Mapping The Escience (27 Oct2009)

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Mapping e-science, e-social science, and e-research landscape using Webometrics
박한우
영남대학교 언론정보학과 교수
미국 뉴욕주립대 박사
WCU 웹보메트릭스 연구단 사업단장
hanpark@ynu.ac.kr
http://www.hanpark.net
http://english-webometrics.yu.ac.kr

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  • Mapping The Escience (27 Oct2009)

    1. 1. Prof. Dr. Han Woo PARK Associate Professor Dept. of Media & CommunicationYeungNamUniversity 214-1 Dae-dong, Gyeongsan-si,Gyeongsangbuk-do 712-749, S.Korea [email_address] http://www.hanpark.net Director of WCU WebometricsInstitute http://english-webometrics.yu.ac.kr Mapping e-science, e-social science, and e-research landscape using Webometrics 경성대 컴퓨터공학과 초청 특강 2009 년 11 월 11 일 WCU WEBOMETRICS INSTITUTE
    2. 2. e-science <ul><li>e- 사이언스의 등장 </li></ul><ul><li>CERN 의 입자 물리학 (Particle Physics) 연구자들이 과거에 겪지 못한 </li></ul><ul><li>새로운 문제에 당면하면서 등장 . </li></ul><ul><li>엄청난 규모의 데이터 처리 및 교환에 필요한 고성능 컴퓨터 자원 , </li></ul><ul><li>연구목적에 특화된 고도 인터넷망 , 버츄얼 협업을 위한 연구 환경등의 </li></ul><ul><li>수요에 충족하기 위한 정책적 시도 </li></ul>WCU WEBOMETRICS INSTITUTE ‘ 고성능 컴퓨터’ , ‘ 디지털 네트워크’의 사용 지식생산의 방식 변화
    3. 3. http://www.julianhopkins.net/ ‘ 뉴미디어’로서 디지털매체 확산
    4. 4. http://novaspivack.typepad.com/nova_spivacks_weblog/2007/02/steps_towards_a.html 에서 재인용
    5. 5. ‘ 뉴미디어’시대 문화적 현상들 http://www.julianhopkins.net/
    6. 6. 인터넷과 함께 온 도전과 변화 <ul><li>도서관과 비교해 찾기 어려운 정보 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>웹페이지의 정확한 위치와 분량을 알 수 없어 : 계속 변화하고 업데이트됨 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2005 년 4 월 현재 , Google.com 에 인덱스된 웹페이지 수는 8 십억 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>웹에서 정보를 찾는 두 개의 방식 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>디렉토리 : 책 앞의 목차 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>검색엔진 : 책 뒤의 색인 </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. 가상공간의 정보수집 : ‘ CNN’ 의 SL iReports 서비스
    8. 12. 1. 연구의 배경 및 목적 <e- 사이언스 외 용어 > 영국 정부 미국 국립과학재단 <ul><ul><li>용어 </li></ul></ul>‘ e- 사이언스’ ‘ e- 소셜사이언스’ 사이버 인프라 <ul><ul><li>공통 구성요소 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>컴퓨팅 자원의 공유 </li></ul><ul><li>광대한 데이터 집합에의 분산된 접근 </li></ul><ul><li>협업과 의사소통을 위한 디지털 플랫폼의 사용 </li></ul>오스트리아 학술원 네덜란드 왕립아카데미 <ul><ul><li>용어 </li></ul></ul>사이버사이언스 e- 리서치 <ul><ul><li>공통 구성요소 </li></ul></ul>거대한 분량의 데이터를 처리하기 위한 고속의 대형컴퓨터와 연구망의 사용에 강조점을 두지 않고 연구과정에 디지털 뉴미디어의 도입과 가상공간에서 학문 활동에 따른 과학계 내부의 변화에 초점
    9. 13. 1. 연구의 배경 및 목적 WCU WEBOMETRICS INSTITUTE <e- 사이언스에 대한 학계의 접근 > 국가 내용 설립기관 영국 2001 년 세계 최초 e- 사이언스센터 설립 정부 미국 사회과학자를 위한 e- 사이언스를 활용한 연구인프라 차원에서 ‘ 사회네트워크와 사이버인프라’ 지원 국립과학재단 네덜란드 ‘ 가상지식스튜디오’ 설립 디지털 시대의 ‘변화하는 연구관행’에 초점 네덜란드왕립 아카데미 (KNAW) 호주 e- 사이언스에 대한 사회과학적 접근 시도
    10. 14. 1. 연구의 배경 및 목적 <ul><li>2005 년 6 월 영국 , </li></ul><ul><li>e- 소셜사이언스센터는 Manchester 대학에서 세계 최초 e- 소셜사이언스에 집중한 국제학술대회 개최 </li></ul>a. 지리적으로 떨어진 연구자들 사이의 협동연구 - 고성능 컴퓨터 이용 인터넷 기반 도구를 사용하는 국제공동연구 b. 데이터 수집 , 자료 아키이빙 , 정보 분석등 연구방법의 디지털화 c. 인문•사회학 연구에서 활용될 수 있는 데이터 시각화 기법 d. 연구결과의 공유와 전자저널 e. 컴퓨터로 지원되는 협동연구 (CSCW) f. 새로운 학제간 연구의 탄생과 기존 과학기술사회학 연구의 발전 WCU WEBOMETRICS INSTITUTE
