Creative & interactive industries workshop 1 report jan 2011
The Low Carbon Transition: Implications for the Creative and Interactive Industries Edinburgh, January 2011 Report of First WorkshopBackground Envirodigital asked the Scottish Government’s 2020 Climate Group to give the Creative and digital industries an opportunity to join other key sectors in Scotland, like transport, like petro-chemicals, like energy - in scoping out what a journey to carbon neutrality in 2050 might look like. We approached the 2020 group to let us report back to them as the 2 sectors, digital and creative, collaboratively. The work we do in the workshops, imagining that journey, creating that vision, willinform our recommendations back to the 2020 Climate Group, who will thenin turn report back to government on behalf of all sectors.Purpose of the workshopEwan Mearns from Scottish Enterprise, which hosted the event, welcomedparticipants to the first of two planned workshops to investigate the initialsteps the Creative and Interactive Industries in Scotland could take on its lowcarbon journey.Scotland’s 2020 Climate Group (see http://2020climategroup.org.uk/) hasbeen invited by the Scottish Government to act as a ‘critical friend’ ofGovernment policy and action relating to climate change. Its Opportunitiesand Challenges Sub-group is sponsoring a series of sector-focused discussionsto explore the specific implications of the low carbon transition for particularindustries. The suggestion that the Creative and Interactive Industries couldbe the focus for one of these was made by Hannah Rudman and Alan Blunt(Envirodigital), and the process was being jointly facilitated by ScottishEnterprise and Envirodigital.Three objectives were set for the workshop: I. Provide a deeper understanding of specific business implications and opportunities relating to the low carbon transition; II. Identify the strategic preparedness of the Creative & Interactive industries;
III. Recommend further collaborative work needed to address the issues/opportunities and embed these within the industry-led strategies.It is intended that the final report from the two planned workshops will beused to deepen the discussion through the relevant Industry Advisory Groupsand/or industry bodies. Its purpose is therefore to inform and influence wideraction on behalf of individual organisations and those bodies charged withleading the strategic development of the Creative and Interactive Industriesas a whole.ContextGordon Grant (Ineos and Chair of the 2020 Climate Group’s Opportunitiesand Challenges Sub-group) provided an overview of the Scottish policycontext and the work of the 2020 Climate Group. See Annex C, below.The Climate Change (Scotland) Act 2009 provides a legislative basis forreducing carbon-equivalent emissions over the next four decades, resulting ina transformation in the ways in which we live, travel, do business and prosper.The transformation has already begun - and will continue to evolve – fordecades to come. The ‘interim’ 42% CO2 reduction target (to be met by2020) demands new solutions, new technologies and new behaviours, andthe Scottish Government’s proposed Report on Policies and Programmes setsout the policies that will help achieve this. This is ambitious by any standard –but needs to achieved all over again in order to meet the eventual 80%target by 2050.The Scottish Government published its Low Carbon Economic Strategy inNovember 2010, setting out a strategic framework for the low carboneconomic transformation to take place over the next 10-20 years. It identifiesa range of emerging ‘low carbon’ business opportunities, and the role ofGovernment and the wider public sector in realising them. While theopportunities for the Creative and Interactive Industries are brieflyhighlighted, the purpose of these workshops is to provide further intelligenceon the implications and opportunities and to suggest how they could beaddressed.Recognising the importance of business in contributing to the low carbontransition, the Scottish Government established the 2020 Climate Group(http://2020climategroup.org.uk/) to act as a ‘critical friend’ to help informand scrutinise Scottish Government climate change policy. It involves seniorleaders from business and the public sector to: • provide strong, visible leadership to Scotland’s business and non- governmental communities to inspire them to do more to reduce carbon emissions; • help drive innovation through partnerships and synergies between members; • advise on, and aim to make early progress towards, achievement of the outcomes and targets of the Climate Change Delivery Plan; • identify relevant action and opportunities, and collaborate, to bring benefits to the Scottish economy;
Its ‘Opportunities and Challenges’ Sub-group, chaired by Gordon Grant, isprimarily taking a sector-based approach to its work, exploring the nature oflow carbon issues and opportunities and identifying the steps that sectorscould take to address these. This process builds on earlier work involving theChemical Sciences industry in Autumn 2010; the intention is for the Sub-groupto also support similar discussions within the Food & Drink and Tourismindustries during Spring 2011.The report of the Chemical Sciences workshops is now informing a refresh oftheir industry-led strategy and the process helped to significantly raise theprofile and potential implications of the low carbon transition. A combinationof policy, market and regulatory drivers is likely to create a ‘perfect storm’that will both drive the industry to maximise the use of each barrel of