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  1. 1. Preferences And Directions For Improving The Government's Management In Mobile Applications In Korea JiWon Park(YeungNam UV. PSM) SeungIl Kang(SK Planet.Manager) , HanWoo Park(YeungNam. Prof.)
  2. 2. Abstract • This paper examines the South Korean government's current state in operating mobile applications that the central/local government released, through conducting a preference survey of each mobile app. Analyzing the preference by categories, this document is intended to provide a direction for improving the current government's operation/management in mobile apps. This study was based on the number of application downloads. This study used ‘T-test’, which reflected high level of preferences for apps made by between the Korean government and the local governments, and the type of the application preferences were analyzed using ANOVA, respectively. The findings indicate that it is higher interest for apps made by the central government organizations than local governments. And both ‘Commerce applications’ for credit transfers or booking performances and ‘Local based applications’ for providing surrounding places near someone located are much higher preferences than information based services. There is still limit to acquire related information and statistics such as the kind of apps and their downloaded numbers. There will be a potential study to collect more related references it could be assumed that the government operates more systematically in the near future.
  3. 3. Introduction • Recently, anyone can use smartphone. In the United States, with IBM and BellSouth's joint venture, they created the first smartphone called Simon, which was originally called PDA (Personal Digital Assitance). In November 2009, iPhone was launched in Korea, and because of the sudden popularity of smartphones, many mobile application were developed. Because of smartphone's advantages like portability, mobility, function, and content's variety of services, people are expected to become more dependent on it. The biggest difference between old mobile devices and smartphones are the wide variety of applications which helps its users in their everyday lives. According to the Korean Communications Commission (2001), old mobile devices use basic voice communications, while smartphones use built-in computer functions like internet, alarm clock, calendar utilization, music, chat, games, map service, scheduling, and performing tasks to simplify our daily activities.
  4. 4. Introduction • As a result, through smartphone's applications, government of each country can take advantage of this feature. Countries around the world utilize this technology to interact and communicate with citizens to encourage them for their active participation in the decision-making process and promote the "open government" policy. In 2009, the United States Federal government operated the egovernment services, which is based on the operating principles of President Obama's State of the Union. During Clinton's administration, the e-government policy began with the main focus on the technical aspect of the homepage to SNS . This change was made for the government agencies and citizens to be able to freely give feedback to each other. With the advancement of mobile technology, e-government policies, are now evolving as a service application. From the introduction of e-government services to the present, government application services are expanding and developing their technologies to improve higher level of citizen's participation. But so far, the county has not implemented it properly.
  5. 5. Introduction • Thus, the importance of research on smartphone application users are very huge. In addition, the government should observe with interest how the citizens are affected with this applications. The government produces and distributes, but the empirical study on the application preferences are hard to find. Therefore, this research was produced by the government depending on the types of public institutions, and whether there is any difference in citizen's preference.
  6. 6. Literature Review and Research Questions 2.1 Applications • Application is a software in the mobile device. Gartner said that in 2010 4.5 billion application download in the world were recorded, and by 2013 a total of 21.6 billion downloads are expected to increase. Market was expected to grow rapidly to $ 29.5 billion in 2013 from $ 6.8 billion in 2010 . ( Choi Yong fungus , 2010)
  7. 7. Literature Review and Research Questions 2.2 Government agencies, and Mobile App Services • Korea's e-government started in 1994 with high-speed telecommunication-based discussion. In 1997, e-government foundation was established and became a full-scale business in 2001( yijaejeong , new Faint Smell , choehongseok , 2007). • According to the Information Planning Department of the future of Korea Information Agency, the Ministry of Publication Adminstration and Security announced the plan to promote smart e-government in March 30, 2011. • The main content of the plan is to become 'the world's best in mobile e-government', along side are the 5 major agendas and 43 detailed challenges.
  8. 8. Literature Review and Research Questions • 2.2 Government agencies, and Mobile App Services • These related promotion details will advance people's lives through their existing information systems such as their smartphones, tablet PC, etc. Details such as mobility, camera, location-based, augmented reality, etc are utilized to develop public service. Also, "mobile office" is made possible for the people on the go. The local government and central government supplied for this service to be available. This allows social networking services like twitter and SNS to be adopted by the government.
  9. 9. Literature Review and Research Questions 2.2 Government agencies, and Mobile App Services • Johuijeong (2011 ), divided 3 steps that the government agency in promoting the development of public services using mobile devices. • The first step is the mobile Web model, • The government partially produced app using the original e-government web portal service or top web service. • In Step 2, the government produced a mobile app services • The services that can be performed in the application are Complaint handling , issuing civil documents , policy proposals , and open information service operation. • Step 3 citizens produce the mobile app model. Government App SDK (Software Development Kit) allows the public to develop any apps for the government. The income gained from this service will be shared to the public or for donation to the unprivileged community. Therefore, public app stores are activated and the increase in mobile culture will expand, making a positive cycle that will benefit the people.
