Alhazen made significant contributions to the principles of optics , as well as to physics , astronomy , mathematics , ophthalmology , philosophy , visual perception , and to the scientific method Optics was translated into Latin at the end of the 12th century or the beginning of the 13th century. It was printed by Friedrich Risner in 1572, This work enjoyed a great reputation during the Middle Ages. Works by Alhazen on geometric subjects were discovered in the Bibliothèque nationale in Paris in 1834 by E. A. Sedillot. Other manuscripts are preserved in the Bodleian Library at Oxford and in the library of Leiden.
Prismatic induced optical aberration in peripheral gaze pincushion effect, Jack in the box phenomena, Spectacle induced anisekonia
Better contrast sensitivity, quality of vision, large field of vision, reduced anisekonia
Issues relating to IOL insertion in children include postoperative inflammation, implant power calculation, Posterior capsule opacification, secondary glaucoma
Refractive surgery in children: Treatment options, Outcomes and Controversies By Hany EL-Defrawy Pediatric fellow, Bristol Eye hospital
Medline Literature review (1950-2007) Cochrane library Cumulative index for nursing and allied health literature English language articles using MeSH terms and key wordsPediatric refractive errors & amblyopia, ansiometropia, hyperopia, myopia, LASIK, PRK,excimer laser, refractive intraocular lens
Controversies At what age should refractive surgery be performed? Should the same limit of residual corneal thickness used in adults applied to children? Should conventional antiamblyopia therapy be carried out in conjunction to refractive surgery? How much myopic regression can be expected in pediatric patients with high myopia? What is the true rate of corneal haze? Can mitomycin be used safely to lessen the haze? What are the risks of general anesthesia ? Which technique?
Discussion Small number Selection bias Healing in children Flap related complications Visual acuity affected by amblyopia Regression Haze
Conclusion No multicenter long term controlled trial has been published on the use of refractive surgery in children Small retrospective short term studies show that refractive surgery is promising