A webometric analysis of k-pop in hispanic countries


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  • http://www.youtube.com/kpop
  • http://www.youtube.com/kpop
  • http://www.youtube.com/kpop
  • http://www.youtube.com/kpop
  • Choi & Vargas (2012) // twittter.com/koreamx
  • Maybe not
  • http://www.youthareawesome.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/09/bigstockphoto_Young_Man_Listening_To_Music_556416.jpg
  • Luck et al. (2010). How did they capture the movements??
  • Luck et al. (2010).
  • http://newh2o.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/09/+Music_edit0-660x330.jpg
  • http://seoulbeats.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/11/111711seoulbeats_jaebom-620x480.jpg
  • Luck et al. (2010).
  • A webometric analysis of k-pop in hispanic countries

    1. 1. A Webometric analysis of K-pop in Hispanic Countries Xanat V. Meza Choi Seong Chol Professor Han Woo Park
    2. 2. Introduction • Between 2001 and 2010, Korea’s aggregate annual revenue from content exports rose from $12 million to $172 million • Korean pop music has become an important part of “contra media flows” (Thussu, 2010).
    3. 3. Introduction • Previous studies have examined the general diffusion of Kpop including Latin American countries, but no study have focused on countries sharing a common language. • The question of whether reliance on the English-based cyberspace can limit a more detailed understanding of the Internet remains unanswered (Goggin & McLelland, 2009). • Spanish is the second most widely used language in the world, with some 495 million speakers (Instituto Cervantes, 2012), and some traditional media outlets have paid close attention to K-pop in Spanish speaking countries.
    4. 4. K-pop today • K-pop has become an important cultural asset due to its strong relationship with television-based music programs and dramas (Leung, 2012). • It is part of the Korean government’s strategy to strengthen the country’s export-based market economy. • K-pop tends to have transnational, hybrid, multi-layered and multidirectional characteristics (Jung ,2009).
    5. 5. K-pop today
    6. 6. K-pop diffusion. • In Europe studies about K-pop are few and none of them have focused on Spain (Hubinette, 2012; Sung, 2012; Kim, forecoming). • In Latin America, Yoon (2010) analyzed the Hallyu Wave in Chile and Argentina, and Choi & Vargas (forecoming) in Mexico. The common findings are: – The K-pop phenomena is on its first stages. – It is focused on a feminine teenager segment. – Fans tend to like Asian cultures in general.
    7. 7. K-pop diffusion. • K-pop has been better recognized and disseminated in Mexico (Choi & Vargas, 2012). • The public broadcaster TV Azteca has been particularly active in television and SNSs since 2011. • The Korean embassy has played an important role in promoting K-pop through dance contests.
    8. 8. The Spanish-Speaking Countries as Music Crucibles • In Spain Christian and Jewish music mixed with Europe and Middle East musical influence. • Colonial Spanish-American music was the result of European music mixed with autochthonous music from the preconquest period and African music (Bethell, 1984). • Independence movements in Latin America prompted songs with topical, nationalistic and nostalgic content (Olsen & Sheehy, 2008). • Today Latin America can be viewed as a multicultural and transcultural heritage.
    9. 9. Music as a social factor. • Although there is cultural discount in modern music (Longhurst, 2007) purity of musical expressions is not possible. • Geography influences ecology, which influences economics, which determines musical events, instruments, types of dances, etc. (Olsen & Sheehy, 2088). This can be referred to as cultural hybridity.
    10. 10. Music as a social factor. • Ter Bogt, Mulder, Raaijmakers and Gabhainn (2010) constructed a typology of music listeners aged between 12 and 29. • Enhancing the mood was the most frequently mentioned reason for music use, followed by coping with problems and defining personal identity.
    11. 11. Music as a social factor. • North and Hargreaves (2007a, 2007b, 2007c) examined the relationships between musical preferences and a diverse range of lifestyle choices, verifying that these preferences are meaningful in terms of the process of group dynamics. • Some of their findings in the context of K-pop related genders include:
    12. 12. Music as a social factor. • Hobbies: Fans of hip-hop/rap and dance/house scored highest on ‘non-domestic, intellectually undemanding, indoor entertainment. • Internet access: Fans of current chart pop, R&B and dance/house music were most likely to have Internet access, and younger participants were more likely to have mobile phone access, particularly fans of current chart pop, R&B, dance/house and other pop music styles. • TV: Fans of current chart pop and other pop music styles preferred undemanding light entertainment.
    13. 13. Music as a social factor. • A clear pattern emerging from the data was the apparent clustering of responses from fans of hiphop/rap, dance/house, R&B, and DJ-based music. This involved a clear preference for “low-culture” media; an unusually “masculine” approach to interpersonal relationships; and a desire for more friends (perhaps indicative of loneliness). • Fans of current chart pop had rather unsophisticated elements in their lifestyles that mirrored the superficial image of current chart pop (North & Hargreaves, 2007c).