  10. 10. Literature Review and Research Questions 2.2 Government agencies, and Mobile App Services • Park Geun-Hye operated government 3.0. • Kim Mincheol said that in government 3.0 people are not only consumers but also prosumer. Not only the central government but also the local government operates in the individual's administrative services using mobile apps. • According to Sonhuijun, the financial adjustment system between the local and central institutions are increasingly becoming more complex that it can have the tendency for centralization to intensify. Therefore, the local government reduced the funding depending on the central government's financial issues. Because of this issue, the local government are experiencing difficulty in creating and maintaining high-quality apps that will satisfy the citizens. • Then the so-called digital divide (Digital Divide) occurs, it is when the people in the province are having difficulty in getting higher level of service than the people in the capital area.
  11. 11. Literature Review and Research Questions 2.3 Users of smartphones and mobile apps research • Research on mobile app adoption to smartphones and the use of factors related to motivation and satisfaction are in progress. Sonyoungjun and gimoktae (2011 ) analyzed the cause of adopting smartphones and they divide each users according to their experience in using smartphones.
  12. 12. Literature Review and Research Questions 2.3 Users of smartphones and mobile apps research • Park ingon and Sin donghui (2010) said people are looking for new satisfaction, like "social status." • Young-Joo Kim and Lee Eun Joo (2012) focused their research on smartphone's role in variety media consumption process such as using the smartphone for reading newspaper and watching movies. • Similarly, Choi Minjae (2013) studied whether the spread of smartphone's real-time broadcasting app can replace home TV viewing and video services.
  13. 13. Introduction 2.3 Users of smartphones and mobile apps research • In addition, a number of researches focusing on smartphones apps are currently being studied. However, despite the growing number of researchers, there is a relatively low focus on app analysis. • In this paper, research questions on the empirical study on public institution application services' preferences are formed. RQ1 . Depending on the type of institution, is there a difference in the application preferences? RQ2 . Depending on the type of app, is there a difference in people's preferences?
  14. 14. Methods 3.1 Coding Method 1) the central government and local governments App Preference • To find out the central government and local government's app preferences, 50 downloaded apps were collected from the Korean Government Portal in May 7, 2013. Of which, 48 apps were analyzed because of the lack of available data. • To analyze the download counts, data were classified according to central government and local government. Log was used in order to normalize the download counts using T-test. Independent variables are the central and local government, and the dependent variable is the add download counts. • In other words, based on Google play's range download, 0~50, 50~100, 100~500, 500~1,000…5,000,000~10,000,000...with each middle value of 25, 75, 300, 750 … 7,500,000, using Log for normalization and T-test.
  15. 15. Methods 3.1 Coding Method 2) app type and preferences • Smartphone apps were categorized depending on their function and usage. • Yunyoungbae and others ( 2011) divided 4 types of mobile app's according to its purpose. • 1. Location-based service such as navigation and location-based service which is the primary purpose • 2. Commerce-based service such as stock trading, banking, etc. • 3. Communication-based service such as SNS messenger and information sharing • 4. Information-based service such as news, education, etc. • According to hongseongmin , gimhyeonseok grace spirit , jeongwangyong (2011), South Korea and the US divided app properties according to their preferences. App attributes were classified as follows: pleasurable entertainment, pursuit of mobility, pursuit of knowledge, pursuit of efficient service, pursuit of emotional tool, and pursuit of interest information. • In addition, Young-Joo Kim , jeongjaemin , Lee Eun Joo (2011), classified 6 types of app: news / information , leisure / entertainment , communication , productivity, location-based services, and transactions.
  16. 16. Methods 3.1 Coding Method 2) app type and preferences • Based on the following classifications, I recreated the type of service apps below.
  17. 17. Methods 3.1 Coding Method 2) app type and preferences • From the data collected in May 7, 2013 from the Korean Government Portal, of which 48 apps were analyzed and were classified into 3 types namely: Location-based service, Commerce-based service, and Information-based service depending on their preferences. However, in order to simply the name types, I replaced "Location based service" to "Location," "Commerce based service" to "Commerce," and "Information based service" to "Information." I identified the independent variables as "Location," "Commerce," and "Information," while the download count as the dependent variable and I used ANOVA.
  18. 18. Result
  19. 19. Result
  20. 20. Result
  21. 21. Findings and discussion 1. with respect to app preference, there was a meaninful difference between apps created by governmetal institutions and apps created by regional government - people were more likely to download the former than the latter. - This result infers that perceived utility, percievd ease of use, system quality, and ubiquitousness of the apps created by govenmental insititutions are more positively eveluated by users than the apps created by regional goverment.
  22. 22. Findings and discussion 2. with the respect to the types of apps and the number of their download, commerce was perfered than any other types. The next type was location-based apps. - This result suggests that apps providing simple information may not be enough to attract users. - This also suggests that app developers should consider the mobility that is provided by smartphones since users usually download and use apps via mobile devices. 3. The overall results imply that there is a need to support regional governemnt to develop high quality apps and this support eventally helps to realize digital governance pursued by the current regime.
  23. 23. Thank you