    11. 15. 1. 연구의 배경 및 목적 WCU WEBOMETRICS INSTITUTE 네덜란드 e- 사이언스 -> e- 리서치 개념으로 확대 시도 ‘ e’ – 고양된 (enhanced) - 전자 ( electronic) 국내 ( 한국정부 ) e- 사이언스를 자연과학과 이공계 몇몇 분야 – 의학 , 물리학 , 기상학의 일부 수요를 충족하기 위한 신기술로서 인식 2007 년 ‘인터넷연구자협회’ (AoIR) 영국 , 미국 , 네덜란드 , 캐나다 독일등 에서 참가 ‘ 인터넷 연구와 e- 사이언스’ 주제로 자유로운 토론 VS
    12. 16. 2. e- 사이언스의 현황과 분야별 특징 <ul><li>인터넷 연구에 e- 사이언스 기술이 </li></ul><ul><li>어떻게 사용될 수 있는가 ? </li></ul>WCU WEBOMETRICS INSTITUTE Nentwich(2003) e- 사이언스가 학술•연구 분야에 도입•확산되면서 나타나는 연구방법 항목별 변화를 정보수집 , 데이터 생산 , 데이터 관리 , 데이터 처리•분석으로 나누어서 단계별로 제시 <Table 1> Development stage of e-Science
    13. 17. WCU WEBOMETRICS INSTITUTE <Table 1> Development stage of e-Science Type Traditional Science ---------------------------> e-Science Stage 1 2 3 4 Information gathering Libraries; personal conversations Offline database Online databases; link collections; discussion lists Digital libraries; Knowbots Data production Interviews; experiments Electron, text analysis; simulation/modeling Internet surveys Distributed computing; virtual reality Data management Card files; lists Hypertextual card files; databases Networked card files; de-central databases Data processing/analysis With paper and pencil Electron, data-processing; expert systems Modelling; simulations Artificial intelligence
    14. 18. 2. e- 사이언스의 현황과 분야별 특징 WCU WEBOMETRICS INSTITUTE Nentwich(2003) e- 사이언스가 학술•연구 분야에 도입•확산되면서 나타나는 연구방법 항목별 변화를 정보수집 , 데이터 생산 , 데이터 관리 , 데이터 처리•분석으로 나누어서 단계별로 제시 Traditional Science ------------  e-Science Stage 1 2 3 4 연구관련 배경정보를 모으고 분석 , 데이터 수집 데이터관리 , 처리 , 분석과정
    15. 19. 2. e- 사이언스의 현황과 분야별 특징 WCU WEBOMETRICS INSTITUTE 그리드 (Grid) e- 사이언스의 핵심기술로 인식 웹 : 인터넷을 통해 정보를 공유하는 서비스 그리드 : 인터넷을 통해 컴퓨팅 능력과 데이터 저장을 공유하는 서비스 그리드의 목적 : 통신을 넘어 인터넷 - 을 하나의 광대한 컴퓨터 자원으로 만드는것
    16. 20. 2. e- 사이언스의 현황과 분야별 특징 WCU WEBOMETRICS INSTITUTE Fry(2006) 의 조사 <ul><li>영국의 고에너지 물리학자 – 2000 년에 영국정부로부터 e- 사이언스 인프라인 LHC(Large Hadron Collider) 시설 구현을 위한 2 천 6 백만 파운드 지원받음 </li></ul><ul><li>언어학과 지리학 – 정치적 헤게모니를 지닌 파워엘리트 그룹이나 기관이 e- 사이언스의 도입이 저항에 부딪침 </li></ul><ul><li>언어학의 경우 연구문제•전략 •기법의 조정은 국가적 </li></ul><ul><li>접근방식을 지닌 지역적 해석에 달려있다 </li></ul><ul><li>“ 개별 연구도구의 도입에 초점이 맞춰짐” </li></ul>Nentwich(2003) Fry(2006) 거시적 맥락에서 e- 사이언스의 방법론적 활용을 살펴봄 학문분야별 문화적 특징 , 새로운 연구문제․전략․기법에 대한 내부의 조정 메커니즘 , 협동연구의 특성에 따른 e- 사이언스의 도입과 활용의 관계를 분석
    17. 21. 3. 인터넷 연구방법으로서 e- 사이언스의 유형 WCU WEBOMETRICS INSTITUTE 미시적 맥락 데이터 중심적 (data-intensive) 방법론 에서 활용가능성이 크다 데이터 수집 •저장 •가공 •공유 수단 -> 목적 복잡한 연구문제의 해결을 위해서 개별 분야의 경계를 넘어선 데이터 뿐만 아니라 시간에 걸쳐 수집되어 누구나 사용가능하도록 준비된 데이터가 공통된 지식체계의 발전과 정책결정에 필요불가결하기 때문 예 ) 웹 공간 분석은 e- 사이언스 기술을 활용하여 좀 더 풍부한 연구 결과의 생산이 가능
    18. 22. 3. 인터넷 연구방법으로서 e- 사이언스의 유형 WCU WEBOMETRICS INSTITUTE 예 ) 웹 공간 분석 ( web sphere analysis) by Schneider·Foot(2005) 특정한 주제와 관련된 웹 데이터를 이용하여 인터넷 이용자의 정치활동부터 사회문화적 생활방식을 연구하는 것 ------  주기적으로 수집•보관하는 아카이빙 필요 <ul><li>‘ 인터넷 아카이브 (Internet Archive)’ </li></ul><ul><li>(www.archive.org) </li></ul><ul><li>2004 년 미국 대통령 선거 기간에 </li></ul><ul><li>운영된 정치 관련 웹사이트의 </li></ul><ul><li>멀티미디어 자원 </li></ul><ul><li>쓰나미 (Tsunami) 관련된 웹 공간을 </li></ul><ul><li>아카이빙 </li></ul>
    19. 23. 3. 인터넷 연구방법으로서 e- 사이언스의 유형 WCU WEBOMETRICS INSTITUTE Woolgar·Coopmans(2006) e- 사이언스의 사회학적 전망을 논의하면서 그리드 기술은 다양한 종류의 연결고리를 추적하는 사회과학적 애플리케이션에 차용될 수 있다고 밝힘 . Nentwich(2003) e- 사이언스 기술은 온라인 설문조사의 혁신 을 가져올 수 있다 . e- 사이언스 기술을 활용하면 세계 곳곳에 있는 사람들을 대상으로 조사를 하면서 거의 실시간으로 데이터를 분석하고 그 결과를 웹사이트에 제시할 수 있다 .
