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Fatal Footprint: The global Human Impact on Clustermunition


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Fatal Footprint: The global Human Impact on Clustermunition

  1. 1. Fatal Footprint:The Global Human Impactof Cluster Munitions Preliminary Report, November 2006 Handicap International
  2. 2. Table of ContentsTable of Contents 2 Conclusion 41 LESSON 1:Acknowledgments 5 Data Collection, the Devil is in the Detail 41 LESSON 2:Abbreviations and Acronyms 6 Cluster Munitions Cause DisproportionateIntroduction 7 Long-Term Civilian Harm 42 LESSON 3:Methodology and Research Team 9 Cluster Submunitions Casualties are Young Males at Work 43Focus: Southeast Asia 11 LESSON 4: Immediate and Comprehensive Clearance CAMBODIA 11 Reduces Civilian Casualties 43 LAO PEOPLE’S DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC 13 VIETNAM 15 TablesFocus: Africa 17 TABLE 1: Confirmed Cluster Submunitions CHAD 17 Casualties in Affected Countries 44 ERITREA 18 TABLE 2: Status of Casualty Data Collection ETHIOPIA 18 in Cluster Submunitions Affected Countries 45 SIERRA LEONE 19 SUDAN 19 Selected Biography 46Focus: Southeast Europe 21 Notes 48 ALBANIA 21 BOSNIA and HERZEGOVINA 22 CROATIA 22 KOSOVO 23 MONTENEGRO 26 SERBIA 26Focus:Commonwealth of Independent States 27 CHECHNYA/RUSSIAN FEDERATION 27 TAJIKISTAN 27Focus: Greater Middle East andNorth Africa Region 29 AFGHANISTAN 29 IRAQ 31 KUWAIT 34 LEBANON 34 SAUDI ARABIA 38 SYRIA 38 WESTERN SAHARA/MOROCCO 38 Fatal Footprint: The Global Human Impact of Cluster Munition / 3
  3. 3. Acknowledgments his preliminary report was conducted, Action Center (CROMAC), Clear PathT written and produced by Handicap International, with the financial supportof the Government of Norway. International (CPI), HIB-Cambodia, Julien Temple, Reuben Nogueria-McCarthy and Edith Karam from UNICEF, the Iraqi Health and Social Care Organization (IHSCO), John C. Brown from Handicap International (HI) would like to VVAF Iraq, Landmine Action UK (LMA UK), theexpress its appreciation to the many mine Landmine Resource Center staff (LMRC), theaction organizations, organizations working National Demining Office (NDO) and the UNwith people with disabilities, disabled people’s Mine Action Coordination Center for Southorganizations and the other individuals and Lebanon (MACC-SL) in Lebanon, Mines Advisoryorganizations that provided information, time, Group Iraq (MAG), the National Authority forresources and expertise for this study. Prosthetics and Orthotics (NAPO) and the UN HI owes special thanks to the cluster sub- Mine Action Office in Sudan (UNMAO), themunitions and other mine/ERW survivors, fami- National Demining Office in Chad (HCND), thelies and communities who shared their experi- Office of the Kosovo Protection Corpsence. Coordinator (OKPCC) EOD Management Unit, Rosy Cave at the United Nations Institute for The team values the support of the Disarmament Research (UNIDIR), Steve Goose,International Campaign to Ban Mark Hiznay and Bonnie Docherty at HumanLandmines/Landmine Monitor and the Cluster Rights Watch (HRW), UN Mission in EthiopiaMunition Coalition networks. and Eritrea Mine Action Coordination Centre It would also like to thank the following (UNMEE MACC) and Zamanuddin Noori andorganizations and individuals for their assis- Olivier Moeckli of the International Committeetance: Albanian Mine Action Executive (AMAE), of the Red Cross (ICRC) in Afghanistan, as wellAndrew Wells-Dang and Catholic Relief Services as several people who provided anonymous(CRS) Vietnam, Cambodia Mine UXO Victim information.Information System (CMVIS), Croatian Mine Fatal Footprint: The Global Human Impact of Cluster Munition / 5
  4. 4. Abbreviations and AcronymsAMAE Albanian Mine Action Executive MAC-MACC Mine Action Center/Mine ActionAO Aviatsionnaya Oskolochnyang Cell - Mine Action Coordination (Aviation Fragmentation) CentreARCS Afghan Red Crescent Society MAG Mines Advisory GroupBHMAC Bosnia and Herzegovina Mine MCC Mennonite Central Committee Action Center MRE Mine Risk EducationBLU Bomb Live Unit NATO North Atlantic Treaty OrganizationCBU Cluster Bomb Unit NDO National Demining OfficeCBR Community-Based Rehabilitation NGO Non-Governmental OrganizationCCW Convention on Certain NMAA National Mine Action Authority Conventional Weapons NRA National Regulatory AuthorityCEM Combined Effects Munition OKPCC Office of Kosovo Protection CorpsCMC Cluster Munition Coalition CoordinatorCMVIS Cambodia Mine UXO Victim PTAB Protivotankovaya Aviatsionnaya Information System Bomba (Anti-tank Aviation Bomb)CPI Clear Path International TMAC Tajik Mine Action CellCROMAC Croatian Mine Action Center UN United NationsDispenser Container or bomb from which UNDP United Nations Development submunitions are ejected ProgrammeDPICM Dual-Purpose Improved UNICEF United Nations Children’s Fund Conventional Munitions UNIDIR