Qar using non fiction


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  • In a study that looked at students who were prepared in three different ways: QAR, Classroom test prep, and Classroom regular instructional techniques (1985) Raphael and Wonnacott found that those students using the QAR out-performed the two other groups.
  • In a study that looked at students who were prepared in three different ways: QAR, Classroom test prep, and Classroom regular instructional techniques (1985) Raphael and Wonnacott found that those students using the QAR out-performed the two other groups.
  • Qar using non fiction

    1. 1. It’s all about Comprehension! The QAR Question Answer Relationship
    2. 2. <ul><li>Making Connections </li></ul><ul><li>Questioning </li></ul><ul><li>Visualizing/Sensory Images </li></ul><ul><li>Inferring </li></ul><ul><li>Determining Importance </li></ul><ul><li>Synthesizing </li></ul><ul><li>Monitoring for Meaning or </li></ul><ul><li> Fix-up Strategies Fix- up Strategies </li></ul>Comprehension Components
    3. 3. QAR is all about thinking…. <ul><li>“ It appears that students are learning how to take tests, not how to think.” Stahl, 2002 </li></ul><ul><li>The QAR is not a test prep… </li></ul><ul><li>it is a powerful thinking strategy! </li></ul>
    4. 4. QAR Question Answer Relationship QAR is a way to help students figure out how to go about answering questions based on all content area text
    5. 5. <ul><li>Students assume that every question’s answer is directly stated somewhere in the text and spend far too much time looking for answers that are not “right there,” and their frustration mounts. </li></ul><ul><li>QAR strategies help to end that frustration </li></ul>QAR Question Answer Relationship
    6. 6. <ul><li>QAR teaches our students: </li></ul><ul><li>the four basic question-answer relationships </li></ul><ul><li>a powerful strategy that will help them to understand the different types of questions </li></ul><ul><li>how to effectively and efficiently approach the text based on the different question/answer relationships </li></ul>QAR Question Answer Relationship
    7. 7. QAR for Social Studies and Science Q-A R Question-Answer Relationship I N T H E B O O K I N M Y H E A D Right There Answer is found in one sentence in the Social Studies or Science Text or a primary source document Author and You To answer the question use the information in the text or primary source with specific details and historic/scientific background Think and Search Need to look in different sentences in the Social or Science textbook or documents On Your Own Answer comes from your knowledge of history or science
    8. 8. QAR <ul><li>Use this Strategy: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Before Reading </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>During Reading </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>After Reading </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Targeted Reading Skills:   </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Using textual evidence to substantiate textual claims </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Drawing conclusions and making inferences based on explicit and implicit information </li></ul></ul>
    9. 9. Right There “ Right There” questions require you to go back to the text and find the correct information to answer the question.  These are sometimes called literal questions because the correct answer can be found in one place in the text.  “ Right There” questions sometimes include the words, “According to the text…”  “How many…” “Who is…”  “Where is…”  “What is…”
    10. 10. Right There Question Examples <ul><li>Who was the president in 1884? </li></ul><ul><li>How many chemical elements can we find in salt? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the beginning and ending dates of World War II? </li></ul><ul><li>Where did the Battle of the Bulge take place? </li></ul>
    11. 11. Think and Search “ Think and Search” questions usually require you to think about how ideas or information in the text are related.  You will need to look back at the text, find the information that the question refers to, and then think about how the information or ideas fit together. The information may be in multiple places in the text. “ Think and Search” questions sometimes include the words, “ The main idea of the passage…”  “What caused…”  “Compare/contrast…”