    20. 24. 3. 인터넷 연구방법으로서 e- 사이언스의 유형 WCU WEBOMETRICS INSTITUTE Jankowski·van Selm(2005) Hine(2005) 이 편저한 &quot; 버츄얼 방법론 &quot;(Virtual Method) 연구서에 소개된 각 장 (chapter) 의 내용을 사례로 하여 , 인터넷 연구방법론으로 적용 가능한 e- 사이언스의 구체적 유형을 제시 <Table 2> Hine(2000) 인터넷 연구방법을 실험실적 상황 에서 심리학적 변인을 주로 사용하여 사람들의 인터넷 이용행태를 조사하는 연구와 비강제적 · 자연적 상황 에서 온라인의 사회문화적 현상을 관찰 · 기술하는 연구로 크게 양분한다 .
    21. 25. 3. 인터넷 연구방법으로서 e- 사이언스의 유형 WCU WEBOMETRICS INSTITUTE <Table 2> Overview of e-Science methodological innovations in Internet research Chapter Author Topic Methods, Issues 1 Hine General overview Online ethnography, ethics 2 Joinson Designing virtual methods Online surveys 3 Kivits Online interviewing Email interviews 4 Orgad Online and offline study Online ethonography 5 Sanders Online sex work Online ethonography, ethics 6 Rutter and Smith Presence and absence of researcher in online setting Online ethnography, ethics 7 Forte Sites for ethnography Constructing sites 8 Dodge Mapping in virtual research Vidual displays 9 Mackay Online and offline study Online ethnography 10 Guimaraes Anthropology in cyberspace Online ethnography 11 Schneider and Foot Web sphere analysis Analysis of web content 12 Park and Thelwall Network analysis and hyperlink study Network analysis 13 Beaulieu Linking and ethnography Link analysis
    22. 26. 3. 인터넷 연구방법으로서 e- 사이언스의 유형 WCU WEBOMETRICS INSTITUTE Hine(2000) 연구방법 내용 비고 실험실 연구 인터넷을 분석도구로 이용하지 않을 뿐만 아니라 실제의 인터넷을 분석대상으로 하지 않음 웹사이트를 인위적으로 만들어서 조작 . - 인터넷 연구방법으로의 한계 관찰•기술 연구 인터넷에서 사람들이 실제로 사용하는 메시지와 행위를 연구자의 참여을 통하여 혹은 제 3 자의 입장에서 조사하여 분석
    23. 27. 3. 인터넷 연구방법으로서 e- 사이언스의 유형 WCU WEBOMETRICS INSTITUTE “ E- 연구 : 학문관행의 변형 ” ( E-Research: Transformations in Scholarly Practice), 2009 인터넷 연구방법으로서 e- 사이언스의 현황 편집자 Jankowski(2009) Big Science 특징 ‘ 연구 도구 , 데이터 , 예산의 거대함’ ‘학문 분야의 성숙함’ 인터넷 연구자가 e- 사이언스 기술을 활용하여 과거에 가능하지 않았던 여러 연구를 수행할 수 있게 되면서 인터넷학 (Internet Studies) 은 방법론적으로 성숙해지고 연구 네트워크의 규모도 커지고 있다 . 그러나 e- 사이언스를 활용한 인터넷 연구방법의 양적․질적 향상은 아직 장미빛 비전에 머물고 있다 .
    24. 28. 4. 인터넷 연구방법으로 e- 사이언스 활성화를 위한 과제 WCU WEBOMETRICS INSTITUTE <ul><li>e- 사이언스 활성화를 막는 장애물 </li></ul><ul><li>Dutton •Mever(2008) </li></ul><ul><li>“ e- 사이언스는 ‘ certainty trough’ 의 곡선에서 아직 ‘ configured users’ 를 확보하지 못함 “ </li></ul>(Mackenzie, 1990) 1. 인지도를 넓히는 홍보 프로그램의 신설 및 확대 e- 사이언스를 누가 , 언제 , 어떻게 , 왜 사용해야 하는지에 대해 모르는 ( 인터넷 ) 연구자가 대부분
    25. 29. 4. 인터넷 연구방법으로 e- 사이언스 활성화를 위한 과제 WCU WEBOMETRICS INSTITUTE <ul><li>e- 사이언스 활성화를 막는 장애물 </li></ul><ul><li>박한우 (2007) </li></ul><ul><li>“ 인터넷 강국인 한국에서 사회과학자를 위한 e- 사이언스 지원이 절대적으로 부족 ” </li></ul>2. 인문•사회학 분야 연구자에 대한 지원을 확대 예 ) 한국과 일본의 정치인 웹사이트에 대한 연구 - 상용 인터넷망의 대역폭 한계 , 인문•사회학자들을 위한 컬래버토리의 부재 , 고비용의 서버 기반 웹아카이빙 각 국가에서 내려받아 저장한 웹사이트를 공유하지 못함
    26. 30. 4. 인터넷 연구방법으로 e- 사이언스 활성화를 위한 과제 WCU WEBOMETRICS INSTITUTE <ul><li>e- 사이언스 활성화를 막는 장애물 </li></ul><ul><li>Marc Smith, Duncan Watts </li></ul><ul><li>대학에서 마이크로소프트 , 야후로 옮김 </li></ul><ul><li>: 민간 영역이 새로운 유형의 방대한 분량의 데이터 , 이와 관련된 방법론적 접근을 발전시키는데 대학보다 유리하기 때문에 </li></ul>3. e- 사이언스 기술의 활용법에 대한 신규 및 지속적 훈련 프로그램 마련 영국 , NCRM(National Centre for Research Methods) 2008 년 11 월 사회과학 분야의 신진연구자를 위한 새로운 데이터 탐구방법에 대한 가을학기 개설 http://www.ncrm.ac.uk/news/news/show.php?article=5045
    27. 31. 5. 결론 : 연구의 가치와 시사점 WCU WEBOMETRICS INSTITUTE <ul><li>연구의 가치 </li></ul><ul><li>인터넷 연구방법으로서 e- 사이언스 접근법에 대한 합의점이 존재하기보다 연구의 방향성에 대한 끊임없는 토론이 이루어지고 있다 . </li></ul>Wouters (2005) 경성과학 (hard science) 의 e- 사이언스방식을 그대로 차용할것이 아니라 , e- 사이언스의 네트워크화된 정보통신 기술을 받아들여서 연성과학 (soft science) 로서 자신의 고유방식을 발전시켜야 할 것이라는 점에 동의
    28. 32. 5. 결론 : 연구의 가치와 시사점 WCU WEBOMETRICS INSTITUTE <ul><li>시사점 </li></ul><ul><li>가장 최근에 일어난 현상을 고찰한다는 점에서 학술적인 측면뿐만 아니라 사회적 , 정책적인 측면에서도 시의성이 높다 </li></ul><ul><li>학술자료가 부족한 상황에서 e- 사이언스 , e- 리서치 , 사이버사이언스에 대한 학계 , 산업계 , 언론계 , 정부의 토론과 의사결정 과정에서 기초자로로서 기여할 수 있다 </li></ul><ul><li>새로운 디지털 네트워크와 고성능 컴퓨터가 사회구성원과의 상호작용을 통해서 어떻게 도입 , 확산 , 발전되는지에 대한 큰 그림을 그리는데 도움을 준다 . </li></ul>
    29. 33. A case study follows WCU WEBOMETRICS INSTITUTE
    30. 34. ‘ 연구과정에 인터넷 활용 ' 에 대한 싱가폴에서 수행된 사례연구 출처 : Chang (2008)
    31. 35. Dr. Han Woo PARK Associate Professor Dept. of Media & CommunicationYeungNamUniversity 214-1 Dae-dong, Gyeongsan-si,Gyeongsangbuk-do 712-749, S.Korea [email_address] http://www.hanpark.net Director of WCU WebometricsInstitute Mapping the e-science landscape In South Korea using the Webometrics method This paper presented at the Association of Internet Researchers(AoIR) 2009 Conference on 10 th Oct and accepted Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication. Part of this research was carried out during the author's stay at the Oxford Internet Institute WCU WEBOMETRICS INSTITUTE
