Original Terms New Terms• Evaluation •Creating• Synthesis •Evaluating• Analysis •Analyzing• Application •Applying• Comprehension •Understanding• Knowledge •Remembering (Based on Pohl, 2000, Learning to Think, Thinking to Learn, p. 8)
Changes in Terminology• As depicted in the previous table, the names of six major categories were changed from noun to verb forms. The reasoning behind this is that the taxonomy reflects different forms of thinking and thinking is an active process. Verbs describe actions, not nouns, hence the change.• The subcategories of the six major categories were also replaced by verbs and some subcategories were reorganized.• The knowledge category was renamed. Knowledge is an outcome or product of thinking not a form of thinking per se. Consequently, the word knowledge was inappropriate to describe a category of thinking and was replaced with the word remembering instead.• Comprehension and synthesis were retitled to understanding and creating respectively, in order to better reflect the nature of the thinking defined in each
Changes in StructureThe one- dimensional form of the original taxonomybecomes a two-dimensional table with the addition of theproducts of thinking ( i.e. various forms of knowledge).Forms of knowledge are listed in the revised taxonomy asfactual, conceptual, procedural and metacognitive. The major categories were ordered in terms of increasedcomplexity. As a result, the order of synthesis (create) andevaluation (evaluate) have been interchanged. This is indeference to the popularly held notion that if one considersthe taxonomy as a hierarchy reflecting increasingcomplexity, then creative thinking (i.e creating level of therevised taxonomy) is a more complex form of thinking thancritical thinking (i.e. evaluating level of the new taxonomy).
Changes in emphasis•The revisions primary focus is on the taxonomy in use. Essentially,this means that the revised taxonomy is a more authentic tool forcurriculum planning, instructional delivery and assessment.•The revision is aimed at a broader audience. Blooms Taxonomy wastraditionally viewed as a tool best applied in the earlier years ofschooling (i.e. primary and junior primary years). The revisedtaxonomy is more universal and easily applicable at elementary,secondary and even tertiary levels.•The revision emphasizes explanation and description ofsubcategories.For example, sub-categories at the Remembering level of thetaxonomy include : Recognizing / Identifying - Locating knowledge in memory that is consistent with presented material. Recalling / Retrieving / Naming – Retrieving relevant knowledge from long-term memory.
BLOOM’S REVISED TAXONOMY Creating Generating new ideas, products, or ways of viewing things Designing, constructing, planning, producing, inventing. Evaluating Justifying a decision or course of action Checking, hypothesizing, critiquing, experimenting, judging AnalyzingBreaking information into parts to explore understandings and relationships Comparing, organizing, deconstructing, interrogating, finding Applying Using information in another familiar situation Implementing, carrying out, using, executing Understanding Explaining ideas or concepts Interpreting, summarizing, paraphrasing, classifying, explaining Remembering
RememberingThe learner is able to recall, restate and remember learned information. – Recognizing – Listing – Describing – Identifying – Retrieving – Naming – Locating – Finding Can you recall information?
Remembering cont’ Recall or• List recognition of• Memorize • Listen specific information• Relate • Group• Show• Locate • Choose• Distinguish • Recite• Give example • Review Products include:• Reproduce • Quote • Quiz Label• Quote • Record • Definition • List• Repeat • Match • Fact • Workbook• Label• • Select • Worksheet • Reproduction Recall• Know • Underline • Test •Vocabulary• Group • Cite• Read • Sort• Write
Remembering: Potential Activities and Products• Make a story map showing the main events of the story.• Make a time line of your typical day.• Make a concept map of the topic.• Write a list of keywords you know about….• What characters were in the story?• Make a chart showing…• Make an acrostic poem about…• Recite a poem you have learnt.
Remember – In a NutshellRecognizing Questions TasksLocating knowledge in What happened after...? Make a list of the main memory that is How many...? events of the story. consistent with What is...? Make a time line of presented material. Who was it that...? events.Synonyms: Identifying... Can you name ...? Make a facts chart .Recalling Find the meaning of… Write a list of anyRetrieving relevant Describe what happened pieces of information knowledge from after… you can remember. long-term memory. Who spoke to...? What animals were inSynonyms : Which is true or false...? the story. Retrieving…. Identify who…. Make a chart showing…Naming…... Name all the….. Make an acrostic. Recite a poem.
UnderstandingThe learner grasps the meaning of information by interpreting and translating what has been learned. – Interpreting – Exemplifying – Summarizing – Inferring – Paraphrasing – Classifying – Comparing – Explaining
Understanding cont’ Understanding• Restate of given • Describe information• Identify • Report• Discuss • Recognize• Retell • Review • Observe• Research Products include: • Outline• Annotate • Account for • Recitation • Example • Summary • Quiz• Translate • Interpret • Give main idea • Collection • List• Give examples of • Estimate • Explanation • Label• Paraphrase • Define • Show and tell • Outline• Reorganize• Associate
Understanding: Potential Activities• and Products Write in your own words…• Cut out, or draw pictures to illustrate a particular event in the story.• Report to the class…• Illustrate what you think the main idea may have been.• Make a cartoon strip showing the sequence of events in the story.• Write and perform a play based on the story.• Write a brief outline to explain this story to someone else• Explain why the character solved the problem in this particular way• Write a summary report of the event.• Prepare a flow chart to illustrate the sequence of events.• Make a colouring book.• Paraphrase this chapter in the book.• Retell in your own words.• Outline the main points.
