LOGO

Respiratory
System
Arba P. Ramadani
Respiratory System

Structural

Upper

Function

Lower

Conducting
zone

Respiratory
zone
NOSE
NOSE
Eksternal

bony&cartilaginous framework

function?
Internal nasal cavity, vestibule, & septum
PHARYNX

levelfive.com/ZINA/IMAGES/Anatomical/pharynx.jpg
PHARYNX
Function??
Regio: nasopharynx, oropharynx,
laryngopharynx
LARYNX
LARYNX
Voice box
Short passageway, connect the
laryngopharynx with the trachea
Larynx wall 9 pieces cartilage

eg. epiglot...
TRACHEA
TRACHEA
Windpipe, tubular passageway for air
Layers: mucosa, submucosa, hyaline
cartilage, adventitia
C-shaped cartilage r...
BRONCHI

graphics8.nytimes.com/.../health/adam/1103.jpg
LUNGS

www.avastin.com/.../lung/learn/develops/index.m
LUNGS
Paired cone-shaped organ
Pleural membrane parietal p., visceral p.,
p. cavity
Lobes
3 lobes on right & 2 lobes on le...
Terminal
bronchioles

Alveolar sacs

Alveolar duct

Alveoli
webanatomy.net/.../respiratory/alveolar_sacs.jpg
RESPIRATION

Pulmonary ventilation

External (pulmonary) respiration

Internal (tissue) respiration

Respiration
PULMONARY VENTILATION
Air moves into or out of lungs
pressure differences

air

Inhalation
contraction of diaphragm
(75%) ...
Factors affecting pulmonary ventilation

Surface tension
of alveolar fluid
Compliance of
the lungs
Airway
resistance
P O2 & P CO2
Rate of pulmonary &systemic gas exchange

Partial pressure difference
Surface area available
Diffusion distance
Molecular ...
Breathing Pattern

Eupnea

Costal breathing/
shallow/chest

Diaphragmatic
breathing /
deep
LUNG VOLUME
Transport O2 & CO2
Affinity Hb-O2
Acidity (pH)
PCO2
Temperature
BPG
Control of Respiration

1

2

Medullary
Rhythmicity
Area

Pneumotaxic
Area

3

Apneustic
Area
Regulation of the respiratory center

Cortical
influence

Inflation reflex

Propioceptor

Chemoreceptor

Others
Respiratory system
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Respiratory system

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Respiratory system

  1. 1. LOGO Respiratory System Arba P. Ramadani
  2. 2. Respiratory System Structural Upper Function Lower Conducting zone Respiratory zone
  3. 3. NOSE
  4. 4. NOSE Eksternal bony&cartilaginous framework function? Internal nasal cavity, vestibule, & septum
  5. 5. PHARYNX levelfive.com/ZINA/IMAGES/Anatomical/pharynx.jpg
  6. 6. PHARYNX Function?? Regio: nasopharynx, oropharynx, laryngopharynx
  7. 7. LARYNX
  8. 8. LARYNX Voice box Short passageway, connect the laryngopharynx with the trachea Larynx wall 9 pieces cartilage eg. epiglotis
  9. 9. TRACHEA
  10. 10. TRACHEA Windpipe, tubular passageway for air Layers: mucosa, submucosa, hyaline cartilage, adventitia C-shaped cartilage ring control diameter change maintain efficient airflow
  11. 11. BRONCHI graphics8.nytimes.com/.../health/adam/1103.jpg
  12. 12. LUNGS www.avastin.com/.../lung/learn/develops/index.m
  13. 13. LUNGS Paired cone-shaped organ Pleural membrane parietal p., visceral p., p. cavity Lobes 3 lobes on right & 2 lobes on left Blood supply pulmonary&bronchial arteries Hypoxia ventilation-perfusion coupling
  14. 14. Terminal bronchioles Alveolar sacs Alveolar duct Alveoli
  15. 15. webanatomy.net/.../respiratory/alveolar_sacs.jpg
  16. 16. RESPIRATION Pulmonary ventilation External (pulmonary) respiration Internal (tissue) respiration Respiration
  17. 17. PULMONARY VENTILATION Air moves into or out of lungs pressure differences air Inhalation contraction of diaphragm (75%) & external intercostals (25%) lungs expand lung vol >> decrease lung pressure Exhalation passive process inspiratory muscles relax lung vol << alveolar pressure increases
  18. 18. Factors affecting pulmonary ventilation Surface tension of alveolar fluid Compliance of the lungs Airway resistance
  19. 19. P O2 & P CO2
  20. 20. Rate of pulmonary &systemic gas exchange Partial pressure difference Surface area available Diffusion distance Molecular weight & solubility
  21. 21. Breathing Pattern Eupnea Costal breathing/ shallow/chest Diaphragmatic breathing / deep
  22. 22. LUNG VOLUME
  23. 23. Transport O2 & CO2
  24. 24. Affinity Hb-O2 Acidity (pH) PCO2 Temperature BPG
  25. 25. Control of Respiration 1 2 Medullary Rhythmicity Area Pneumotaxic Area 3 Apneustic Area
  26. 26. Regulation of the respiratory center Cortical influence Inflation reflex Propioceptor Chemoreceptor Others

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