MICROBIOLOGY
Citrobacter, Edwardsiella, Arizonae
Palmos, Hanna C.
BSMT
Citrobacter
• Biochemically and serologically similar to
Salmonella, is an uncommon cause of
opportunistic infection. Like many other
...
Clinically significant
species:
Citrobacter freundii
Citrobacter koseri/diversus
 Slow lactose fermenter
 Hydrolyzes urea (slow)
 Colonies resemble E. coli on MAC, colonies of C. freundii at
MAC are p...
Modes of transmission:
Endogenous, person to person
spread especially hospitalized
patients
Habitat: Human gastrointesti...
 Pathology: Citrobacter freundii can be isolated in diarrheal stool
cultures, and although it is a known extraintestinal
...
 Virulence factor/s: Endotoxins, capsules, adhesion
proteins, resistance to multiple antimicrobial agents
 Specimen: Dia...
C. freundii on gram stain
C. koseri ( C. diversus ) on CSF smear
Growth on MAC
Edwardsiellae
Clinically significant
species
Edwardsiella tarda
 Gram-negative, motile
 Facultative anaerobic rods that have
peritrichous flagella and measure 1 µm in
diameter and 2–3 ...
Modes of transmission:
Uncertain, probably by ingestion of
contaminated water or close contact with
carrier animal
Habit...
Pathology: Edwardsiella tarda is an
opportunist that can cause diarrhea, wound
infection, septicaemia, meningitis, and
en...
 Specimen: Stool; urine; cerebrospinal fluid; intrauterine
contents; pus; bile; peritoneal fluid; liver, tuboovarian, and...
Edwardsiella tarda
Mixture of 3 biotypes of E. tarda on MAC based ET
Agar
View of E. tarda on Scanning electron microscopy
Arizonae
(Salmonella enterica serovar
Arizona )
 Salmonella enteric subspecies
 Gram negative bacillus and a member of
Enterobacteriaceae
 Slow lactose fermenter
 Uti...
Modes of transmission: Ingestion of
contaminated dairy and egg products
Habitat: For serotypes causing non-typhoidal
sal...
Pathology: S. Arizonae causes serious
infection in individuals with connective tissue
diseases, immunodeficiency in infan...
Lab Diagnosis/Special Procedures: Isolation
from blood, urine and stool then
biochemical tests; Gel liquefaction, Brillia...
Growth on Blood Agar Plate
~END~
Microbiology - Enterics ( Citrobacter, Edwardsiella, & Arizonae )
Microbiology - Enterics ( Citrobacter, Edwardsiella, & Arizonae )
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Microbiology - Enterics ( Citrobacter, Edwardsiella, & Arizonae )

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Brief notes on selected enterics.

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Microbiology - Enterics ( Citrobacter, Edwardsiella, & Arizonae )

