerjali koostaja — 24 punkti • Valgustaja — 10 punkti • Vikipeedia artikli autor — 12 punkti
  68. 68. Erinevad õpiteed
  69. 69. Uurija • 6 blogimisülesannet — 60 punkti • Kirjanduse analüüsi koostamine — 36 punkti • Kokku 96 punkti (hinne A) • Töömaht 76 tundi
  70. 70. Praktik • 6 blogimisülesannet — 60 punkti • Õppematerjali koostamine — 24 punkti • Kokku 84 punkti (hinne B) • Töömaht 66 tundi
  71. 71. Mitteblogija • Kirjanduse analüüsi koostamine — 36 punkti • Õppematerjali koostamine — 24 punkti • Esitlus kontakttunnis — 10 punkti • Vikipeedia artikkel — 12 punkti • Kokku 82 punkti (hinne B) • Töömaht 79 tundi
  72. 72. Põldoja, H., Jürgens, P., & Laanpere, M. (2016). Design Patterns for Badge Systems in Higher Education. In M. Spaniol, M. Temperini, D.K.W. Chiu, I. Marenzi, & U. Nanni (eds.), Advances in Web-Based Learning — ICWL 2016 (Vol. 10013, lk 40– 49). Cham: Springer. http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1007/978-3-319-47440-3_5 Design Patterns for Badge Systems in Higher Education Hans Põldoja (✉) , Pirje Jürgens, and Mart Laanpere Tallinn University, Narva mnt 25, 10120 Tallinn, Estonia {hans.poldoja,pirje.jurgens,mart.laanpere}@tlu.ee Abstract. Open Badges as a method for assessment and recognition of learning originates from the context of informal learning. Thus, it cannot be introduced into formal higher education without reconsidering the existing assessment processes.This paper presentsexperiencesfrom three years of using Open Badges in a master level course. In each iteration, the badge system was revised based on learners’ feedback. Special attention was given to supporting learners with different learning styles. To summarize our findings, this paper proposes a set of design patterns for developing badge systems in higher education. While the learning styles proved to be useful as generic design guidelines for separating two alternative learning pathways for the course, more research is needed on advanced learning-style-based learning pathways. Keywords: Open Badges · Assessment · Higher education 1 Introduction Open Badges (OB’s) is a web technology for recognizing and verifying knowledge, competencies or involvements gained in online or offline settings. In a basic sense, badges are digital images that contain embedded information about the accomplish‐ ments. The development of the Open Badges technology started in 2010, when a group of open education activists came up with the initial concept during the Mozilla Drumbeat Festival. Inspired by the use of digital badges in gaming and various social apps, they proposed that badges could be used for verifying learning. The technical specification of the Open Badges Infrastructure (OBI) was developed together with the Mozilla Foundation and released in 2012. While digital badges are typically used within a single environment, OBI was developed as an open standard that allows people to collect badges from different issuers. The initial scenarios about using open badges focused on informal learning contexts [1]. However, in recent years there have been a number of studies about using badges in schools [2, 3] and in higher education [4–6]. Introducing open badges to formal higher education courses provides an opportunity to reconsider the existing assessment procedures. Recent research on open badges has proposed a number of reasons for adopting badges. Ahn, Pellicone, and Butler [7] see badges as motivators for behavior, pedagogical tools for promoting particular learning activities, and credentials for recognizing learning achievements. While Jovanovic and Devedzic [8] identify similar roles for open badges, they discuss additional benefits such as supporting alternative forms of assessment (e.g. peer-assessment), providing learners © Springer International Publishing AG 2016 D.K.W. Chiu et al. (Eds.): ICWL 2016, LNCS 10013, pp. 40–49, 2016. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-47440-3_5
  73. 73. Õppijate tagasiside • Õppijapoolne kontroll • Teadlikkus • Motivatsioon • Õpistiilid • Õpimärkide ökosüsteem • Hindamiskriteeriumid • Õpimärkide metaandmed
  74. 74. Õpimärkide disainimustrid • Õpimärkide tasemed • Õpimärkide punktid • Poolikud õpimärgid • Lahtivõetud õpimärgid • Erinevad õpiteed • Personaalsed õpilepingud
  75. 75. Ajaveebipõhiste kursuste disainimustrid
