biology, basic

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  • Serotonin (5-HT) is an indolamine neurotransmitter synthesised from tryptophan, an essential amino acid found in the diet that is preferentially taken up by serotonergic neurons. The rate-limiting step in its formation involves tryptophan hydroxylase. 5-HT is catabolised by monoamine oxidase to form 5-hydroxyindolacetic acid.
  • ·The rate-limiting step is between L-tyrosine and L-DOPA (tyrosine hydroxylase).
    ·The main break down products are MHPG, HVA and VMA.
    ·MAO acts mainly intraneuronally.
    ·COMT acts at the synaptic cleft.
  • biology, basic

    1. 1. Pharmacological Targets in Schizophrenia Dopamine Adapted from Kandel et al., eds. Principles of Neural Science. Norwalk, CT: Appleton & Lange; 1991:854. Hypoactivity: Negative and Cognitive Symptoms Hyperactivity: Positive Symptoms Tuberoinfundibular Pathway Mesocortical Pathway Mesolimbic Pathway Nigrostriatal Pathway Dopaminergic Pathways in the Brain
    2. 2. Schizophrenia Core Symptoms Psychotic Deficit Cognitive Positive Symptoms Mesolimbic pathway Negative Symptoms DLPC &VMPFC Cognitive Dysfunction DLPFC Affective VMPFC
    3. 3. Smith et al (1997) Synthesis and degradation of serotonin Tryptophan 5-Hydroxytryptophan (5- HTP) Tryptophan hydroxylase 5-Hydroxytryptamine (5- HT) 5-Hydroxytryptophan decarboxylase 5-Hydroxyindolacetic acid (5-HIAA) Monoamine oxidase (MAO)
    4. 4. Synthesis and degradation of catecholamines Phenylalanine Key COMT = Catechol O-methyltransferase MAO = Monoamine oxidase L-tyrosine Dopamine L-dopa Tyrosine hydroxylase 3-methoxy-tyramine Noradrenaline3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) Homovalinillic acid (HVA) 3-methoxy-4-hydroxy phenylglycol (MHPG) 3-methoxy-4-hydroxy mandelic acid (VMA)) COMT MAO MAO/COMT Roth et al (1995)
    5. 5. Synthesis and degradation of catecholamines Phenylalanine Key COMT = Catechol O-methyltransferase MAO = Monoamine oxidase L-tyrosine Dopamine L-dopa Tyrosine hydroxylase 3-methoxy-tyramine Noradrenaline3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) Homovalinillic acid (HVA) 3-methoxy-4-hydroxy phenylglycol (MHPG) 3-methoxy-4-hydroxy mandelic acid (VMA)) COMT MAO MAO/COMT Roth et al (1995)

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