  1. 1. MICROBIOLOGY Citrobacter, Edwardsiella, Arizonae Palmos, Hanna C. BSMT
  2. 2. Citrobacter
  3. 3. • Biochemically and serologically similar to Salmonella, is an uncommon cause of opportunistic infection. Like many other Enterobacteriaceae, Citrobacter strains may be present in the normal intestinal flora and can cause opportunistic infections. Despite reports of association with diarrheal disease, present evidence does not indicate that Citrobacter should be considered an enteric pathogen. C. freundii has been associated with neonatal meningitis and brain abscess.
  4. 4. Clinically significant species: Citrobacter freundii Citrobacter koseri/diversus
  5. 5.  Slow lactose fermenter  Hydrolyzes urea (slow)  Colonies resemble E. coli on MAC, colonies of C. freundii at MAC are pink at 18-24 hrs.  Colonies of other Citrobacter species are usually colorless on MAC after 24hrs of incubation, but are light pink after 48hrs.  Colorless colonies on Hektoenteric Agar  Methyl red test +  All species grow on Simmon Citrate Agar ( Citrate test + )  motile  Facultative anaerobe
  6. 6. Modes of transmission: Endogenous, person to person spread especially hospitalized patients Habitat: Human gastrointestinal tract, soil, water
  7. 7.  Pathology: Citrobacter freundii can be isolated in diarrheal stool cultures, and although it is a known extraintestinal pathogen, its pathogenic role in intestinal disease is not established. Citrobacter freundii has been associated with infectious disease acquired in hospital settings. UTIs, pneumonias, and intra-abdominal abscesses have been reported. In addition, C. freundii has been associated with endocarditis in IV drug abusers.  Citrobacter koseri is a pathogen documented as the cause of nursery outbreaks of neonatal meningitis and brain abscesses.  Nosocomial infections of respiratory tract, urinary tract, and several other normally sterile sites, most frequently infect hospitalized and seriously debilitated patients.
  8. 8.  Virulence factor/s: Endotoxins, capsules, adhesion proteins, resistance to multiple antimicrobial agents  Specimen: Diarrheal stool, extraintestinal blood and wound  Lab Diagnosis/Special Procedures:  Isolate and differentiate from E.coli and other Enterobacteriaceae members by their ABILITY TO USE CITRATE as their SOLE CARBON SOURCE.  Lysine decarboxylase test –  Non acetyl methyl carbinol producer  C. freundii produces A/AGH₂S+ reaction in Kligler Iron Agar
  9. 9. C. freundii on gram stain
  10. 10. C. koseri ( C. diversus ) on CSF smear
  11. 11. Growth on MAC
  12. 12. Edwardsiellae
  13. 13. Clinically significant species Edwardsiella tarda
  14. 14.  Gram-negative, motile  Facultative anaerobic rods that have peritrichous flagella and measure 1 µm in diameter and 2–3 µm in length  lactose negative  H2S-positive  Oxidase-negative  Catalase-positive  Has a positive indole reaction  produces hemolysin
  15. 15. Modes of transmission: Uncertain, probably by ingestion of contaminated water or close contact with carrier animal Habitat: Gastrointestinal tract of coldblooded animals such as reptiles
  16. 16. Pathology: Edwardsiella tarda is an opportunist that can cause diarrhea, wound infection, septicaemia, meningitis, and enteric fever. Virulence factor/s: Type III & Type VI secretion enzymes, quorum sensing, 2 component systems exoenzymes
  17. 17.  Specimen: Stool; urine; cerebrospinal fluid; intrauterine contents; pus; bile; peritoneal fluid; liver, tuboovarian, and intra-abdominal abscess; and blood  Lab Diagnosis/Special Procedures: Isolation and culture of the bacteria from clinical specimens on eosin methylene blur agar (EMB agar), followed by biochemical tests.  MAC- colorless and NLF, Hektoenteric Agar- Red colonies, XLD- yellow/colorless colonies with or without balck centers  TSI K/A or K/A H₂S+  LIA K/K H₂S+
  18. 18. Edwardsiella tarda Mixture of 3 biotypes of E. tarda on MAC based ET Agar
  19. 19. View of E. tarda on Scanning electron microscopy
  20. 20. Arizonae (Salmonella enterica serovar Arizona )
  21. 21.  Salmonella enteric subspecies  Gram negative bacillus and a member of Enterobacteriaceae  Slow lactose fermenter  Utilizes malonate, liquefy gelatine  KCN is its inhibitor  Uncommon human pathogen  As many as Enterica subspecies, Arizonae strains ferment lactose within 48hrs.They may be routinely discarded as non-pathogens if grown from feces. The presence of H2S is an important diagnostic clue for routine screening.
  22. 22. Modes of transmission: Ingestion of contaminated dairy and egg products Habitat: For serotypes causing non-typhoidal salmonellosis, the primary hosts are domestic and wild animals such as cattle, swine, poultry, wild birds, and pets (particularly reptiles) as well as flies.
  23. 23. Pathology: S. Arizonae causes serious infection in individuals with connective tissue diseases, immunodeficiency in infants and usual interstitial pneumonia. Virulence factor/s: serovars typhi, paratyphus A, B und C Specimen: Blood, urine, stool, pericardial fluid
  24. 24. Lab Diagnosis/Special Procedures: Isolation from blood, urine and stool then biochemical tests; Gel liquefaction, Brilliant Green Agar ph at 6.9 +- 0.2, Blood Agar Plate
  25. 25. Growth on Blood Agar Plate
  26. 26. ~END~

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