    32. 36. WCU WEBOMETRICS INSTITUTE INVESTIGATING INTERNET-BASED POLITICS WITH E-RESEARCH TOOLS WCU WEBOMETRICS INSTITUTE Computational perspective based on the use of high performance computing E-science in humanities and social sciences The networking perspective based on virtual collaboration through the Grid e-science study in Asia ? HOW
    33. 37. <ul><li>Technical reports on technological advances and breakthroughs in software, tools, and advanced research network capacities </li></ul><ul><li>(Cho, 2007; Park et al., 2006) </li></ul><ul><li>Policy reports (mostly written in Korean) about the management of national supercomputing resources and the deployment of the Grid throughout research and development (R&D) institutions </li></ul><ul><li>(Byun, 2007; Jeong, 2007; NIA, 2007) </li></ul>Previous research WCU WEBOMETRICS INSTITUTE <ul><li>Examine the status of technical facilities </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on how much of national science and technology (S&T) budgets should be invested in developing e-science technologies for natural science and engineering researchers </li></ul>
    34. 38. <ul><li>Not being serious examination of the direction of national/regional e-science policy and e-science discourse </li></ul><ul><li>Not examined what term is appropriate for R&D infrastructure and practices in Korea </li></ul>WCU WEBOMETRICS INSTITUTE Previous research Not adequately address the social forces shaping e-science technologies Not focusing on whether the general public is even aware of 'e-science' and its research practices . <ul><li>A sizeable amount of financing is necessary </li></ul><ul><li>(Demand the involvement of governmental organizations and their </li></ul><ul><li>cooperation with academic and industrial partners) </li></ul>
    35. 39. Literature review <ul><li>The computational perspective based on the use of high performance computing </li></ul><ul><li>The networking perspective based on virtual collaboration through the Grid( new digital tools available online for conducting humanities and social science research) </li></ul><ul><li>3) A third alternative approach is emerging in the e-science community </li></ul>Approaches to e-science and Korea's situation WCU WEBOMETRICS INSTITUTE
    36. 40. <ul><li>Current e-science practices and collaborations would not have been possible </li></ul><ul><li>before the development of high-speed computing and networking </li></ul><ul><li>technologies </li></ul><ul><li>Humanities and social sciences-based e-science projects often emphasize </li></ul><ul><li>two major areas : </li></ul><ul><li>Development of online tools to automate the research process </li></ul><ul><li>communication, research management, data collection and analysis,and </li></ul><ul><li>publication software. </li></ul><ul><li>2) Experimentation with new types of data visualization, such as social network and hyperlink analysis and multimedia and dynamic representations (Jankowski, 2009) </li></ul>Literature review WCU WEBOMETRICS INSTITUTE
    37. 41. <ul><li>National variations in e-science projects </li></ul><ul><li>(Meyer & Schroeder, 2008). </li></ul><ul><li>ex) UK ( e-Social Science initiative): Focus on a broad range of social science disciplines </li></ul><ul><li>Germany :There has been a major focus on e-science business applications </li></ul><ul><li>US (National Science Foundation): fund many e-science projects in the natural sciences and recently has begun funding development of e-research platforms analyzing the social network structure of the Web and collecting real-time multimodal behavioral data. </li></ul><ul><li>(The UK arts and humanities e-science projects, Blanke et al) </li></ul>Literature review WCU WEBOMETRICS INSTITUTE
    38. 42. <ul><li>Identified four separate research agendas (2009) : </li></ul><ul><li>1) Addressing concrete user needs in the humanities </li></ul><ul><li>2) Managing the data deluge </li></ul><ul><li>3) Building virtual workbenches for digital data </li></ul><ul><li>4) Creating an e-research structure for the performing art. </li></ul><ul><li>This is in contrast to Germany where the D-Grid initiative has focused on </li></ul><ul><li>textual data editing ( http://www.textgrid.de ) in order to build an e-science </li></ul><ul><li>community in humanities and social sciences. </li></ul>Literature review WCU WEBOMETRICS INSTITUTE