United Nations Institute forEOD Explosive Ordnance Disposal Disarmament ResearchERW Explosive Remnants of War UNMACA UN Mine Action Center forFootprint Extent of surface area covered by a Afghanistan cluster munitions strike UNMIK United Nations Mission in KosovoGICHD Geneva International Centre for UNOPS United Nations Office for Project Humanitarian Demining ServicesHI Handicap International UNMAO United Nations Mine Action OfficeHRW Human Rights Watch UNMEE United Nations Mission in EthiopiaICBL International Campaign to Ban and Eritrea Landmines UXO Unexploded OrdnanceICRC International Committee of the VVAF Vietnam Veterans of America Red Cross FoundationIDP Internally Displaced PersonIHSCO Iraqi Health and Social Care OrganizationIMSMA Information Management System for Mine ActionKISR Kuwait Institute for Scientific ResearchLMA UK Landmine Action UKLIS Landmine Impact Survey 6 / Fatal Footprint: The Global Human Impact of Cluster Munitions
  5. 5. IntroductionT he July-August 2006 Lebanon conflict to ensure success, creating wider and overlap- drew widespread attention to the long- ping contamination. Within the footprint, sub- term impact of cluster munitions on civil- munitions indiscriminately kill and injure mili-ian populations. Calls for a ban of this indis- tary targets and civilians.criminate weapon are becoming louder. Onecountry – Belgium – has already taken this step, Even when accepting the low official failureadopting legislation supported by Handicap rates of optimal test conditions, large numbersInternational, and initiatives are underway in at of submunitions fail to explode upon impact. Inleast eight other countries. reality, failure rates are often significantly high- er due to soil and weather conditions, as well asAs in the case of Lebanon, previous usage of incorrect delivery and frequent malfunctioningcluster munitions has sparked eloquent verbal of self-destruct and self-neutralization mecha-condemnations and has been at the forefront of nisms, as was seen in Lebanon. Consequently,intermittent international interest and activism a fatal footprint remains until all deadly debrissince the first extensive utilization in South- is cleared and the actual strike is only the start-east Asia in the 1960-70s. Since then – like the ing point of the long-lasting harm the weaponitems themselves – the issue of cluster muni- can cause.tions and their impact lay largely dormant untilthe outbreak of the Balkan and Gulf conflicts. Yet, unlike the initial blasts, the effects of unex-However, for more than 30 years, states failed ploded submunitions do seem more discrimi-to address the lasting humanitarian impact of nate; affecting many more civilians than mili-cluster munitions. tary personnel, killing and injuring children at play, families returning after war and youngMore than half a century has passed since the men and women in the course of their dailydesign and first use of cluster munitions. lives, as well as those clearing failed submuni-Ensuing decades have seen both the number of tions and peacekeepers.casualties mount, and the use of these muni-tions proliferate. Spreading through new con- Unlike many instances of production, stockpil-flicts to destroy lives, disrupt communities, and ing and combat use, the human impact duringdeny vulnerable populations’ access to and after the conflict have not been routinelyresources needed for economic recovery, clus- recorded nor publicized. As a result, the fullter munitions simultaneously assure both a scope of the problem is largely unknown andcostly and lethal legacy of war for post-conflict undervalued.generations. Fatal Footprint: The Global Human Impact ofCluster munitions are imprecise weapons, Cluster Munitions is an unprecedented prelimi-designed to strike a greater surface area than nary effort to document the impact of clustermany other conventional weapons by dispers- munitions on the lives of people in 23 countriesing smaller yet highly lethal explosive submuni- and areas that are not internationally recog-tions. The cluster submunitions scattered on nized, which are confirmed to be affected bythe surface create a ‘footprint’. The footprint of cluster munitions. Despite its preliminary char-a single cluster munitions strike is often hun- acter, this report is the first comprehensivedreds of meters wide, and more than 1,000 sub- study systematically analyzing the impact ofmunitions can be dispensed at a time. cluster munitions on civilian populationsOftentimes, targets are struck more than once through casualty data. It utilizes the limited Fatal Footprint: The Global Human Impact of Cluster Munition / 7