oilextracted, as well as accelerate the relative shift from petrochemicals to bio-based products. In short, Scotland’s competitiveness in this industry is stronglyreliant on existing firms adapting positively and early to changing marketconditions. “Low carbon is a way of thinking, behaving and operating that minimises carbon emissions while enabling sustainable use of resources, economic growth and quality of life improvements” Ian Marchant (Scottish & Southern Energy / Chair, 2020 Climate Group)Carbon impacts of the Creative Industries – The current picture[Transcript of Hannah Rudman’s presentation] Creative and digital industries are those that have their origin in individual creativity, skill and talent. They also include industries that have the potential to create wealth and job creation through the development, production or exploitation of intellectual property. The sector is made up of 13 distinct industries •The stats here are for the Scottish Govts definition of the Creative Industries (ie broader than SEs focus on Digital Markets) - for 2007Why are we here today? We either work in the creative or digital industriesand we’re interested or concerned enough to be here. We probably don’tyet have to work at reducing our organisations’ carbon emissions because of
legislation. Unlike other sectors, we don’t yet have that driver, but we knowthat Britain’s ‘Creative Industries’ are growing at twice the rate of the rest ofthe economy. And sense that as well as having economic muscle,ourindustries have a vital role to play in delivering a sustainable future.The legislation is coming though: the 2009 Climate Change (Scotland) Act,creates the statutory framework for greenhouse gas emissions reductions inScotland by setting an interim 42 per cent reduction target for 2020, and an80 per cent reduction target for 2050. To help ensure the delivery of thesetargets, this part of the Act also requires that the Scottish Ministers set annualtargets, in secondary legislation, for Scottish emissions from 2010 to 2050.So for example, new duties came into force on 1 January 2011 and apply toall public bodies. Part 4 of the Climate Change (Scotland) Act places dutieson public bodies relating to climate change. The duties on the face of theAct (section 44) require that a public body must, in exercising its functions,act:- in the way best calculated to contribute to delivery of the Acts emissionsreduction targets;- in the way best calculated to deliver any statutory adaptation programme;and- in a way that it considers most sustainable. The SG has written guidance. Two relevant paragraphs are quoted here: I take this to mean that funding bodies may impose climate change conditions on grant recipients. That’s why we’re here. So where are the Creative and Digital industries at? We’re working to measure our direct footprint. Let me give you some sector examples.The BBC launched in November 2010 a carbon calculator for televisionproduction as part of efforts to improve its environmental sustainability andcut carbon emissions.Towards the target of reducing its energyconsumption by 20% by 2012, the BBChas created the carbon calculator toenable programme-makers to estimatetheir carbon footprint. The calculator isamong the various measures beingintroduced as part of The Differencecampaign, launched across the BBC toencourage a sustainable approach toproduction.
Use of the calculator is mandatory for all teams at BBC Vision Productions,while the BBC is also planning to share the technology with the wider industry.The BBC has set itself the target of a 20% reduction in energy consumption by2012, along with a 20% cut in CO2 emissions from transport, a 25% reduction inwater usage and a 25% cut in waste to landfill (with 75% of waste to berecycled). The carbon calculator will be offered to other broadcasters andindependent production firms to promote sustainable across the industry.Other measures include the rollout of low-energy studio lighting and 24-hourzones for working outside of office hours to reduce energy consumption inBBC buildings, along with the installation of water-saving devices and videoconferencing to reduce the need for travel.From full scale carbon footprinting and campaigns in some industries (music,film and architecture) to ad-hoc communications that advise creativebusinesses on how to reduce their environmental impacts (design) – there aretransferable formats, learning and a raft of tips and guidelines for how to runa successful, sustainable, creative business.Where are the creative and digital industries at then? What’s happeningalready? Established in 2007 by the UK music industry, Julies Bicycle has spent the last few years working across the music industry to research the carbon emissions baseline of the UK music industry, and international touring of theatres, bands and orchestras. This research has informed the development of their not for profit certification programme Industry Green - a simple framework supporting improvement in environmental sustainability or creative companies. Industry Green is supported by a series ofindustry campaigns, project partnerships and practical resources includingcase studies and the free online carbon calculators the IG tools.As from 2010, they have expanded their remit to include theatre - embarkingon a UK- wide programme which will bring together the commercial andsubsidised theatre industry in England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Irelandin a collective effort to improve the environmental sustainability of their workand help it to flourish in a low- carbon economy. They are currently workingwith London galleries, studios and art fairs to produce the Green Visual ArtsGuide for the Mayor of London. They have already produced the GreenMusic Guide.CarbonCulture is a user-centred, design-led initiative aiming to createsubstantial energy savings in workplaces by transforming behaviour ofbuilding managers and building users with a novel evidence-based change