    39. 43. <ul><li>Providing a general description of the ongoing trends related to e-science policies and practices in Korea and Singapore. </li></ul><ul><li>Korea’s e-science program has evolved in the natural, biomedical and engineering sciences with a strong emphasis on high-performance computing and advanced research networks for long-distance collaboration. </li></ul><ul><li>The main objective of Korea’s national grid initiative, the K*Grid project, is to construct the next generation Internet and business applications </li></ul>Literature review WCU WEBOMETRICS INSTITUTE Soon and Park (2009)
    40. 44. <ul><li>Korean scholarship in humanities and social sciences is not mature enough to accept the use of sophisticated digital technologies in its research. </li></ul><ul><li>Some proponents of e-science research practices in the humanities and social sciences are actually reluctant to promote e-science more actively. </li></ul>Literature review WCU WEBOMETRICS INSTITUTE Soon and Park (2009)
    41. 45. Webometrics analysis of e-science programs <ul><li>Our study focuses on understanding the dynamics of the e-science agenda </li></ul><ul><li>through tracking how web objects, related terms, and hyperlinks within and </li></ul><ul><li>across institutions are circulated in Korea's webosphere. </li></ul><ul><li>Ackland et al (2007): examine the online structure of UK e-science programs </li></ul><ul><li>based on a longitudinal hyperlink pattern between e-science project groups </li></ul><ul><li>and funding agencies, such as the National Center for e-Science. </li></ul>WCU WEBOMETRICS INSTITUTE
    42. 46. 웹보메트릭 서비스 / 도구의 비교 (Smith, 2006)   Coverage Identification of institutions Citation count Transparency Google Scholar Research on Web By keyword Individual, cannot display all hits Little documentation of algorithm, selection of sources W eb o f K nowledge Core journals (some digital) Specific field For individual items Sources documented Scopus Core journals + Web sites ( from Scirus) Specific field “ Citation tracker” only for authors Sources documented Wolverhampton Crawler Specific university web sites By domain Link counts Sources documented
    43. 47. <ul><li>Fry and Thelwall (2008): Identify the diffusion of one particular European e- </li></ul><ul><li>science enterprise by measuring different patterns of hyperlinks according to </li></ul><ul><li>disciplinary boundaries </li></ul><ul><li>Ex) Search pattern for the term ‘Cyberinfrastructure’ </li></ul><ul><li>Reveal ‘Major supercomputing’ centers. </li></ul>
    44. 48. Methods <ul><li>Collected data from Yahoo using LexiURL in January 2009 </li></ul><ul><li>The search queries for this study included Korean words comparableto e-research, e-science, e-humanities, e-social science, cyberscience, cyberinfrastructure, e-infrastructure, </li></ul><ul><li>digital humanities, and cyberresearch. </li></ul>Data collection WCU WEBOMETRICS INSTITUTE INVESTIGATING INTERNET-BASED POLITICS WITH E-RESEARCH TOOLS WCU WEBOMETRICS INSTITUTE
    45. 49. WCUBOMETRICS INSTITUTE INVESTIGATING INTERNET-BASED POLITICS WITH E-RESEARCH TOOLS WCU WEBOMETRICS INSTITUTE Search queries and returned webpages and websites Korean English webpages found webpages returned sites 사이버인프라 C yberinfrastructure 8,210 296 230 사이버연구 C yberresearch 65,900 285 219 디지털인문학 digital humanities 12,300 164 128 E - 사이언스 E -science 17,000 199 142 사이버과학연구 C yberscience 58 43 35 E - 인프라 E -infrastructure 98 39 35 E - 리서치 E -research 102 28 20 E - 인문학 E -humanities 1 1 1 E - 사회과학 E -social science 0 0 0 Total   103,709 1,055 810
    46. 50. <ul><li>Conducted a refined webometrics analysis of 1,055 webpages </li></ul><ul><li>and 810 sites. </li></ul><ul><li>The most prominent words were extracted from the summary information about the returned webpages. </li></ul><ul><li>Site sources were classified by authors into the following Categories: </li></ul><ul><li>Co-link, inter-link network analyses </li></ul>Data analysis WCU WEBOMETRICS INSTITUTE mass media, technology-focused media, portals/blogs, public organizations/governmental sites, academic associations/universities, and private companies/industry sites.
