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Avatud haridus

Loenguslaidid Tallinna Ülikooli haridustehnoloogia magistriõppe kursusel IFI7227.DT Õpikeskkonnad ja võrgustatud õpe, 5. november 2022.

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Avatud haridus
IFI7227.DT Õpikeskkonnad ja võrgustatud õpe
Autoriõiguse probleemid
• Pikk kehtivusaeg: autoriõigus kehtib autori kogu eluaja jooksul
ja 70 aastat pärast tema surma
• Piiratud taaskasutuse võimalused: vaikimisi on suur osa
taaskasutamise võimalustest varaliste õigustega piiratud
• Autorite ja kasutajate ebapiisav teadlikkus
• Orbteosed
(Autoriõiguse seadus, 2019)
Lessig, L. (2004). Free Culture: How Big Media Uses
Technology and the Law to Lock Down Culture and
Control Creativity. New York, NY: The Penguin
Press. http://www.free-culture.cc/freeculture.pdf
Lessig, L. (2017). Vaba kultuur ehk loovuse loomus
ja tulevik. Tartu: Tartu Ülikooli kirjastus.
https://creativecommons.org
Avatud haridus

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Avatud haridus

  • 2. Autoriõiguse probleemid • Pikk kehtivusaeg: autoriõigus kehtib autori kogu eluaja jooksul ja 70 aastat pärast tema surma • Piiratud taaskasutuse võimalused: vaikimisi on suur osa taaskasutamise võimalustest varaliste õigustega piiratud • Autorite ja kasutajate ebapiisav teadlikkus • Orbteosed (Autoriõiguse seadus, 2019)
  • 3. Lessig, L. (2004). Free Culture: How Big Media Uses Technology and the Law to Lock Down Culture and Control Creativity. New York, NY: The Penguin Press. http://www.free-culture.cc/freeculture.pdf
  • 4. Lessig, L. (2017). Vaba kultuur ehk loovuse loomus ja tulevik. Tartu: Tartu Ülikooli kirjastus.
  • 8. Creative Commons litsentsid • Attribution • Attribution-Share Alike • Attribution-Noncommercial • Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike • Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works • Attribution-No Derivative Works
  • 9. Creative Commons piirangud b Attribution — kohustus viidata teosele autori poolt määratud viisil a Share Alike — muudatusi ja tuletatud teoseid tuleb edasi levitada sama, lähedase või ühilduva litsentsi alusel n Noncommercial — teost ei tohi kasutada ärilistel eesmärkidel d No Derivative Works — teost ei tohi muuta ega kasutada tuletatud teoste loomisel
  • 10. Creative Commons õigused s Share — õigus teost kopeerida, levitada ja edasi anda r Remix — õigus teost kohandada
  • 22. Avatud hariduse liikumine • 2001 — Creative Commons • 2002 — UNESCO võtab kasutusele avatud õppematerjalide (Open Educational Resources, OER) mõiste • 2008 — Kaplinna avatud hariduse deklaratsioon • 2012 — Pariisi OER maailmakongress ja deklaratsioon • 2017 — Ljubljana OER maailmakongress ja tegevuskava • 2019 — UNESCO Recommendation on OER
  • 25. Laiem vaade avatud haridusele • Avatud õppematerjalid • Avatud kursused (MOOCid jms) • Avatud õpikeskkonnad • Õppimise ja hindamise personaliseerimine • Avaandmed ja õpianalüütika • Institutsionaalsetest raamidest väljapoole mõtlemine
  • 27. Digipööre elukestvas õppes 4.2. Tagatakse põhikooli, gümnaasiumi ja kutseõppeasutuse õppekavas seatud eesmärkide ning õpitulemuste saavutamist toetava digitaalse õppevara olemasolu, mille hulka kuuluvad e-õpikud, e-töövihikud, avatud õppematerjalid, e- õpetajaraamatud ning veebipõhised hindamisvahendid. Eesti elukestva õppe strateegia 2020 (Eesti elukestva õppe strateegia 2020, 2014)
  • 35. Väljataga, T., Põldoja, H., Laanpere, M. (2011). Open Online Courses: Responding to Design Challenges. In H. Ruokamo, M. Eriksson, L. Pekkala, & H. Vuojärvi (Eds.), Proceedings of the 4th International Network-Based Education 2011 Conference The Social Media in the Middle of Nowhere (pp. 68–75). Rovaniemi: University of Lapland. Proceedings of the NBE 2011 68 Open Online Courses: Responding to Design Challenges Terje Väljataga terje.valjataga@tlu.ee http://terjevaljataga.eu Hans Põldoja hans.poldoja@tlu.ee http://www.hanspoldoja.net Mart Laanpere mart.laanpere@tlu.ee Tallinn University Centre for Educational Technology Narva road 25, 10120 Tallinn, Estonia Tel: +372 6409 355, Fax: +372 6409 355 Open education and open educational resources movement as a recent trend in higher education focuses on providing free access to a wide range of educational resources and online courses. However, such a narrow approach fails to acknowledge the transformative and innovative opportunities openness can offer in higher education. The authors of the paper take a wider perspective to the concept of openness in formal higher education. In addition to open technology, content