programme. Designed and developed by design consultancy, MoreAssociates, it is currently being piloted by DECC and Defra, and real-timeenergy reporting has been deployed at six other Whitehall Departments. Atthe core of the project is a design process that will develop best practicesocio-technological behaviour change techniques. The approach willgenerate valuable energy performance data for staff and management,producing high quality decisions and enabling high performanceimprovements to be implemented at low cost across large and complexestates. The project will also create best practice examples of behaviourchange and carbon reduction. Once the first projects are complete later thisyear we will have developed an evidence base on what works and whatdoes not, how much control and influence building users have over energydemand and a sense of the scalability of the solution.As promising as it is that work is being done on these fundamental issues, theuptake of the handy tools available is still nowhere near proportionate to thescale of the challenge we’re facing. Aside from the benefits of reducingcarbon emissions and water use, for example, addressing these directimpacts reduces the cost of running a business and tightens up efficiency.Putting their ‘house in order’ then gives creative businesses a licence tooperate within the space of sustainability – if you’re not doing it yourselveshow can you credibly influence others? Here in Scotland, there’s work underway on Festivals Edinburghs Green Venue Initiative - this is being rolled out out to another 12 or so venues this year, and they’re developing the footprint calculation methodology and the website. Those involved include the Filmhouse/ Film Festival, Imaginate and the Childrens Festival, Edinburghs Hogmanay and various venues covering thesummer festivals including the Traverse, the Lyceum, the Hub and others. Also,Festivals Edinburgh are working on a big study of the carbon impacts ofcultural tourists in Edinburgh.The Federation of Scottish Theatre are going to be developing a climatestrategy for the theatre sector, part of which will be gathering some data onthe carbon profile of the sector: measuring energy use, water use, waste andsome audience travel. They aim to get a full years data for the new financialyear.Ben Twist is leading on these bits of work, and is also looking into research intothe role the creative sector has in helping enable the public behavioural andattitudinal change that is necessary to deliver Scotlands climate strategy.
Cultural organisations particularly have the ability to influence peoplesvalues, emotions and beliefs in a way that is very powerful in effectingbehavioural change - and the research demonstrates that without thoseemotional triggers, change doesnt happen. Many creative projects and businesses, already up and running, are geared up to use this influence as a form of what Lord Puttnam describes as ‘constructive persuasion’ and what I call our ‘art of persuasion’ – that is, ways of innovating that change our thinking and mindsets and make sustainable behaviour palatable, even desirable, to business and the general public. Some specific industries doing more in this space than others – film, design, music, architecture, art and fashion.The C&DIs part to play in creating a sustainable future is definitely not only intheir green housekeeping, but also in their ability to influence our behaviourand inspire new lifestyles. This is where the industries can really make theirmark and start to lead. We are inspired and influenced everyday by what theCIs do: the adverts, magazines and books we read; the films and plays weescape into; the TV and radio shows that entertain and educate us; thedigital games that challenge us; the buildings we live and work in; theexhibitions we flock to; the clothes we choose to express who we are; theartefacts that fill our homes. These are just a handful of ways the industriesreach us on a daily basis. It’s big business too, and the influence creativeinnovations have on people, society, and culture result in changes ofmindset, habits, behaviour and consumption patterns. And a few otherexamples from across other creative industries:• Thomas Matthews is a sustainable design agency - good design for them is about reducing the impact of design.• In 2009 the world’s biggest ad agencies announced in the FT that their biggest growth area was from green advertising. And they were slow, as the worlds biggest 10 PR agencies had almost all set up in-house green communication teams already.Do the Green Thing is a not-for-profit communications organisation thatinspires people to lead a greener life. With the help of brilliant videos andinspiring stories from creative people and community members around theworld, Green Thing focuses on seven things you can do (and enjoy) to begreener.In fashion we’re seeing campaigns like estethica and movements like wornagain, where leading product designers transform discarded fabrics such asdecomissioned Eurostar uniforms into fashionable laptop bags and oystercardholdersIn architecture, RIBA have toolkits for architects to use as well as theirSustainability Award for energy efficient and beautiful buildings.