    12. 12. Think and Search Examples <ul><li>Explain the difference between a solid and a gas. </li></ul><ul><li>Give reasons why the civil war began. </li></ul><ul><li>Find evidence in the article of causes of pollution. </li></ul><ul><li>Give at least three reasons why the south lost the civil war. </li></ul>
    13. 13. Author and You “ Author and You” questions require you to use ideas and information that are not stated directly in the text to answer the question.  These questions require you to think about what you have read and formulate your own ideas or opinions.  “ Author and You” questions sometimes include the words, “The author implies…”  “The passage suggests…”  “The speaker’s attitude..,”  
    14. 14. Author and You Examples <ul><li>How might the Watson family be similar to and different from your family? </li></ul><ul><li>Do you think Jacob’s dream will come true? Why or why not? </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss a time when you use tools and compare that to early man’s use of tools. </li></ul><ul><li>How is living in Alaska different from living where you live? </li></ul>
    15. 15. On Your Own “ On Your Own” questions can be answered using your background knowledge on a topic.  This type of question is the most infrequent question on tests of reading comprehension because it does not require you to refer to the text.  “ On Your Own” questions sometimes include the words, “In your opinion…”  Based on your experience…”  “Think about someone or something you know…”    
    16. 16. On Your Own Examples <ul><li>What are some different uses for a wooden frame? </li></ul><ul><li>What are some ways that brothers and sisters help each other? </li></ul><ul><li>What would you do if you found a kayak? </li></ul><ul><li>What do you know about Arctic lands? </li></ul>
    17. 17. How do I use the QAR ? <ul><li>After instruction and modeling of the four question-answer relationships, in small groups, give students a short passage from the current fiction or nonfiction text they are reading and have them answer four questions, one from each of the categories.  </li></ul><ul><li>Groups should identify and label each of the question-answer relationships as they discuss the answers to each question.  The entire class can then go over the answers and how they labeled them.  </li></ul><ul><li>Students should then discuss why they should use this strategy and in what circumstances would it be most helpful. </li></ul>
    18. 18. When they understand the QAR .. <ul><li>Once students are comfortable with identifying the type of QAR questions along with the answers to the questions, the teacher can assign small groups longer passages and have them generate the questions for the text, working to create a given number of each of the question-answer relationships. </li></ul>
    19. 19. Text Features of Non-Fiction (tools of the trade) <ul><li>Text features are graphic aids such as: </li></ul><ul><li>Maps </li></ul><ul><li>Charts </li></ul><ul><li>Graphs </li></ul><ul><li>Diagrams </li></ul><ul><li>Timelines </li></ul><ul><li>Headings </li></ul><ul><li>Subheadings </li></ul><ul><li>Boldface words </li></ul><ul><li>Italics </li></ul>
    20. 20. Common Text Structures …. <ul><li>Descriptions </li></ul><ul><li>Includes facts, attributes, and characteristics about events, people, concepts, and subjects. </li></ul><ul><li>Most common structure used in textbooks such as Social Studies and Science </li></ul><ul><li>Signal words in a description or list structure include: </li></ul><ul><li>to begin with </li></ul><ul><li>for example </li></ul><ul><li>for instance </li></ul><ul><li>most important </li></ul><ul><li>in front </li></ul><ul><li>beside </li></ul><ul><li>near </li></ul>
    21. 21. Sequence or Time Order <ul><li>Chronological order of events in history or science </li></ul><ul><li>A sequence or set of steps in a process </li></ul><ul><li>Signal words in sequence or time order include: </li></ul><ul><li>first, second, third… </li></ul><ul><li>before </li></ul><ul><li>on October 6th </li></ul><ul><li>not long after </li></ul><ul><li>after that </li></ul><ul><li>next </li></ul><ul><li>at the same time </li></ul><ul><li>finally </li></ul><ul><li>then </li></ul><ul><li>following </li></ul>