    47. 51. <ul><li>Frequently occurring key words in e-science webpages in Korea </li></ul>WCU WEBOMETRICS INSTITUTE Created on Many Eyes(http://many-eyes.com) Results Words are larger according to the frequency of their occurrence but their positions are randomly-chosen for the best visualization
    48. 52. WCU WEBOMETRICS INSTITUTE 104 sites were each retrieved more than two times in the Yahoo search result (Out of 810 sites surveyed) : mass media, technology-focused media, universities, governmental research, web-based blogging sites. : A popular daily newspaper in the field of electronics and information technology :major portals/search engines
    49. 53. <ul><li>Websites retrieved more than two times </li></ul>WCU WEBOMETRICS INSTITUTE Note: Websites are larger according to their frequency of retrieval; however, heir colors and locations are randomly-chosen for the best visualization
    50. 54. Author types of Korea e-science websites WCU WEBOMETRICS INSTITUTE Media sites were the most frequently retrieved, with slightly less than half of the sites for this study (44 out of 104 sites) Author types No. of sites Percent Mass media 27 26.0 Public/Government 18 17.3 Technology Media 17 16.3 Portals/Search engines/Blogs 15 14.4 Private/Industry 14 13.5 Academic/University 13 12.5 Total 104 100.0
    51. 55. <ul><li>The size of the ‘plus’: Individual sites corresponds to the frequency of their retrieval </li></ul><ul><li>The size of the lines between sites : Number of external websites co-linking to the sites </li></ul><ul><li>Sites tend to be closely clustered when they are often co-linked, but the location of Each group on the diagram is randomly chosen. </li></ul>Co-link network analysis WCU WEBOMETRICS INSTITUTE
    52. 56. <ul><li>Governmental agencies are not frequently connected to each other and isolated </li></ul><ul><li>The academic domain sites are relatively well linked among themselves and to both governmental institutions and industrial partners. </li></ul><ul><li>The dearth of links among public organizations reflects the structure of Korea’s e-science projects, which are managed at many levels. </li></ul><ul><li>A common e-science concept is not shared widely in the scholarly community or the policy community in Korea </li></ul><ul><li>The co-link diagram is the weak salience of mass media websites </li></ul><ul><li>While media sites have a weak presence in the co-link diagram, portals and </li></ul><ul><li>companies are noticeably visible. </li></ul>WCU WEBOMETRICS INSTITUTE Co-link network analysis
    53. 57. Inter-link network analysis WCU WEBOMETRICS INSTITUTE <ul><li>One large cluster: Eight organizational sites + One small cluster of three sites </li></ul><ul><li>Seven out of the 18 sites are not connected with the other sites in the public </li></ul><ul><li>domain and isolated in this particular online network. </li></ul><ul><li>The relative positions of important e-science actors within the public domain </li></ul>
    54. 58. <ul><li>This paper implies Korea places a high priority on e-science infrastructure and tool development in the natural and engineering sciences. Furthermore, the Korean use of the terms ‘cyberinfrastructure’ and </li></ul><ul><li>‘ e-science’—the first term is prevalent in the U.S. and the second term is prevalent in the UK—demonstrated that Korea’s e-science program is a hybrid of these countries’ efforts. </li></ul><ul><li>On the other hand, governmental agencies responsible for e-science facilities are underrepresented in cyberspace and sparsely connected with each other. </li></ul><ul><li>This is disturbing given the important role their activities play in national e-science developments. </li></ul>Discussion WCU WEBOMETRICS INSTITUTE
    55. 59. <ul><li>Co-link and inter-link diagrams presented important information about the collaboration structures of Korea e-science institutions and agencies. </li></ul><ul><li>The findings provide insights into what kinds of e-science discourses are taking place and what kinds of institutional actors are active in Korea. </li></ul><ul><li>Websites run by universities having ‘digital humanities’ courses had no explicit hyperlinks to Korea’s public e-science institutes or high-tech facilities. The absence of links between universities and governmental institutions indicates that they do not pay the necessary attention to each other’s activities. </li></ul>Discussion
    56. 60. For further study <ul><li>The method employed in this research provides researchers with a starting point to construct a longitudinal analysis within Korea and to compare the Korean case with other nations. </li></ul><ul><li>Webometrics analysis can be reproduced for time-series and international comparisons. </li></ul>
    57. 61. A cross-national comparison study follows E-science in Asia: Dreams and realities for social science research Case studies of Singapore and Korea
    58. 62. Introduction Background <ul><li>E-research, also known as e-science, has been defined as “uses of information and communication technology (ICT) infrastructures for storing scientific data, performing analysis and carrying out collaborative work, often known in the U.S. as cyber-infrastructures and in the U.K. as e-science” (Hine, 2006) </li></ul><ul><li>Focus of existing literature on e-science is on Western countries, e.g. U.S. and U.K. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Little knowledge on how e-science tools help Asian scholars in conducting better research and collaboration in the digital age </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Study addresses research gap and examines issues in Asia </li></ul></ul>
    59. 63. Introduction Background <ul><li>Choice of case studies: Singapore and South Korea (hereafter “Korea”) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Both countries achieved international accolades for their rapid progress in ICT adoption and development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High Internet and broadband adoption </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Singapore: Home computer penetration among households reached 78%, 71% of households with Internet access (Dec 2006) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Korea: 74.8% of the entire Korean population used the Internet; ranked by the ITU as 2 nd in the world in terms of high-speed Internet service systems diffusion (Dec 2006) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Technological discourse dominates the education and digital media sectors in Singapore </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Technology perceived as an indispensable tool in nurturing research and collaborative initiatives </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Korea is currently an important node in advanced international and regional research networks </li></ul>The government plays an enabling role by fostering a vibrant R&D culture, formulating policies and funding initiatives geared towards developing and building e-science technologies.
    60. 64. Introduction About the study <ul><li>Both governments recently increased R&D funding to further boost the countries’ science and technological prowess </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Singapore: US$7.5billion to drive economic-oriented R&D to sustain innovation-driven growth in the life sciences and digital media sectors in the next five years </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Korea: US$9.2 billion to create technology-driven SMEs, foster collaboration between businesses, universities and research institutions, as well as boost its biotechnology industry </li></ul></ul>
    61. 65. Singapore ICT as economy driver <ul><li>Main contributing factor that accounts for Singapore’s rapid advancement from a Third World to First World status since its independence in 1965 is the leap-frogging of the economy from the manufacturing stage to the innovation-based stage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Singapore as an information hub, trading in ideas rather than commodities. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E.g. Singapore IT2000 “A Vision of an Intelligent Island” Masterplan and Infocomm 21 Strategy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>But in order to propel Singapore’s economy further, the government realized that a new strategy which emphasizes innovation and technology creation is needed </li></ul><ul><li>Current strategy (Infocomm Technology Roadmap) drives the creation of user-driven innovations comprising hardware, software and systems in the next 10 years </li></ul>
    62. 66. Singapore Role of e-science in Singapore’s economy <ul><li>Cyber-infrastructure assigned a vital role in increasing Singapore’s economic and technological competitiveness in the long run </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Networked collaborations facilitates the sharing of resources for the purposes of R&D, commerce, entertainment and national security </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Multi-party partnership involving government bodies, universities, research institutions and representatives from key target industry sectors (e.g., physical sciences, life sciences, digital media, manufacturing, education and financial services) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify launch pads and test beds for the grid infrastructure </li></ul></ul>
    63. 67. Singapore Organizational structure of National Grid Steering Committee Source: National Grid Office (2006)
    64. 68. Singapore Role of e-science in Singapore’s economy <ul><li>Launched a pilot project in 2003 (National Grid Pilot Platform) to increase awareness for grid computing, promote collaboration among different resource owners and potential grid users, and inter-connect computing resources </li></ul><ul><ul><li>E.g. The project promotes access to the large amount of compute resources on the NGPP to enable digital media SMEs to undertake higher-quality and larger sized projects </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Initiative launched in 2007 to increase industry adoption of grid computing in key economic sectors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>E.g. Digital media, life sciences, finance and banking, and manufacturing services - sectors that were previously not part of the e-science vision for Singapore </li></ul></ul>Overarching objective is to promote resource optimization and increase cost savings for businesses in various sectors by leveraging on the grid environment.
