-Simplest bacterium to the humanbeing all use the same types ofbiomolecules and they all use energy- Activities within a cell are similar tothe transportation system of a city
Chemical foundations of Biochemistry -Organic chemistry is the study of compounds of carbon and hydrogen and their derivatives- cellular apparatus of living organism is made up of carbon compounds- the reactions of molecules are based on the reaction of their respective derivatives
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP), a molecule that is the energy currency of the cell, contains both ester and anhydride linkages involving phophoric acid.
The Beginning of Biology : Origin of Life-Earth and its water are the source and mainstay of life.How and when did Earth come to be?-Bigbang theory – widely accepted cosmological theory on howEarth began - all matter in the universe was originally confined to acomparatively small volume of space. Result of tremendousexplosion this “primordial fireball” started to expand with greatforce. - the average temperature of the universe has beendecreasing ever since as a result of the explosion and lowertemperature forms stars and planet.
U ver se com ni posi t i onSi m e : hydr ogen, hel i um l i t hi un pl ,Rest of chem cal el em s ar e f or m i n 3 w i ent ed ays:1.) Ther monucl ear r eact i ons t hat nor m l y t akes alpl ace i n st ar s2.) Expl osi on of st ar s3.) By act i on of cosm c r ays out si de t he st ar s si nce it he f or m i on of gal axy. at-Ver y l i t t l e or no f r ee (O exi st ed i n t he ear l y 2)st ages- The gases ar e usual l y pr esent i n t he at m ospher e ofear t h: N 3, H H 2S, C , C 2, C 4, N H and H . O O H 2, 2, 2O
Macromolecules - proteins, nucleic acids and polysaccharides - monomers (smaller molecules) that are linked toproduce marcomolecules called polymers - ex of monomers : amino acid, nucleotides,monosaccharides - amino acid + amino acid (polymerization) = proteins - nucleotides + nucleotides = nucleic acids (RNA andDNA) - sugar monomers + sugar monomers (polymerization)= polysaccharides
-Proteins of the class called enzymes display catalytic activity whichincrease the rates of chemical reaction compared with uncatalyzed.- The specific sequence of the amino acid present determines theproperties of all types of proteins including enzymes.- Present day cells, the sequence of amino acids in proteins isdetermined by the sequence of nucleotides in nucleic acids.-DNA serves as a coding material.- Genetic code is the relationship between the nucleotide sequence innucleic acids and the amino acid sequence in proteins. -- information for the structure and function of all living things is passed from one generation to the next.
The Biggest Biological Distinction (Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes) Prokaryotes - karyon, kernel nuts, literally means “before the nucleus” - bacteria and cyanobacteria - single-celled organisms - small (1 to 3 angstrom) Eukaryotes - “true nucleus” - multicellular or single-celled - yeasts and paramecium ( single celled) - animals and plants (multicellular organisms) - large (10 to 100 angstrom)
Organelles – part of the cell that has a distinct function which issurrounded by its own membrane within the cells.