and knowledge sharing openness in course design is an important dimension to consider. Although open online course design solves many educational problems and challenges, at the same time it also creates new ones. This paper discusses about the re-occurring course design challenges that facilitators face while designing and running open courses. Through a multiple case study a variety of design responses to the design challenges is analyzed and demonstrated. Keywords: open online course model, open educational resources, pedagogical design, multiple case study 1 Introduction The concept of openness has multiple interpretations and dimensions in the context of higher education. Among others, it has been used by proponents of open classroom approach in 1970-ties and by distance education enthusiasts while establishing open universities”. The purpose was to solve a number of educational problems and challenges, for instance, to improve access to existing study programmes and attract more (or better) students following Huijser, Bedford, and Bull’s (2008) claim that everyone has the right to education. In general, openness in education is attributed to a barrier-free access to education in terms of time, affordability and admission requirements being freely available through the Internet. A recent trend is the open educational resources (OER) movement (Atkins, Brown & Hammond, 2007), which provides free access to a wide range of educational resources and online courses. OER and its importance has been widely documented and demonstrated (Downes, 2007). The key tenet of open education is that “education can be improved by making educational assets visible and accessible and by harnessing the collective wisdom of a community of practice and reflection” (p. 2) (Iiyoshi & Kumar, 2008). The notion of openness in education is clearly triggered by the opportunities technological development offers. In addition to growing access to Internet, the latest evolution of digital technology and Web has fostered a new culture of creating and sharing open content in online communities. It has been possible due to the blurred line between producers and consumers of content allowing shifted attention from access to information toward access to other people (Iiyoshi & Kumar, 2008). In the light of ongoing technological development, there are educators who are exploring ways to expand the notion of openness in education beyond public sharing of educational content. Iiyoshi & Kumar (2008) point out that with the concept of openness we might tend to grow our collections of educational tools and resources and miss the transformative and innovative opportunities “openness” can offer. One of the emerging practices in this direction is the open online course model.
  • 36. Põldoja, H., Duval, E., & Leinonen, T. (2016). Design and evaluation of an online tool for open learning with blogs. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 32(2), 64–81. http://dx.doi.org/ 10.14742/ajet.2450 Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 2016, 32(2). 64 ascilite Design and evaluation of an online tool for open learning with blogs Hans Põldoja Tallinn University, Estonia Erik Duval Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Belgium Teemu Leinonen Aalto University, Finland Blogs are used in higher education to support face-to-face courses, to organise online courses, and to open up courses for a wider group of participants. However the open and distributed nature of blogs creates problems that are not common in other learning contexts. Four key challenges related to the use of blogs in learning were identified from earlier research: fragmented discussions, a lack of coordination structures, weak support for awareness, and a danger of over-scripting. The EduFeedr system has been designed to address these issues. In this paper, the authors present their evaluation of its design and effectiveness in a total of 10 courses. The results indicate that learners find the EduFeedr system useful in following discussions and in comparing their progress with other learners. The coordination and awareness issues are seen as more important than the fragmentation of discussions and a danger of over-scripting. Introduction Blogs are used in higher education to provide a space for reflection, a forum for discussions, a portfolio of completed assignments, and for opening up courses for a wider group of participants. While some recent research has focused on the pedagogical aspects of using blogs in higher education, Sim and Hew (2010) suggest that one focus of future research should be the development of web technologies that will enhance the conversational and interactive aspects of blogging. Our study focuses on designing and evaluating an online tool that aims to address some of the issues that impede the use of blogs in online and blended learning courses. A blog is a website where the content is comprised of posts that are displayed in reverse chronological order. A typical blog is a personal website that is written by a single person; however it is also possible to have several authors. Readers can become engaged by writing comments on blog posts. Syndication technologies such as really simple syndication (RSS) and Atom enable readers to receive new posts and comments automatically. All blogs and their interconnections are often referred to as the blogosphere. The blogosphere can be seen both as a social network and as an ecosystem. The possibilities for using blogs in learning became evident soon after blogs emerged (Oravec, 2003; Williams & Jacobs, 2004). Sim and Hew (2010) identified six major applications for blogs in education: (a) maintaining a learning journal, (b) recording personal life, (c) expressing emotions, (d) communicating with others, (e) assessment, and (f) managing tasks. Kim (2008) suggests that the use of blogs may help to overcome various limitations of other computer- mediated communication systems, such as difficulties in managing communication, passiveness of students, lack of ownership, instructor-centeredness, and limited archives of communication. Previous studies show that reading other blogs and receiving feedback on one’s own blog posts were the more effective aspects of using blogs in learning (Churchill, 2009; Ellison & Wu, 2008). Blogs are useful in disciplines that require students to discuss, write, reflect, and make comments about content or ideas (Cakir, 2013). Blogging has been found particularly beneficial in teacher education because it can motivate learners, foster collaboration and cooperation, promote different instructional practices, and enrich the learning environment (Goktas & Demirel, 2012). Teachers who acquire these competences during the blogging assignments can later apply these methods in their own teaching.
  • 38. Õpilepingu struktuur • Teema — Mida ma soovin õppida? Mis valdkond? • Eesmärgid — Mis on minu õpiprojekti eesmärgid? Miks ma tahan just seda teemat õppida? Mis sunnib mind seda õppima? • Strateegiad — Kuidas ma kavatsen oma eesmärgid saavutada? Missugused tegevused ma pean läbi viima ja mis järjekorras? • Vahendid/ressursid — Missuguseid vahendeid ma kasutan eesmärkide saavutamiseks (inimesed, materjalid, tehnoloogia)? Kuidas ma neile ligi pääsen? • Hindamine — Kuidas ma tean, et ma olen oma eesmärgid saavutanud? Kuidas ma hindan oma saavutusi? Mis tõestab seda? - - - - - • Reflektsioon — Mis minu jaoks töötas ja mis mitte? Miks? Mis on need aspektid, mille kallal pean veel vaeva nägema? Mis on minu tugevad ja nõrgad küljed? Mida ma peaksin järgmisena tegema?
  • 39. Basic Knowledge Badges Skill-based Badges Advanced Knowledge Badges
  • 40. Põldoja, H., Jürgens, P., & Laanpere, M. (2016). Design Patterns for Badge Systems in Higher Education. M. Spaniol, M. Temperini, D.K.W. Chiu, I. Marenzi, & U. Nanni (toim), Advances in Web- Based Learning — ICWL 2016 (Vol. 10013, lk 40– 49). Cham: Springer. http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1007/978-3-319-47440-3_5 Design Patterns for Badge Systems in Higher Education Hans Põldoja (✉) , Pirje Jürgens, and Mart Laanpere Tallinn University, Narva mnt 25, 10120 Tallinn, Estonia {hans.poldoja,pirje.jurgens,mart.laanpere}@tlu.ee Abstract. Open Badges as a method for assessment and recognition of learning originates from the context of informal learning. Thus, it cannot be introduced into formal higher education without reconsidering the existing assessment processes.This paper presentsexperiencesfrom three years of using Open Badges in a master level course. In each iteration, the badge system was revised based on learners’ feedback. Special attention was given to supporting learners with different learning styles. To summarize our findings, this paper proposes a set of design patterns for developing badge systems in higher education. While the learning styles proved to be useful as generic design guidelines for separating two alternative learning pathways for the course, more research is needed on advanced learning-style-based learning pathways. Keywords: Open Badges · Assessment · Higher education 