Activity 1: Independent Analysis Look at these 2 images and answer the following questions in full sentences. Write one full sentence for each image. What is their body language telling the audience? How can you tell? What do you think the purpose of each photograph is (eg: advertising, promoting)? Why do you think so? Who is the likely audience for each photo (eg: men, women, teenagers, children) How can you tell? What are some similarities or differences between the man and woman being presented? What does it say about how men and women are represented in society?
Interaction between Men and Women in Images Given what we have discussed about analysing images, discuss one or two reasons why you either like this image or dislike it. Think about how the man and woman (or in this case, boy and girl) are communicating with each other, and with the audience.
Gender Stereotypes in Advertising <ul><li>Look at the ad to the right and write short answers for each question: </li></ul><ul><li>What do you see first? Why? </li></ul><ul><li>What does the arrangement of the subjects suggest about gender? </li></ul><ul><li>What cultural assumptions do you recognise in this ad? How can you tell? </li></ul><ul><li>What camera angle is being used? What is it saying to the viewer? </li></ul><ul><li>What clothes and colours do you see? What impression does it give you? </li></ul><ul><li>Who is the target audience? How can you tell? </li></ul><ul><li>What emotions are being associated with the product? </li></ul><ul><li>What words or fonts are being used? Is the language emotive? How? What do the fonts suggest about the product? </li></ul>
Reading Advertisements: Basic Analysis of the Layers of Meaning in Ads : <ul><ul><ul><li>Firth, K. (1998). Undressing the ad: Reading culture in advertising . New York: Peter Lang. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lucas, S. A. (2002). The gender ads project Retrieved 15/03/2010, from http://www.genderads.com </li></ul></ul></ul>"...relies on the cultural knowledge and background of the reader . We all 'make sense' of ads by relating them to our culture and to the shared belief systems held in common by most people”. The Cultural or Ideological Meaning "is the sales message that the advertiser is trying to get across. Some marketers refer to this as the strategy behind the ad. It is the 'preferred' or expected meaning that a reader might get from the ad; the meaning that the advertiser intends for the reader to take with them”. The Advertiser’s Intended Meaning "consists of the overall impression that a reader might get from quickly studying the advertisement...you can describe this surface level of meaning by simply listing all the objects and people in the ad". The Surface Meaning Description of the Ad Level Level of Analysis
Basic Analysis of an Ad : The specific use of the phrase "for the benefit of mankind" suggests a number of ideological meanings. At one level, the phrase (as well as the composition) speaks to the constructions of patriarchy in western culture. Men are typically the ones who "benefit" from popularity. As well, the use of "mankind" suggests the superiority of males in society. The visual composition and poses of the two figures also speaks to the dominance of males over females . Another meaning is that of male sexuality and the notion that women are presented to serve men , sexually and in other respects. The advertiser will also benefit from the association of male virility and the specific product being sold in the ad. The Cultural or Ideological Meaning The advertiser is trying to point out the comfort of the particular underwear and that the brand can be worn in different settings, they are lightweight, and unlike any other underwear on the market. As a product, the underwear will "benefit" men. The Advertiser’s Intended Meaning The advertisement consists of a muscular male standing in his underwear with a nude female positioned on a bed in a suggestive position . The Surface Meaning Description of the Ad Level Level of Analysis
Vibrant Visuals! Symbols: Symbols are pictures or diagrams that are used to represent something. Sometimes the symbol is associated with other images or ideas that help to sell the product. Special Effects: Special effects are used to create illusions. Ads rarely show realism, they project an ideal feeling or world that the advertiser wants you to associate with their product. Lighting and Colour: Lighting and colours are used to set the mood and evoke certain feelings and impressions from the viewer. Colour and light can be used symbolically . Layout, Font and Graphics: The arrangement and choice of text and images is another way for the message to be conveyed. For example a funeral parlour is unlikely to choose a wacky font size and style for its ad. Images can speak just as loudly as words. Ads are never around for long, so they have to make a BIG impact.
Text, Language, and Voice Body Language: This includes posture, gestures, facial expressions, gaze, arrangement, and interactions with other things or people. Colourful Copy: Advertisers make products more interesting by using lively language in their text or COPY. Sometimes these words are emotive , and this can be effective by giving additional information that makes the product or service even more appealing. Use of Voice: How something is said leaves different impressions on the reader. Jargon: Technical terms used to impress or let the public connect to what is being advertised.
Angles and Audience <ul><li>Camera Angles: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1) If the subject is shot from below , it will make it look powerful . </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2) Eye level shots are used to direct the ad right at you to get your attention. The power between you and the subject is equal and attainable. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>3) Looking down on the subject from above makes the viewer feel powerful, and the </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>subject vulnerable . </li></ul></ul></ul>Target Audience: An advertising campaign is only successful if it reaches the target audience, or the people that the advertisers are hoping to reach.
Task 1: Analyse an Ad In pairs or groups of 3, analyse an advertisement. You can also use the Advertisement Analysis Guide to help you answer your questions on your worksheet.
Shaping the Ideal Woman Original Enhanced Look at the photo of Jessica Alba to the right. What changes have been made from the original to the enhanced photo? Which photo is more appealing to you? Why? What does your preference suggest about what you perceive as “ideal beauty”? Do you you think your preference is based on cultural influences or strictly personal taste?
First Impressions Choose one of the ads below and, based on your knowledge of analysing images, write 3 sentences discussing why you either ‘like’ or ‘dislike’ the ad.