    14. 14. Music as a social factor. • Dunn, De Ruyter and Bouwhuis (2012) investigated the relationships between personality traits and music preferences by using the Big Five measures (Costa & McCrae, 1992). • They found positive correlations between extraversion and pop, dance, and rap genres.
    15. 15. Music as a social factor. • Previous studies have acknowledged the importance of dance in Hispanic culture (Fraser & Muñoz, 1997; Olsen & Sheehy, 2008). • Luck et al. (2010) associated the Big Five measures with patterns of movements performed with various types of music. PC1: Local Movement. PC2: Global Movement. PC3: Hand Flux. PC4: Head Speed. PC5: Hand Distance.
    16. 16. Music as a social factor. • Latin music was related to openess, extraversion and agreeable personality, which in turn were related to global movement. Open personality was also related to local movement. • Techno music was related to openess, consciousness, extraversion and agreeable personality, which in turn were related to local movement. Extraversion and agreeable personality were also related to head speed. • Pop music was related to extraversion, which in turn was related to head speed, and to agreeable personality, which in turn was related to global
    17. 17. Music as a social factor. • Summarizing: • K-pop is compounded by musical genders correlated with a low social status and culture. • These musical genders are correlated with a wide range of positive personality traits, which in turn may prompt an open communication.
    18. 18. Music as a social factor. • Summarizing: • Latin dance movements are correlated with certain personality traits, suggesting openness to new experiences. • K-pop is tailored to appeal to the largest number of listeners, and listeners in Hispanic countries are culturally predisposed to accept it because of the special emphasis on the dance feature.
    19. 19. Research Questions •Which is the Twitter network structure of K-pop diffusion in Spanish-speaking countries? •Which are its communication patterns? •Who are the main hubs? How much activity and relationships do they have in Twitter? •How is the network evolving through time?
    20. 20. Method: Data Collection and Analysis Techniques. Webometrics is “The study of web-based content with primarily quantitative methods for social science research goals and using techniques that are not specific to one field of study.” (Thelwall, 2009, p.6). Webometrics measures web sites, web pages, parts of web pages, words in web pages, hyperlinks, and web search engine results.
    21. 21. Twitter • • Twitter was launched on July 2006, attracting more than 500 million active users as of 2012 (en.wikipedia.org, 2012). It generates more than 340 million Tweets and processes more than 1.6 billion search queries each day (en.wikipedia.org, 2012). • • Twitter consists of a stream of messages with a 140character limit (“Tweets”) There are three major types of relationship in Twitter: • Follow Follower Reply
    22. 22. Data collection procedure • Tweets from a total of 19 countries were considered. • The element was the “kpop” hashtag. • The process included: •Collection of global data •Classification of data by country •Network analysis •Analysis of linked URLs •Analysis of hashtags
    23. 23. Data collection procedure • Tweets from a total of 19 countries were considered. • The element was the “kpop” hashtag. • The process included: •Collection of global data •Classification of data by country •Analysis of networks (degree centrality, betweeness centrality and pageranks) •Analysis of linked URLs •Analysis of hashtags
    24. 24. Results • The results indicate high betweenness centrality and a large number of connected components, suggesti ng a well-connected network, although the eigenvector centrality implies that the nodes were isolated.
    25. 25. Results: Main influencers ID fer_gay koreamx tvtelehit elmundoalreves7 lodealla13 kpopcol lodeallatr3ce universo1071 latiachuchi canal13colombia ID fer_gay koreamx tvtelehit lodealla13 _momoghei latiachuchi kpopcol universo1071 elmundoalreves7 tsuubaakii20293 Indegree Centrality 467 206 125 87 76 62 53 45 44 43 Betweenness centrality 1075020.86 475493.98 215910.55 198266.86 148770 146649 146260.91 131801.16 129844.08 121526.32 Following 585 1961 332 178 4 193 2 497 765 1147 Following 585 1961 332 4 377 765 193 497 178 559 Follower 40886 1941 176458 13671 401 2456 1328 1173 114162 35299 Follower 40886 1941 176458 401 546 114162 2456 1173 13671 305 Tweet 8258 2054 12089 1700 247 1956 6341 3201 17984 19335 Tweet 8258 2054 12089 247 75463 17984 1956 3201 1700 39227 Country Mexico Mexico Mexico Mexico Colombia Colombia Colombia Venezuela Peru Colombia Country Mexico Mexico Mexico Colombia Peru Peru Colombia Venezuela Mexico Mexico
    26. 26. Results: Classification of main influencers MASS MEDIA 7 CELEBRITY 1 CITIZEN 3 ALTERNATIVE MEDIA 1
    27. 27. Results: Qualitative analysis on comments General terms Korean songs and artists Twitter users Hashtags
    28. 28. Discussion • K-pop is winning a small but growing portion of the music consumption in Hispanic countries as a result of combined efforts of public broadcast firms and fans. • The main focus of interest appears to be on dance and collective activities (conventions, mashups, and dance contests). • What is exotic, different, and has rhythm is likely to become popular. • Further research should contemplate more in-depth analysis on Chile and Panama’s K-pop diffusion.
    29. 29. Thank you!