Another important resource that helps us map activity but perhaps more importantly helps us understand the mindset and organisational barriers that must be overcome is http:// www.sustainableability.com. It focuses on the role of the cultural sector in bringing people together, questioning the assumptions of modern life and experimenting with the norm and ask us to consider whether this is an issue of personal choice of collective responsibilty. Emerging out of conversations that the directors (Roanne Dods here today) and I -as an associate of Mission Models Money - had about focussing research onthe cultural sector, the insights here are applicable to the wider creative anddigital industries. sustainableability.com maps organisations who areendeavouring to change their organisations to lesson their impact andstrengthen their resilience. Mission Models Money reports on transformativeresponses to resource scarcity and climate change from individuals andorganisations working in the cultural sector, leveraging their art of persuasion,many of these utilising digital technologies. We are also innovating for sustainability. The CIs are serial innovators and have a track record of using new technology for commercial advantage. The digital market has continued to grow as UK consumers have embraced new technologies, responded to ecommerce, internet advertising and mobile communications and for many aspects of life have accepted and adapted to a new, digital ‘version’ of what they once knew. By technology and innovation forsustainability, we mean finding new, low-carbon ways to meet our needs aswell as maintaining the UK’s creative competitiveness.Apps For Good is a leading-edge technology programme where youngpeople learn to create mobile and web apps that change their world. Withspecial focus around solving real life issues that matter to them and theircommunity. The courses are sponsored by Dell YouthConnect.BASDA, the Business Application Software Developers’ Association launchedGreen-XML in July. The software extension has been designed with thedevelopers of other standards to make it easy to extend all XML standard thatuse the elements of BASDA Green XML. Green XML makes it easier forsoftware developers around the world to produce integrated environmental
management systems that are capable of sharing green data with softwareapplications operated by partners or other parts of the businessSerious Games enables the growth of games, virtual worlds and connectedindustry specialists by supporting research and development into the use andeffects of these products, platforms and technologies. One such game, theLivingStories project is the first alternate reality game in the UK addressingenvironmental issues. Living Stories combines social networking sites such asfacebook and twitter with SecondLife. Overall then, there’s lots going on, not joined up. My conclusion is mirrored by report Can the Creative Industries lead us to a sustainable future? 1 which comes from Forum for the Future and focuses on the creative industries in the UK. They find that generally, we are being led rather than leading and are missing out on opportunities. The UK’s CIs are great inventors andharnessers of technology, with an impressive track record of responding toand driving innovation, as our central role in the conversion to the digitalworld proves and as creative businesses continue to play a fundamental rolein generating revenue and jobs in the global market.How will we apply our expertise and experience to the big sustainabilitychallenges facing society?How will we deliver a sustainable future for ourindustries? And so to today - an opportunity to respond to those big HOW questions.“What if” thinking is always a bit tricky. Too much focus on “what might have been” can mire us in regret and feelings of powerlessness or keep us from savoring our good fortune. But scientists have proved that “What if...” thinking might save us from1http://www.forumforthefuture.org/ﬁles/Sustainability%20Baseline%20Review%20for%20CIKTN%2008%2010%202010.pdf
complacency about our circumstances. Imagining an alternative reality is agreat practical tool for generating new ideas and a new vision for the future.Lets make the most of this chance today to imagine a sustainable future forthe creative and digital industries.Hannah Rudman, Envirodigital, 25.01.11, email@example.com http://envirodigital.comResults of brainstorm 1:What are the key carbon impacts of the Creative & Interactive Industries ?The workshop was designed to highlight the most important carbon impactsof the Creative and Interactive industries, identify potential ‘solutions’ toaddressing (reducing) these and prioritise the key solutions to be addressed inthe second workshop.Participants began (in smaller groups) by brainstorming the various ways inwhich the industries currently generate carbon, both directly as well asindirectly via their customers/audiences and supply chains. These werecategorised in terms of buildings; materials; direct travel; visitor travel; widerimpacts and miscellaneous:Buildings (energy from heating, electricity, IT) • lighting theatres/ stage (major issue) • heating rehearsal facilities/ artists rooms • heating large galleries (some old listed buildings) • IT use in production and operations - servers, computers and office equipment (including under-utilised PC processing & overnight/ standby equipment power) • Data centres • Storage requirements (museums, galleries) • Office air conditioning • Catering outlets/coffee shops in venues • Poor insulation • Heat loss through entrances • Waste eg food, paper • Water useMaterials • marketing materials – raw materials – paper, ink, toner, batteries • materials to make art works/ stages/ costumes/ sets/ exhibitions (supply chain etc) • product manufacture (resources, energy, transport) • materials for packaging (DVD’s, CD’s, games) • outsourced manufacture and shipping of fashion design • e-tickets (less paper) – mobiles and barcodes • loss of trees to produce paper – books, newspapers etcTravel – staff, goods/materials, artists
