Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.
Analyze the moral/ethical similarities and differences of Confucianism, Daoism, and Legalism.BOOK SOURCE:Source: Bentley, ...
Source: "Taoist ethics - theory and practice." Taoist ethics. N.p., n.d. Web. 9 Dec. 2010. <http://www.bbc.co.uk/religion/...
Encyclopedia of World Environmental History; 2003, Vol. 3, p1183-1185, 3pBecause the early Taoist texts criticize Confucia...
Hay, Jeff. "Daoism." The Greenhaven Encyclopedia of World Religions. 27500 Drake Rd.: Christine Nasso, 2007.380. Print.A r...
PAGE: 186.Source: Bentley, Jerry H., et al. Traditions and Encounters: A Global Perspective on the Past. 3rd ed. 1221Avenu...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Morals/Ethics in Philosophies, DBQ World History AP

1,657 views

Published on

A DBQ on Morals/ Ethics in Philosophies.

Published in: Education
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

Morals/Ethics in Philosophies, DBQ World History AP

  1. 1. Analyze the moral/ethical similarities and differences of Confucianism, Daoism, and Legalism.BOOK SOURCE:Source: Bentley, Jerry H., et al. Traditions and Encounters: A Global Perspective on the Past. 3rded. 1221 Avenue of the Americas, New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 2006. Print. Confucius’s thought were fundamentally moral, ethical, and political in character. It wasalso thoroughly practical: Confucius did not address abstruse philosophical questions, because hethought they would not help to solve the political and social problems of his day. Nor did he dealwith religious questions, because he thought they went beyond the capacity of mortal human beingintelligence. He did not even concern himself much with the structure of the state, because hethought political and social harmony arose from the proper ordering of human relationships ratherthan the establishment of state offices. In an age bureaucratic institutions were not yet welldeveloped, Confucius believed that the best way to promote good government was to fill positionswith individuals who were both well educated and extraordinarily conscientious. Thus Confuciusconcentrated on the formation of what he called junzi--”superior individuals”--who took a broadview of public affairs and did not allow personal interests to influence their judgements.Source: Legalism. N.p., n.d. Web. 9 Dec. 2010.URL: http://philtar.ucsm.ac.uk/encyclopedia/china/legal.htmlLegalism is a political philosophy that does not address higher questions pertaining to the natureand purpose of existence. It is concerned with the most effective way of governing society. Thelegalist tradition derives from the principle that the best way to control human behaviour is throughwritten law rather than through ritual, custom or ethics. The two principal sources of Legalistdoctrine were the Book of Lord Shang and the Han Fei-tzu. The Book of Lord Shang teaches thatlaws are designed to maintain the stability of the state from the people, who are innately selfish andignorant. There is no such thing as objective goodness or virtue; it is obedience that is ofparamount importance.The Han Fei-tzu advocates a system of laws that enable the ruler to govern efficiently and evenruthlessly. Text books apart from law books are useless, and rival philosophies such as Moism andConfucianism are dismissed as "vermin". The ruler is to conduct himself with great shrewdness,keeping his ministers and family at a distance and not revealing his intentions. Strong penaltiesshould deter people from committing crime.
  2. 2. Source: "Taoist ethics - theory and practice." Taoist ethics. N.p., n.d. Web. 9 Dec. 2010. <http://www.bbc.co.uk/religion/religions/taoism/taoethics/ethics_1.shtml>.The common view of Daoism is that it encourages people to live with detachment and calm, resting innon-action and smiling at the vicissitudes of the world.Contrary to this common view, Daoists through the ages have developed various forms of communityand proposed numerous sets of behavioral guidelines and texts on ethical considerations. Beyond theancient philosophers, who are well-known for the moral dimension of their teachings, religious Daoistrules cover both ethics, i.e., the personal values of the individual, and morality, i.e., the communal normsand social values of the organization. They range from basic moral rules against killing, stealing, lying,and sexual misconduct through suggestions for altruistic thinking and models of social interaction tobehavioral details on how to bow, eat, and wash, as well as to the unfolding of universal ethics that teachpeople to think like the Dao itself.Taoist ethics are concerned less with doing good acts than becoming a good person who lives inharmony with all things and people.Taoist ethics are inseparable from Taoist spirituality - both contain the same ideas. If a Taoist wants tolive well they should take all their decisions in the context of the Tao, trying to see what will fit best withthe natural order of things.Taoists thus always do what is required by events and their context, but they only do what is required, nomore.Source: "Taoist ethics - theory and practice." Taoist ethics. N.p., n.d. Web. 9 Dec. 2010. <http://www.bbc.co.uk/religion/religions/taoism/taoethics/ethics_1.shtml>.The common view of Daoism is that it encourages people to live with detachment and calm, resting innon-action and smiling at the vicissitudes of the world.Contrary to this common view, Daoists through the ages have developed various forms of communityand proposed numerous sets of behavioral guidelines and texts on ethical considerations. Beyond theancient philosophers, who are well-known for the moral dimension of their teachings, religious Daoistrules cover both ethics, i.e., the personal values of the individual, and morality, i.e., the communalnorms and social values of the organization. They range from basic moral rules against killing, stealing,lying, and sexual misconduct through suggestions for altruistic thinking and models of socialinteraction to behavioral details on how to bow, eat, and wash, as well as to the unfolding of universalethics that teach people to think like the Dao itself. Taoist ethics are concerned less with doing goodacts than becoming a good person who lives in harmony with all things and people. Taoist ethics areinseparable from Taoist spirituality - both contain the same ideas. If a Taoist wants to live well theyshould take all their decisions in the context of the Tao, trying to see what will fit best with the naturalorder of things. Taoists thus always do what is required by events and their context, but they only dowhat is required, no more.
