Historical Background of Interpreting Group 9 : Arfi Dewi Damayanty (0806050) Hanifa Muslima (1006322) Class : 4B
Outline :• Definition of Interpreting• Historical Background• Conference Interpreting• Liaison Interpreting• Differences in Role and Status• Bilingual Aides, Bilinguals, Do-gooders and Other Non-Interpreters
The Definition of Interpreting Interpreting is the oral transfer of messages between speakers of different languages. (Gentile,et al,1996:5) Interpreting is thus one of the oldest of human activities, and the role of the interpreter is arguably one of the oldest of the professions. (Gentile,et al,1996:5)
Historical Background• The first written proof of interpreting dates back to 3000 BC, at which time the Ancient Egyptians had a hieroglyphic signifying "interpreter".• The next widely known use of interpreting occurred in Ancient Greece and Rome. For both the Ancient Greeks and Romans, learning the language of the people that they conquered was considered very undignified.• Furthermore, during this era and up until the 17th century, Latin was the lingua franca, or the language of diplomacy, in Europe, and therefore all nations had to have some citizens who spoke Latin in order to carry on diplomatic relations.
• Throughout the centuries, interpreting became more and more widely spread due o a number of factors : I. Religion II. Age of Exploration III. International Labour Conference in Geneva, Switzerland in 1927• However, multilingual situations do not always require interpreting for some reasons : I. For some groups, individual and multilingualism is a common feature. e.g : the notable multilingualism of Australian Aboriginal groups II. Communication problems may be overcome by use of a recognize lingua franca, generally not the mother tongue III. Certain social groups gain multilingual skills because their particular roles. e.g : Traders IV. Where geographical boundaries are sharp, there may have been little understanding of the language of others who lived even a little distance away.
Type of Interpreting1. Conference Interpreting2. Liaison Interpreting1. Conference Interpreting A significant advance for conference interpreterscame immediately after World War II when at Nuremberghwar crimes trials, new technology allowed experiments withsimultaneous interpreting, whereby interpreters worked fromsound- proof booth and relayed their messages throughearphones to listeners in the court-room.
2. Liaison Interpreting It has not always been seen by conference interpretersas an area of interpreting in its own right, but rather as aresidual arm of language work at best or multilingual welfarework at worst.In the post- World war II decades, several social andeconomic developments led to its growth. The two main areasof development were in international business contacts andless spectacularly but more pervasively, in relation toimmigrant and indigenous populations who did not speak thedominant language of their society.
Differences in role and statusO Just as international conference interpreters gain their status from the reflected status of the clients they serve, so do liaison interpreters in their varied work settings. The question of status and reflected status in turn very influences how their role and contribution are understood: prevailing social and institutional norms will strongly affect the way in which interpreter’s function is understood
Bilingual Aides, Bilinguals, Do-gooders and Other Non-InterpretersO Bilinguals - Someone who is able to use two languages, especially with equal or nearly equal fluency.O Bilingual Aides - Someone who has a capacity in two or more languages and use another language in the direct conduct of their primary role. (e.g : an airline booking clerk, a social welfare officer etc.)O Bilingual Guides - A specific kind of bilingual aide commonly met in tourism, business travel, cultural and recreational pursuits.O Community interpreters were once considered amateurs and well- meaning but misguided "do-gooders" (Gonzalez et al, 1991: 29), but nowadays they are increasingly recognized as specialists in their own right.
In Summary…O The development in liaison interpreting has been subject to two very influential forces that continue to determine its status and the understanding of its role.O The whole field of liaison interpreting has been profoundly influenced by its own social settings of minority/majority relationships, identification with minorities and minority interests, and broader status issues.