• shipping work internationally • artist travel – local and international • travel for location-based filming • staff travel to work/ commuting/ meetings • travel for auditions • staff travel to see UK/international fairs/ events/ exhibitions/ potential artists • key decision makers often based outwith Scotland – business travel • travel of product/ cast./ material to events around the country (touring exhibitions) • travel by suppliersTravel - Visitors • transport to remote events • audience travel • digital distribution, and consumption by audience (less travel)Wider impacts • digital exhibitions (tasters) • inefficient events eg empty venues, low audiences, ‘one off’ events • communication networks?? • brand identification with our organisations – and the communities that support us • highlighting issues – art of persuasion • positive ability to influence through education • production of new equipment, and waste of old equipment • manufacture of digital devices and battery chargers • increased computer usage by the public (video games, facebook, TV on demand) • direct channels to public (digital) ? • traditional business models • economic growth leads to higher consumption (unless it reduces carbon intensity)Miscellaneous • fashion – must have new technology, even if existing is not obsolete • inefficient streaming of video • lack of regulation • lack of experience / track record in sustainability – and lack of industry leadership in this area • relatively weak strategic thinking across industryWhat ‘solutions’ can help reduce carbon impacts and address new, ‘lowcarbon’ opportunities ?For each of these broad categories, participants then discussed the potential‘solutions’ – or ways in which the carbon impacts could be avoided orreduced – together with the emerging ‘low carbon’ opportunities for theindustry.Having identified a number of solutions and opportunities, these werepositioned on a prioritisation matrix:
Carbon impact ie the relative carbon intensity of the activity/issue the solution is intended to address Influence ie the degree to which the Creative and Interactive Industries have some influence over the design/delivery of the solutionsThe outputs are illustrated on the following page. The solutions andopportunities have been grouped and a title attached to each; the full list ofsolutions/opportunities is provided in Annex B.
The prioritised ‘solutions’ Next stepsThe purpose of the second workshop, to take place on the morning of 28 February2011, is both to discuss how the key solutions and opportunities could be addressedand to agree how this process could be embedded within mainstream discussionson industry development.It is proposed that four higher-priority issues be selected for this deeper discussion: • new business models • influencing public behaviour change • audience travel • shared infrastructure.New business modelsExplore the idea that new business models are an opportunity to reduce carbonemissions whilst retaining or improving the customer experience.
A business model is how a company operates. It focuses on how funds flowbetween customers, business and suppliers. Improving business models requires afocus on the needs of the customer. For example, low cost airlines challenged theestablished business model by cutting out the travel agent and adopting anapproach to marginal charges based on seat availability.A sustainable business model is an approach to offering goods or services thatprovides financial benefits for the business, helps to improve the natural world andprovides social benefits for employees and the local community.What models already exist? Are we clear which are lower carbon? What modelscould be invented? What are the barriers? Are there other benefits/ costs?Influence public behaviour changeThe Creative Industries have the potential to have a huge beneficial (or adverse)impact on societies’ carbon impacts through its influencing role (education,sustainable lifestyles, advertising/ marketing). Explore what these impacts could be,and consider how to maximise the beneficial impacts and minimise the adverseimpacts.What are the big influences? Are we clear which are beneficial/ adverse? How dowe influence Creative Industries to have a positive influence? What are the barriers?Are there other benefits/ costs?Audience travelFor many Creative Industries the largest carbon impact will be audience travel.Explore potential solutions (public transport, location of events, incentives, jointticketing, links to other partners, new business models).How can we measure the current impact of audience travel? Are we clear on thelowest carbon models? What are the barriers? Are there other benefits/ costs?Shared infrastructure • Cloud, not individual servers • Shared, green data centres • Joint procurement of low carbon shared services • Local, community-led server farms • Supply chain ‘communities’ • Shared computer processing applicationsGeneral QuestionsAre we clear as to the issues?What are the implications of ‘do nothing’?What are the opportunities?What possible solutions are there?What are the barriers?