  6. 6. information available on casualties of clustersubmunitions to track the human impact fromthe initial cluster munitions strikes, over theshort-term post-strike emergency phase, to thepost-conflict period, which can affect the livesof individuals, families and communities forgenerations. By identifying which peoplebecome casualties, when, how and why, theresearch goes beyond simply assessingwhether cluster munitions are indiscriminateand excessively injurious.Fatal Footprint is part of an ongoing project thatseeks to improve understanding of the impactof cluster munitions by documenting short-,mid- and long-term casualties, cumulativeeffects of disability, mortality and resourcedenial on families and communities. It also pro-vides insight into the items and activities pos-ing the greatest threats in affected areas. Thiswork has been made possible with the supportof the Government of Norway, which has alsotaken a lead and pledged to work towards aninternational ban on cluster bombs.At the international level, the Third ReviewConference of the Convention on Prohibitions orRestrictions on the Use of Certain ConventionalWeapons, to be held from 6 to 17 November2006, provides a unique opportunity forMember States to acknowledge and tackle thelasting human impact of cluster munitions andhasten the establishment of a legally bindinginstrument on these weapons. Brussels, 2 November 2006 8 / Fatal Footprint: The Global Human Impact of Cluster Munitions
  7. 7. Methodology and Research Team ResearchTteam andicap International has utilized its field Initial inquiries clearly indicated the needH and research experience in the area of victim assistance and data collection to provide a better understanding of theconsequences of cluster munitions use on peo- to analyze data of all casualties caused by clus- ter submunitions, including both those people killed and injured as a result of cluster muni- tions strikes and people involved in incidentsple in 23 contaminated countries and areas not resulting from submunitions as remnants ofinternationally recognized. war. The report takes a regional approach, The study outline and preparations start-comprising individual country profiles, while ed in April 2006 and the research resulting intaking into account both the wider regional and this preliminary report was conducted fromhistorical context and country-specific charac- mid-July to mid-October 2006 by a team ofteristics of cluster munitions used. A few researchers, information providers and expertsselected cases of cluster munitions use and with experience in mine action, mine victimsubsequent human impact have been elaborat- assistance, data collection and post-conflicted for their relevance with regard to the scale of societies. A final report is scheduled to appearcontamination, historical and contemporary in 2007 as part of a larger project.significance, as well as various ways of dealingwith and recording post-strike impact. The Initially, background information on clus-research has been divided into five regions: ter munitions use, technical specifications, asAfrica, the Commonwealth of Independent well as existing published information on clus-States, the Greater Middle East and North Africa ter submunitions casualties was compiled inRegion, Southeast Asia, and Southeastern one place and studied. Following that, a broadEurope. Three countries in the Southeast Asia range of research methods, including analysisregion, three countries in the Greater Middle of publications, email, telephone and face-to-East and North Africa Region, and Kosovo were face interviews (at international forums) werechosen as key cases for their geographical, his- used. A data gathering and management sys-torical and contamination diversity and paral- tem was developed to store, streamline andlels. correlate casualty data, strike data and techni- Each country profile contains a short cal specifications. In addition, a field trip tobackground section explaining cluster muni- Lebanon was undertaken from 30 August to 10tions use and contamination to describe the September in order to conduct first-handpotential extent of unexploded cluster submu- research. Information from anterior field tripsnitions pollution. Secondly, the availability and to, among others, Cambodia (April 2006),completeness of casualty data and injury sur- Kosovo (October 2005), and Afghanistanveillance mechanisms are assessed in order to (August 2006) was also included. One teamdefine the scope of underreporting. Thirdly, member is based in Vietnam and experienceavailable casualty data are presented and ana- and resources within the Cluster Munitionlyzed to the fullest extent possible to draw a Coalition and the International Campaign tocasualty profile to be used in assistance plan- Ban Landmines were employed.ning and to be taken into account when consid- Tailor-made queries were drawn up for rel-ering the unwanted effects of cluster munitions evant experts and information providers sup-use. A selection of survivor testimonies is plying both casualty data and correlating strikeincluded to show the human face of cluster sub- data. The results of these enquiries, as well asmunitions casualties. other responses, were compiled, standardized, Fatal Footprint: The Global Human Impact of Cluster Munition / 9