    65. 69. Korea E-science to boost economic growth <ul><li>The government has performed a vital role in spearheading initiatives and implementing policies to increase Internet literacy among its population and exploit the benefits of ICTs </li></ul><ul><li>Main focus of Korea’s national e-science programs is to enhance scientific research </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Through application of high-performance computing and high bandwidth networks in natural and engineering sciences </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Birth of e-science programs in Korea stemmed from the government’s mission to integrate and apply cyber-infrastructures for scientific advancements in the country </li></ul><ul><ul><li>E.g. Access Grid program implemented in 2002 serves as a collaborative working space </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Scientists are able to make use of a variety of research resources, presentation applications and facilities for distance collaboration </li></ul></ul></ul>
    66. 70. Korea E-science to boost economic growth <ul><li>The Advanced Research Network (ARN), Korea’s recent e-science program, creates and delivers research environments that link scientists and engineers from diverse disciplines in different research institutions together. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ARNs exist at both the international and domestic levels </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The focus of e-science initiatives in Korea up to this point is to enhance research in natural sciences, engineering sciences and information technology development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Different from Singapore’s model where grid networks are tailored to optimize resource utilization and maximize cost savings in key economic industries </li></ul></ul>
    67. 71. Singapore and Korea Potential of e-science in social science research <ul><li>Awareness among researchers and scientists of the advantages accorded by e-science </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Enormous computing power and the capacity to process and store huge amounts of data poses a promising future </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Potential of ICT infrastructures in advancing data collection and analysis processes, and collaboration among researchers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>But the reality is the adoption and application of e-science in social sciences research has been slower than in the other scientific fields in both Singapore and South Korea – Why? </li></ul><ul><li>Interviews were conducted with the primary investigators of three projects to establish: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If and how their work leverages on any form of e-science </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Their vision on how applications such as the grid infrastructure can be utilized to meet their research goals </li></ul></ul>
    68. 72. Case 1 Asian Tsunami Web Archive <ul><li>In the aftermath of the tsunami that hit Southern Asia in 2004, researchers from different parts of the world collaborated and created the Asian Tsunami Web Archive ( http://tsunami.archive.org/ ). </li></ul><ul><li>Project crossed geographical boundaries and involved international collaborators - Singapore Internet Research Centre, Internet Archives and Webarchive.org which are based in the U.S. </li></ul><ul><li>Objective of international collaboration: to study how the World Wide Web made it possible for individuals from all over the world to obtain information on the tsunami and set up websites to share information </li></ul><ul><li>Data collected over a period of six months spanned over 40 countries </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Within the first four weeks after the tsunami, about 1,600 sites in multiple languages were collected </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data came in different forms, e.g. email archives, hyperlink structures and snapshots of the websites, and social networking patterns of the collaborative parties </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Total data size running into terabytes </li></ul></ul>
    69. 73. Case 1 Asian Tsunami Web Archive <ul><li>P.I. identified three main factors that are crucial to the success of such a collaboration – technology, manpower and resources in terms of finances and expertise. </li></ul><ul><li>The expertise and knowledge required for the development of technological applications, such as a comprehensive archival system that collects and aids the analysis of data are currently lacking in the local context. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of knowledge and expertise is the main impediment to the use of e-science for data collection and analysis purposes. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Problem is further compounded by the nature and type of data typically collected in social science research </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Insufficiently justifies the investment in both time and money to embrace e-science applications like grid infrastructure </li></ul></ul>
    70. 74. Case 2 Creative Commons Project <ul><li>Cheliotis, Chikm Guglani and Tayi (2007) analyzed worldwide use of Creative Commons licenses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>E.g.: Different legal, economic and geopolitical factors which may account for their popularity of various license types </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Commercial search engines like Google and Yahoo! were deployed to collect data </li></ul><ul><li>The back-link and specialized CC search functions, and dictionary searches were used to answer broad questions that provided a macro view of the CC </li></ul><ul><ul><li>E.g. Number of people using the different licenses and how they use the licenses in various parts of the world </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Severe limitations as such techniques did not allow researchers to embark on a micro analysis of the emerging trends </li></ul><ul><ul><li>E.g. Specific and different types of users who use CC licenses, how CC licenses are used for different media types, and the communication exchanges between content users and re-users </li></ul></ul>
    71. 75. Case 2 Creative Commons Project <ul><li>For microanalysis, data has to be collected from specific web communities which means that data sizes are potentially massive </li></ul><ul><li>Right manpower resources and expertise to manage such projects and bring them to fruition are main challenges </li></ul><ul><li>Getting people to invest in exporting their current research applications to the grid environment is another barrier that may inhibit the adoption of e-science applications </li></ul>Currently, only snapshots of web communities are collected and the vision for Creative Commons researchers is to collect huge amounts of data in real time, a task which will require large computational resources that are networked to facilitate cooperation and teamwork among geographically-dispersed researchers.