Short/ medium or long term?Who should lead and support?How build solutions into existing industry processes?Annex A AttendeesAlan Blunt EnvirodigitalCalum Davidson Highlands and Islands EnterpriseCatherine Docherty Glasgow School of ArtRoanne Dods Mission Models MoneyEuan GrayGordon Grant IneosSteve Green Scottish OperaClare Hollowell Scottish GovernmentDavid Hunter National Library of ScotlandNeil Kitching Scottish EnterpriseColin Macdonald eeGeoAndy McLaughlin Scottish EnterpriseEwan Mearns Scottish EnterpriseMairi Robertson NMP/Interactive ScotlandHannah Rudman EnvirodigitalBen Spencer VAGA ScotlandBen Twist Creative Carbon ScotlandMark Western Scottish Enterprise
Annex B Grouped ‘solutions’ – Detailed descriptionsAudience travel • Influence travel behaviours of audiences • Encourage public transport use via partnerships with transport providers • Car sharing/pools • Use your bike ! • Include transport with tickets – make it an easy option • Charge lower admission prices for using public/sustainable transportInfluence public behaviour change • Use the ideas and reputation of the creative industries to exert wider influence eg. using creative work, and communication channels direct to general public (because of sectors’ reputations as trusted communication channels) • Actively promote sustainable lifestyles eg via advertising, architecture, games, plays • Make good educational content available to schools eg GlowResource efficiency • Promote ‘the basics’ within organisations – reduce, reuse, recycle • Retrofitting buildings & venues • Find ways to fund improvements to building stock • Use energy-efficiency equipment/appliances • Reuse heat from equipment and air conditioning • Reduce heating requirements – set temperatures and hours of operation • Compulsory smart metering (ie transparency of information/costs) • ‘Green’ energy procurementNew business models • More virtual content (eg museums, music performances etc) • Universal digital access • Webcasts/digital distribution of conferences • Grouped events & festivals rather than standalone • Select event location on basis of clustering of actual demand • Focus on carbon efficiency of events/products • Know the ‘real’ cost of virtual vs. actual/live performancesDigitise ‘live’ product • Digitise live performances, auditions and press nights • Travel of product – digital relays rather than touring ? • Develop new business models for publishing that are sustainable in both environmental and economic termsStaff homeworking • Reduce need to travel through technology • Use Skype/video calls for staff meetings • More homeworkingMeasuring carbon impacts
• Quantify carbon impacts of sub-sectors and activities – and share this widely • Include lifecycle as part of creative industry products/solutionsShared infrastructure • Cloud, not individual servers • Shared, green data centres • Joint procurement of low carbon shared services • Local, community-led server farms • Supply chain ‘communities’ • Shared computer processing applicationsNext generation broadband • Universal access to faster broadband • Enabling wider benefits eg telehealth, productivity, videoconferencing etc • Less download time = less energy or rebound effects ?Low carbon business accreditation • Low carbon business accreditationShare best practice • Identify best practice from elsewhere in the world • Case studies on how others are making the low carbon transition • ‘How to’ guides for low carbon packaging etc • Education for the sectorGreen procurement • Energy, paper etc for production and distribution • Switch suppliers to those who deliver/promote ‘green’ productsShared resources • Share scenery / waste / exhibition materials etc • Efficient resource use eg double-sided printing, print to PDF, track usage • Promote shared recycling / recycling infrastructureLow carbon buildings & venues (new build) • ‘Green’ new build – production and insulation • Venues constructed to highest low-carbon standards, including local (distributed) renewable energy generation • District heatingLinking public funding to carbon reduction • Public funders link funding to carbon reduction • IT systems (box office) funding linksLifecycle analysis (supply chain) • Identify the ‘responsibility chain’ for a product/service • Manufacturers responsible for end-of-life of productAccess to ‘stored’ items • Reduce need for storage of items not on public display (museums)
• Digitise stored items to provide universal access • Standard methodologies for managementPhysical creative industry clusters • Investigate whether physical clusters (eg Pacific Quay) increase/ decrease overall carbon emissionsIncentivising sustainable business practices (‘carrots’) • Carbon credits (tax) • Regulation • Toner tax used to subsidise e-readersPenalising unsustainable business practices (‘sticks’) • Punishable green offences • ‘Waste taxes’ have commercial value • Border ‘offset’ taxOther ideas – not grouped – didn’t fully understand them ?! • Standards for domestic ‘curation’ • Allowing increased sharing of digital info for non-commercial purposes (change copyright law?)