Understand—In a NutshellInterpreting Questions Tasks Cut out, or draw pictures toChanging from one form of representation to another Can you write in your show aSynonyms: own words? particular event.• Paraphrasing…Translating,...Representing,… How would you Illustrate what you think the main idea Clarifying... explain…? may have been.Exemplifying Can you write a brief Make a cartoon strip showing the sequence• Finding a specific example or illustration of a outline...? of events. concept or principle What do you think Write and perform a play based on theSynonyms : Instantiating… Illustrating... could have story.Classifying happened Retell the story in your own words.• Determining that something belongs to a next...? Write a summary report of the event category (e.g., concept or principle). Who do you think...? Prepare a flow chart to illustrate theSynonyms : Categorizing...Subsuming... What was the main sequence of events.Summarizing idea...? Make a coloring book.• Drawing a logical conclusion from presented Clarify why…. Cut out, or draw pictures to show a information. Illustrate the ……… particular event. Illustrate whatSynonyms : Abstracting… Generalizing... Does everyone act in you think the main idea was.Inferring the way that Make a cartoon strip showing the sequence of events.• Abstracting a general theme or major point …….. does? Write and perform a play based on theSynonyms : Extrapolating… Interpolating.. Draw a story map. story. Predicting… Concluding…. Explain why a Retell the story in your own words.Comparing character acted Write a summary report of the event• Detecting correspondences between two ideas, in the way that Prepare a flow chart to illustrate the objects, etc they did. sequence of events.Synonyms : Contrasting… Matching ...Mapping... Cut out, or draw pictures to show aExplaining particular event. Illustrate what• Constructing a cause-and-effect model of a you think the main idea was. system. Make a cartoon strip showing theSynonyms : Constructing models... sequence of events. Write and perform a play based on the story
ApplyingThe learner makes use of information in a context different from the one in which it was learned. – Implementing – Carrying out – Using – ExecutingCan you use the information in anotherfamiliar situation?
Classroom Roles for ApplyingTeacher roles in Student roles in assessing assessment• Shows • Solves problems• Facilitates • Demonstrates use of• Observes knowledge• Evaluates • Calculates• Organizes • Compiles• Questions • Completes • Illustrates • Constructs
Applying: Potential Activities and Products• Construct a model to demonstrate how it looks or works• Practice a play and perform it for the class• Make a diorama to illustrate an event• Write a diary entry• Make a scrapbook about the area of study.• Prepare invitations for a character’s birthday party• Make a topographic map• Take and display a collection of photographs on a particular topic.• Make up a puzzle or a game about the topic.• Write an explanation about this topic for others.• Dress a doll in national costume.• Make a clay model…
Apply—In a NutshellAPPLY Questions Tasks Construct a model toExecuting Can you write in your own demonstrate how itApplying knowledge words? How would you explain…? works (often procedural) Can you write a brief Make a diorama to illustrate to a routine task. outline...? an eventSynonyms : What do you think could have Make a scrapbook about the happened next...? areas of study. Carrying out…. Make a papier-mâché map / Who do you think...?Implementing What was the main idea...? clay model to includeApplying knowledge relevant information Clarify why…. about an event. (often procedural) Illustrate the ……… Take a collection of to a non-routine Does everyone act in the way photographs to task. that …….. does? demonstrate a particular Draw a story map. point.Synonyms : Explain why a character acted Make up a puzzle game. Using….. in the way that they did. Write a textbook about this topic for others.
AnalyzingThe learner breaks learned information into its parts to best understand that information. – Comparing – Organizing – Deconstructing – Attributing – Outlining – Finding – Structuring – IntegratingCan you break information into parts to explore understandings and relationships?