    72. 76. Case 3 Korea’s Political Web Sphere Project <ul><li>The second author has been the P.I. in a research project involving: comparing Korea’s electoral Web sphere with those of other countries; analyzing the structure of online relational networking among official political websites, personal blogs of elected politicians and citizen blogs; and comparing websites produced by Japanese and Korean politicians </li></ul><ul><li>Research work with overseas scholars encompassed brainstorming, data collection and sharing, and conferencing. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most exchanges conducted through commercial softwares (e.g., Skype, MS office and Webdex) which were neither safe nor confidential for scientific communication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>However, public e-science communication tools in the social sciences such as instantaneous Q&A information sharing systems and mutual writing/proof-reading documentary softwares are rare </li></ul></ul>
    73. 77. Case 3 Korea’s Political Web Sphere Project <ul><li>Project involved downloading and storing entire websites of individual politicians using the Offline Explorer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Due to the limited bandwidth capacity of ordinary Internet network, it was not possible to share archived websites with the Japanese collaborator. Thus, only screen-shots were exchanged via email </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A virtual collaboration infrastructure with massive data storage capacity and advanced research network would have greatly enhanced the quality of cross-national research projects </li></ul><ul><li>Data collected was immense and the grid network potentially benefits collection, sharing, storage and visualization of the data </li></ul>
    74. 78. Case 3 Website sizes of politician homepages Item Website size (byte) No. of folders No. of files Median 269,590,955 84 1,728 Minimum 292,202 7 11 Maximum 4,177,982,280 2,088 11,500
    75. 79. Insights gained Issues and challenges for social scientists <ul><li>A growing need among social scientists to explore and harness new technologies and for research work and collaboration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The World Wide Web houses immense amount of data which promises to enrich our knowledge of life on and off the web </li></ul></ul><ul><li>However, the uptake of e-science in the social sciences has been slower than in the other scientific fields </li></ul><ul><li>Interviews reveal lack of expertise and knowledge, research budgets, available facilities, and dated research practices for scientific inquiry as main impediments concerning adopting e-science in the social sciences </li></ul>
    76. 80. Insights gained Imparting knowledge and skills <ul><li>Lack of technical knowledge and skills as the main obstacle for social scientist which prevent them from embracing new technologies to conduct research work </li></ul><ul><li>More government funding and training programs to be dedicated to training social scientists in the use of e-science applications </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Since 2004, the National Grid Office in Singapore has conducted more than 20 grid computing courses to over 400 people from the R&D and academic communities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Program aimed at improving the competency and proficiency of ICT professionals in Singapore, particularly in terms of building their expertise in grid computing. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Similar programs tailored to the needs of social science and humanities scholars can be considered </li></ul>
    77. 81. Insights gained Needs analysis to understand demand <ul><li>Overcome researchers’ inhibitions about e-science applications by studying specific demands from the social scientists during early stages of technology conceptualization and design </li></ul><ul><li>User studies currently examine the number/types of information sources, new requests for scholarly databases/repositories, and library interface improvements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For instance, The Ministry of Education in Korea drafted policy programs for the social sciences and humanities. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E-research programs initiated include electronic indexing (e.g. Korean Citation Index), websites of academic organizations, and a publicly accessible article repository </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Electronic information systems and repositories specialized for science and technology researchers are being developed by the National Technical Information Service </li></ul></ul><ul><li>One possible measure to consider at the policy-making level is to elicit specific demands and feedback from scholars who have a strong desire and need to adopt e-science technologies in their projects on the role e-science can play in their research processes </li></ul>
    78. 82. Insights gained Needs analysis to understand demand <ul><li>Singapore government is spearheading e-science initiatives such as SG@School and Web Archive Singapore which are realms beyond the ‘hard sciences’ </li></ul><ul><li>Social scientists may be more involved at the early stages of program conceptualization to ideate the requirements and specifications for infrastructure and program design </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To enhance the feasibility of application and adoption among social scientists </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Such involvement can potentially make significant advancements in developing a middle-ware that can be used easily by researchers in the social sciences </li></ul></ul>
    79. 83. Conclusion Mindset shift <ul><li>Scholars and researchers in social sciences need to recognize and acknowledge the opportunities that are available </li></ul><ul><ul><li>E.g. access to vast data and new modes of data collection and analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The emerging era of networked research leads to two possible scenarios </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Education and training programs have to be put in place to produce a new breed of social scientists with combined expertise and knowledge of computational science and social sciences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What is more actionable in the shorter term is to engender and promote collaborative efforts between these different fields </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In Korea, there appears to be a lack of desire for either distance international collaboration through the Access Grid or the use of high performance computing facilities among social scientists (Source: Mr Lee Hyung-Jin, associate researcher in KISTI) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Little demand as social scientists’ current choices for their research practices are still shaped by offline facilities rather than online technology capabilities </li></ul></ul>
    80. 84. Conclusion Mindset shift <ul><li>In Singapore, the NGPP initiative was an important milestone in the grid initiative as social and mindset issues were addressed and resolved </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Success of this pilot effort is evident from the impressive expansion of a humble and limited base of 200 CPUs in 2003 to more than 1000 CPUs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Accumulation of computing resources was made possible only through voluntary contribution from organizations which housed spare idle compute-resources </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The NGPP provided an opportunity to break down the barriers between different resource owners and promote the sharing of idle and spare resources </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Policy-makers and technology developers to involve social scientists in design and application processes, but change in mindset among researchers is needed to transform e-science into a reality for social scientists </li></ul>“ The primary concern to the NGSC was not technological issues, which they believed would be addressed, but social ones, such as whether the resource owners would share idle CPUs and storage, and whether users would collaborate over the grid”. (Mr Lee Hing Yan, Program Director of NGO)
    81. 85. Dr. Han Woo PARK Associate Professor Department of Media & Communication YeungNam University 214-1 Dae-dong, Gyeongsan-si, Gyeongsangbuk-do 712-749 Republic of Korea han [email_address] http://www.hanpark.net http://english-webometrics.yu.ac.kr THE END WCU WEBOMETRICS INSTITUTE

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