  76. 76. Põldoja, H. (2016). The Structure and Components for the Open Education Ecosystem: Constructive Design Research of Online Learning Tools. Helsinki: Aalto University. http://urn.fi/URN:ISBN: 978-952-60-6993-7
  77. 77. Pattern 14: Open enrollment This pattern deals with enrollment in the courses. It is related to the possibility of BEING OPEN FOR LURKING (13). Blog-based open learning environments require a central coordination platform for managing enrollment to the course. In a simple case, people interested in participating the course could add their blog addresses to a wiki page. However, this requires a lot of manual work for subscribing to participant blogs. In many cases blog- based open online courses are run as extensions of formal higher education courses. It is possible, that too large number of informal participants would make it difficult to follow and support learners. It is important to find balance between massive openness and a functional learning community. Therefore: Coordination platforms for blog-based open online courses should enable open enrollment. The facilitator of the course should be able to specify how long the course is open for enrollments. In a more advanced case, the coordination platform might also distinguish between different types of enrollments (formal participants, informal participants). Open enrollment is related to two smaller patterns: learners should be able to use NICKNAMES (15) and the list of enrolled participants should be able to be copied as a BLOGROLL (18). This pattern addresses the lack of coordination structures for managing blog-based courses (C15). Lühikirjeldus Mõjutegurid Soovituslik lahendus Seotud disainimustrid ja -väljakutsed
  78. 78. Ajaveebipõhiste kursuste disainimustrid
  79. 79. Ajaveebipõhiste kursuste disainiväljakutsed ja -mustrid C10 Supporting learners with setting up their personal learning goals and strategies C11 Keeping the learner motivation throughout the course C12 The danger of over- scripting C13 Establishing and keeping the community gravity C14 The fragmentation of discussions in blog-based courses C15 Lack of coordination structures for managing blog- based courses C16 Lack of awareness support mechanisms C17 Commenting and versioning of learning contracts P13 Being open for lurking P14 Open enrollment P18 Blogroll P19 Course tag P23 Learning analytics visualizations P15 Nicknames P16 About page P17 Personal learning contract P20 Aggregated discussions P21 Reflective assignments P22 Summary posts P24 Open badges for assessment Design challenges Design patterns
  80. 80. Alustame väikselt, mõtleme suurelt!
  81. 81. https://www.capetowndeclaration.org
  82. 82. https://www.capetowndeclaration.org/cpt10/
  83. 83. Viited • Class Hack, Open Badge Anatomy (Updated): http://classhack.com/post/ 45364649211/open-badge-anatomy-updated • Goktas, Y., & Demirel, T. (2012). Blog-enhanced ICT courses: Examining their effects on prospective teachers’ ICT competencies and perceptions. Computers & Education, 58(3), 908–917. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2011.11.004 • Plourde, M. (2013). MOOC (massive open online course). https://et.wikipedia.org/ wiki/MOOC#/media/File:MOOC_poster_mathplourde.jpg • Põldoja, H., Duval, E., & Leinonen, T. (2016). Design and evaluation of an online tool for open learning with blogs. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 32(2), 64–81. https://dx.doi.org/10.14742/ajet.2450
  84. 84. Kasutatud fotod • Anita Ritenour, https://www.flickr.com/photos/puliarfanita/3360463235/ • Nan Palmero, https://www.flickr.com/photos/nanpalmero/34801178800/ • Johan Larsson, https://www.flickr.com/photos/johanl/6966883093 • Marco Verch, https://www.flickr.com/photos/ 149561324@N03/44222588762/ • tommydgnr8, https://www.flickr.com/photos/theweddingoftheyear/ 5993598429/
  85. 85. See materjal on avaldatud Creative Commons Autorile viitamine–Jagamine samadel tingimustel 3.0 Eesti litsentsi alusel. Litsentsi terviktekstiga tutvumiseks külastage aadressi http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ee/ Hans Põldoja hans.poldoja@tlu.ee Tallinna Ülikool Digitehnoloogiate instituut https://www.slideshare.net/hanspoldoja http://www.hanspoldoja.net

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