Analyzing cont’ Breaking information down into its component• Distinguish • Compare elements• Question • Contrast• Appraise • Survey• Experiment • Detect• Inspect • Group• Examine • Products include: Order• Probe • Sequence • Graph • Survey• Separate • Test • Spreadsheet • Database• Inquire • Debate • Mobile • Checklist• Arrange • Analyze • Chart • Abstract• Investigate • Diagram• Sift • Relate • Outline • Report• Research • Dissect• Calculate • Categorize• Criticize • Discriminate
Classroom Roles for analyzingTeacher roles in Student roles in assessing assessments • Discusses• Probes • Uncovers• Guides • Argues• Observes • Debates• Evaluates • Thinks deeply• Acts as a resource • Tests • Examines• Questions • Questions• Organizes • Calculates• Dissects • Investigates • Inquires
Analyzing: Potential Activities and Products• Use a Venn Diagram to show how two topics are the same and different• Design a questionnaire to gather information.• Survey classmates to find out what they think about a particular topic. Analyse the results.• Make a flow chart to show the critical stages.• Classify the actions of the characters in the book• Create a sociogram from the narrative• Construct a graph to illustrate selected information.• Make a family tree showing relationships.• Devise a role-play about the study area.• Write a biography of a person studied.• Prepare a report about the area of study.• Conduct an investigation to produce information to support a view.• Review a work of art in terms of form, colour and texture.• Draw a graph• Complete a Decision Making Matrix to help you decide which
Analyze—In a NutshellANALYZE QuestionsDifferentiating Which events could not haveDistinguishing relevant from happened? Tasks irrelevant parts or important from unimportant parts of If. ..happened, what might the Design a questionnaire to presented material. ending have been? gather information.Synonyms : Discriminating, How is...similar to...? Write a commercial to sell a Selecting, Focusing, What do you see as other new product Distinguishing, possible outcomes? Make flow chart to show theOrganizing Why did...changes occur? critical stages.Determining how elements fit or Can you explain what must Construct a graph to function within a structure.Synonyms : Outlining, have happened when...? illustrate selected Structuring, Integrating, What are some or the information. Finding coherence problems of...? Make a family tree showingAttributing Can you distinguish relationships.Determining the point of view, between...? Devise a play about the bias, values, or intent What were some of the study area. underlying presented motives behind..? Write a biography of a material. Synonyms : Deconstructing What was the turning point? person studied. What was the problem Prepare a report about the with...? area of study.
EvaluatingThe learner makes decisions based on in-depth reflection, criticism and assessment. – Checking – Hypothesizing – Critiquing – Experimenting – Judging – Testing – Detecting – Monitoring Can you justify a decision or course of action?
Evaluating: Potential Activities and Products• Write a letter to the editor• Prepare and conduct a debate• Prepare a list of criteria to judge…• Write a persuasive speech arguing for/against…• Make a booklet about five rules you see as important. Convince others.• Form a panel to discuss viewpoints on….• Write a letter to. ..advising on changes needed.• Write a half-yearly report.• Prepare a case to present your view about...• Complete a PMI on…• Evaluate the character’s actions in the story
Evaluate—In a NutshellChecking Questions TasksDetecting inconsistencies or Is there a better solution Conduct a fallacies within a process to...? debate about an or product. Judge the value of... What issue of specialDetermining whether a do you think about...? interest. process or product has Can you defend your Make a booklet about internal consistency. position about...? five rules you see asSynonyms : Testing, Do you think...is a good or important. Convince Detecting, Monitoring bad thing? others.Critiquing How would you have Form a panel toDetecting the handled...? discuss views. appropriateness of a What changes to.. would Write a letter to procedure for a given you recommend? ...advising on task or problem. Do you believe...? How changes needed.Synonyms :Judging would you feel if. ..? Write a half-year report. How effective are. ..? Prepare a case to present your view about...
CreatingThe learner creates new ideas and information using what has been previously learned. – Designing – Constructing – Planning – Producing – Inventing – Devising – MakingCan you generate new products, ideas, or ways of viewing things?
Creating cont’ Putting together ideas or elements to develop• Compose a original idea or engage in creative• Assemble thinking.• Organise • Formulate• Invent • Improve• Compile • Act• Products include: Forecast • Predict • Film • Song• Devise • Produce • Newspaper• Propose • Story • Blend• Construct • Project • Media product • Set up• Plan • Plan • Advertisement• Prepare • Devise • New game • Painting• Develop • Concoct• Originate • Compile• Imagine
Classroom Roles for CreatingTeacher roles in Student roles in assessing assessment • Designs• Facilitates • Formulates• Extends • Plans• Reflects • Takes risks• Analyzes • Modifies• Evaluates • Creates • Proposes • Active participant
Creating: Potential Activities and Products• Use the problem solving strategy to invent a new type of sports shoe• Invent a machine to do a specific task.• Design a robot to do your homework.• Create a new product. Give it a name and plan a marketing campaign.• Write about your feelings in relation to...• Write a TV show play, puppet show, role play, song or pantomime about..• Design a new monetary system• Develop a menu for a new restaurant using a variety of healthy foods• Design a record, book or magazine cover for...• Sell an idea• Devise a way to...• Make up a new language and use it in an example• Write a jingle to advertise a new product.
Create—In a NutshellCREATE Questions TasksGenerating Can you design a...to...? Invent aComing up with alternatives Can you see a possible machine to do a specificor hypotheses based on solution to...? task.criteria If you had access to all Design a building to houseSynonyms: Hypothesizing resources, how would you your study.Planning deal with...? Create a new product. GiveDevising a procedure for Why dont you devise your it a name and plan aaccomplishing some task. own way to...? marketing campaign.producing What would happen if ...? Write about your feelings inSynonyms : Designing How many ways can you...? relation to...Producing Can you create new and Write a TV show play,Inventing a product. unusual uses for...? puppet show, role play,Synonyms: Constructing Can you develop a proposal song or pantomime about.. which would...? Design a record, book or magazine cover for... Sell an idea Devise a way to