    22. 22. <ul><li>Emphasizes similarities and differences between two or more subjects </li></ul><ul><li>Signal words in comparing/contrasting include: </li></ul><ul><li>like </li></ul><ul><li>unlike </li></ul><ul><li> but </li></ul><ul><li>in contrast </li></ul><ul><li>on the other hand </li></ul><ul><li>however </li></ul><ul><li>both </li></ul><ul><li>also </li></ul><ul><li>too </li></ul><ul><li>as well as </li></ul>Compare and Contrast
    23. 23. <ul><li>Demonstrates how facts and events (causes) led to other facts and events (effects) </li></ul><ul><li>Shows how a single cause can produce several effects or how a single event may be produced by several causes </li></ul><ul><li>Problem is presented with one or more solutions to solve the problem </li></ul><ul><li>Signal words for cause/effect or problem/solution include: </li></ul><ul><li>therefore </li></ul><ul><li>consequently </li></ul><ul><li>so </li></ul><ul><li>this led to </li></ul><ul><li>as a result </li></ul><ul><li>because </li></ul><ul><li>if…then </li></ul>Cause and Effect/Problem Solving
    24. 24. Hints for Reading a Social Studies or Science Textbook <ul><li>Read the lesson title and introduction and headings </li></ul><ul><li>Decide what the topic and main idea of the lesson are </li></ul><ul><li>Remember the boldface words </li></ul><ul><li>Study the graphic aids </li></ul><ul><li>Read the captions </li></ul><ul><li>Use the QAR to answer the text questions </li></ul>
    25. 25. Extending the QAR <ul><li>A valuable extension to this strategy is to give students a copy of Bloom’s Taxonomy and have them generate questions for a class discussion on the current text they are reading.  As students present their questions, they can identify the QAR as well as the level of Bloom’s that would best describe the question.  </li></ul>
    26. 26. Bloom’s Taxonomy
    27. 27. Levels of Bloom’s Taxonomy… <ul><li>Remembering : can the student recall or remember the information? </li></ul><ul><li> Includes words such as : define, duplicate, list, memorize, recall, repeat, reproduce state </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding : can the student explain ideas or concepts? </li></ul><ul><li> Includes words such as: classify, describe, discuss, explain, identify, locate, recognize, </li></ul><ul><li> report, select, translate, paraphrase </li></ul><ul><li>Applying : can the student use the information in a new way? </li></ul><ul><li> Includes words such as: choose, demonstrate, dramatize, employ, illustrate, interpret, </li></ul><ul><li>operate, schedule, sketch, solve, use, write. </li></ul><ul><li>Analyzing : can the student distinguish between the different parts? </li></ul><ul><li> Includes words such as: appraise, compare, contrast, criticize, differentiate, discriminate, </li></ul><ul><li>distinguish, examine, experiment, question, test. </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluating : can the student justify a stand or decision? </li></ul><ul><li> Includes words such as: appraise, argue, defend, judge, select, support, value, evaluate </li></ul><ul><li>Creating : can the student create new product or point of view? </li></ul><ul><li> Includes words such as: assemble, construct, create, design, develop, formulate, write. </li></ul>
    28. 28. “ The researchers recommended that each strategy be taught with singular focus, over a long period of time, to students from kindergarten through twelfth grade and beyond, and that teachers model and students practice the strategies with a variety of texts. If teachers focused their attention on a strategy, beginning with a great deal of modeling and gradually releasing responsibility (Gallagher and Pearson, 1983) to the children to practice it independently, the researchers believed students could actually be taught to think differently as they read.” From Mosaic of Thought by Ellin Keene THE FIRST STEP TO SUCCESSFUL COMPREHENSION QAR
    29. 29. WOW! (Working on the Work) Where do we go from here?
    30. 30. <ul><li>Professional Development Resources </li></ul><ul><li>Mosaic of Thought by Ellin Keene </li></ul><ul><li>I Read It, But I Don’t Get It by Cris Tovani </li></ul><ul><li>Strategies That Work by Stephanie Harvey </li></ul><ul><li>Reading with Meaning by Debbie Miller </li></ul><ul><li>Constructing Meaning Through Kid-Friendly Comprehension Strategy Instruction by Nancy Boyles </li></ul><ul><li>Teaching Reading in Middle School by Laura Robb </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>