  3. 3. Encyclopedia of World Environmental History; 2003, Vol. 3, p1183-1185, 3pBecause the early Taoist texts criticize Confucian virtues and morality, some scholars wrongly assert that Taoismlacks a morality. The early Taoist texts do in fact advocate moral ideas, proposing that the best way to live is bymodeling the forces of nature and living in harmony with nature. Laozi tells us that the best people are like water,and Taoists try to emulate the virtues of water. They celebrate its softness, flexibility, and frictionless traits, itsability to erode mountains, its murky and chaotic condition when agitated, and its depth and clarity when calm.To go with the flow, literally and metaphorically, is the Taoist key to proper living.One area in which Taoism can assist modern ecology and environmental ethics is in human transformation.Many people propose that humans must change how they think about the environment and especially how theybehave toward it. Taoists have developed various ideas and methods to help people embrace natural and personaltransformation. Embracing change as a natural fact allows one to think and act more profoundly than does simpleconservationism. Instead of conservationism, Taoists seek to love in harmony in the face of rapid change. Forexample, selective burning or removing of dead trees would be allowed, if that enhanced human harmony withthe forest. People are also changing; we need to transform ourselves to become even in harmony with nature.Taoists advocate cutting loose (jie) from the restrictions of social custom, psychological feelings, and divisiveideas. Cutting loose helps Taoists break free from social conventions that encourage people to exploit naturalresources.ConfucianismSource: Encyclopedia of World Environmental History; 2003, Vol. 1, p260-261, 2pThe development of Confucianism proceeded in parallel with that of Taoism, and there was to some extentcontinual interchange between the two sets of teachings. Both developed in China but tended to appeal todifferent groups of people. Confucianism was more concerned with prescribing a set of ethical principles forthose in administrative authority, whereas Taoism appealed to those with more mystical leanings and emphasizedthe importance of being in harmony with nature.Confucianism emphasizes the creation of a moral harmony between people and their environment. One maycompare this with the tradition of feng shui (wind and water). Adherents of feng shui believe that there is an all-pervading energy named chi, which varies depending upon the distribution of hills, valleys, and rivers. Feng shuidiviners provide advice on the location of new buildings or temples in order to determine the most beneficialdistribution of chi. The ultimate aim is a sense of harmony between people and the natural world.
  4. 4. Hay, Jeff. "Daoism." The Greenhaven Encyclopedia of World Religions. 27500 Drake Rd.: Christine Nasso, 2007.380. Print.A religious and philosophical school that has been central to the culture and the traditions of China for more thantwo thousand years, and which has influenced other east Asian societies and Westerners as well. Daoism is inmany ways the counterpart to Confucianism; in contrast to Confucianism’s focus on human effort and earthlyorder, Daoism emphasizes living according to the rhythms of nature and the cosmos. Daoism has been the majorform of popular religion in China, and has likely been an important influence on Chinese Buddhism as well.Relatively few people are Daoists exclusively, but millions of people practice elements of Daoism as a part ofChinese and East Asian popular religion.Source: Bentley, Jerry H., et al. Traditions and Encounters: A Global Perspective on the Past. 3rd ed. 1221 Avenue of the Americas, New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 2006. Print.189 PAGE“The legalist expected to harness subjects’ energy by means of clear and strict laws- hence the name “legalist”. Their faith in laws distinguished the legalist clearly from the confucians, who relied on ritual, custom, education, a sense of propriety and the humane example of benevolent gunzi administrators to enduce individuals to behave appropriately the legalist believed that these influences were not powerful enough to persuade subjects to subordinate their self-interest to the needs of the state they imposed a strict legal regiment that clearly outlined expectations and provided severe punishment, swiftly administrated, for violators. They believed that if people feared to commit small crimes, they would hesitate all the more before committing great crimes. Thus legalist imposed harsh penalties even for minor infraction: individuals could suffer amputations of their hands or feet, for example, for disposing of ashes or trash in the street. the legalist also established the principle of collective responsibility before the law. They expected all member of a family or community to observe the others closely, forestall any illegal activity, and report any infractions. Failing these obligation, all member of a family or community were liable to punishment along with the actual violator.”
  5. 5. PAGE: 186.Source: Bentley, Jerry H., et al. Traditions and Encounters: A Global Perspective on the Past. 3rd ed. 1221Avenue of the Americas, New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 2006. Print.s“The Daoists were the most prominent critics of Confucianism activism. Like Confucianism, Daoist thought thedeveloped in response to the turbulence of the late Zhoa dynasty and the period of the warning states. But unlikethe Confucianist Daoist considered it pointless to waste time and energy on problems that defied solution. Insteadof Confucians social activism, the daoist devoted their energy to reflection and introspection, in hope that theycould understand the natural principle that governed the world and could learn to live in harmony with them. TheDaoist believed over a lomng term, this approach would bring harmony to society as a whole, as people ceased tometal in affairs that they could not understand or control.”

×