1 Introduction Open Badges (OB’s) is a web technology for recognizing and verifying knowledge, competencies or involvements gained in online or offline settings. In a basic sense, badges are digital images that contain embedded information about the accomplish‐ ments. The development of the Open Badges technology started in 2010, when a group of open education activists came up with the initial concept during the Mozilla Drumbeat Festival. Inspired by the use of digital badges in gaming and various social apps, they proposed that badges could be used for verifying learning. The technical specification of the Open Badges Infrastructure (OBI) was developed together with the Mozilla Foundation and released in 2012. While digital badges are typically used within a single environment, OBI was developed as an open standard that allows people to collect badges from different issuers. The initial scenarios about using open badges focused on informal learning contexts [1]. However, in recent years there have been a number of studies about using badges in schools [2, 3] and in higher education [4–6]. Introducing open badges to formal higher education courses provides an opportunity to reconsider the existing assessment procedures. Recent research on open badges has proposed a number of reasons for adopting badges. Ahn, Pellicone, and Butler [7] see badges as motivators for behavior, pedagogical tools for promoting particular learning activities, and credentials for recognizing learning achievements. While Jovanovic and Devedzic [8] identify similar roles for open badges, they discuss additional benefits such as supporting alternative forms of assessment (e.g. peer-assessment), providing learners © Springer International Publishing AG 2016 D.K.W. Chiu et al. (Eds.): ICWL 2016, LNCS 10013, pp. 40–49, 2016. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-47440-3_5
  • 42. Põldoja H., & Laanpere M. (2020). Open Educational Resources in Estonia. R. Huang, D. Liu, A. Tlili, Y. Gao, & R. Koper (toim), Current State of Open Educational Resources in the “Belt and Road” Countries. Lecture Notes in Educational Technology (lk 35–47). Springer. https://doi.org/ 10.1007/978-981-15-3040-1_3 hans.poldoja@tlu.ee Chapter 3 Open Educational Resources in Estonia Hans Põldoja and Mart Laanpere 1 Case Overview Estonia is a small country situated in Northern Europe. With a population of 1.3 mil- lion people, it is one of the smallest countries in the European Union. Despite having a turbulent history with various rulers, Estonia has maintained its cultural traditions and language. The Estonian educational system consists of general education, voca- tional education and higher education. General education is divided into pre-school, basic and upper-secondary education. Various studies have recognized the quality of Estonian education, for example the most recent PISA study showed that the Esto- nian basic education is among the best in Europe and in the world (OECD, 2016). Most important developments in the area of education are guided by the Lifelong Learning Strategy for 2014–2020 (MER, 2014), which lists five strategic goals: (1) a change in the approach to learning; (2) competent and motivated teachers and school leadership; (3) the concordance of lifelong learning opportunities with the needs of the labor market; (4) a digital turn in education; and (5) equal opportunities and increased participation in lifelong learning. H. Põldoja (B) · M. Laanpere School of Digital Technologies, Tallinn University, Narva mnt 25, 10120 Tallinn, Estonia e-mail: hans.poldoja@tlu.ee URL: http://www.hanspoldoja.net M. Laanpere e-mail: mart.laanpere@tlu.ee URL: http://www.mart.laanpere.eu © Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020 R. Huang et al. (eds.), Current State of Open Educational Resources in the “Belt and Road” Countries, Lecture Notes in Educational Technology, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-15-3040-1_3 35
  • 43. Viited • Autoriõiguse seadus. (2019). RT I, 19.03.2019, 55. https:// www.riigiteataja.ee/akt/119032019055
  • 44. Kasutatud fotod • Dom Pates, https://www.flickr.com/photos/globalismpictures/5441692868/
  • 45. See materjal on avaldatud Creative Commons Autorile viitamine–Jagamine samadel tingimustel 3.0 Eesti litsentsi alusel. Litsentsi terviktekstiga tutvumiseks külastage aadressi http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ee/ Hans Põldoja hans.poldoja@tlu.ee IFI7227.DT Õpikeskkonnad ja võrgustatud õpe https://opikeskkonnad.ee Tallinna Ülikool Digitehnoloogiate instituut