  8. 8. crosschecked and analyzed. Where necessary, Research Teamqueries were refined and missing data was pur- • Habbouba Aoun (Coordinator, Landminesued by consulting known sources to obtain the Resource Center, Balamand University,most complete information possible. The study Beirut, Lebanon) was co-researcher for theemployed quantitative analysis of the statistical Lebanon country profile and facilitated thedata available from existing data collection sys- field mission to Lebanon.tems. The researchers extracted information on • Stan Brabant (Head, Policy Unit, Handicapspecific numbers of casualties, age, gender, International, Brussels, Belgium) assisted ingroups most at risk, time, location, activity and many aspects of the report’s production andnature of the incident, for each country profile. development, and together with Katleen The study aims to detail the human impact Maes and Hugh Hosman developed theand the scope of the problem to increase the vision of the study and defined the researchpossibilities for improved, more effective and methodology.varied assistance for the victims, i.e. the affect- • Patricia Campbell (Victim Assistanceed individual, his or her family and affected Specialist, HI-Landmine Monitor, Maputo,communities. Handicap International sections, Mozambique) conducted backgroundin partnership with other civil society groups in research on various countries and issues.relevant European and cluster munitions-affect-ed countries, will disseminate the Fatal • Hugh Hosman (Data ManagementFootprint study to provide systematic informa- Specialist, HI, Hue, Vietnam) conductedtion and to support others in preventing similar research on Southeast Asia, theincident from occurring in the future. Commonwealth of Independent States, sev- eral Balkan countries and was in charge of By looking at data collection mechanisms data management, as well as study concep-and examining the degree to which they are tion.systematic and effective and how comprehen-sive the resulting data is, Fatal Footprint identi- • Katleen Maes (Victim Assistancefied areas where information collection and Coordinator, HI, Brussels) conducteddatabase resources are in need of support. research on Afghanistan, Iraq and Lebanon and was in charge of general coordination and final editing of the report, as well as At the preliminary report stage, the Fatal study conception.Footprint study has already compiled the most • Loren Persi (Specialist Researcher, HI,comprehensive publicly available data on Prague, Czech Republic) conducted researchcasualties of cluster submunitions. But the on Kosovo, Africa and several countries inauthors acknowledge required information is the Greater Middle East and North Africamissing. They call on relevant sources to pro- Region.vide casualty and strike data in their posses-sion so that the humanitarian needs generated • Yolande Hoornaert and Hildegardeby cluster munitions can be addressed more Vansintjan (HI Communications Departmentadequately. and Policy Unit) facilitated the printing and distribution process. 10 / Fatal Footprint: The Global Human Impact of Cluster Munitions
  9. 9. Focus: Southeast Asia The Second Indochina War, which began resulting in an estimated post-strike contam-in Vietnam, was characterized by high levels of ination of 1.92 to 5.77 million submunitions.US aerial bombardment, which spread to theneighboring countries of Cambodia and the Lao Use Background and ContaminationPeople’s Democratic Republic (Lao PDR).Subsequently, all three countries face varying The US used cluster munitions indegrees of post-conflict cluster submunitions Cambodia from 1969-1973 in an attempt tocasualties and contamination. interdict the flow of supplies on the Ho Chi Minh Trail, as well as Vietnamese regular and irregu- lar forces operating from eastern Cambodia.1 The number of cluster munitions strikes is esti- mated at 17,235.2 Air-delivered submunitionsCAMBODIA used include: BLU-3, 18, 24/66, 26/36/59, 49, Confirmed Casualties: 1998 – 2006 61, 63/86, and 77, and M28. Of an estimated total of 19.23 million submunitions dispensed, Total Strike Post- Post- the BLU-26 was the most common at nearly 54 Strike Conflict percent (10.37 million units), followed by the Grand Total 120 N/A N/A 120 BLU-24 at 20 percent (3.93 million units) and Injured 91 91 the BLU-61 and 63 at 17 percent (3.3 million Killed 29 29 units)3. Unknown Status 0 0 Submunitions manufacturers of the peri- Man 43 43 od estimated a 10 percent failure rate, “but it is Woman 12 12 now generally agreed that the actual rate was Boy 56 56 approximately 30 percent because the ord- Girl 9 9 nance was often not dropped in accordance with manufacturers’ specifications.”4 Accepting Military 0 0 a low failure rate of 10 percent, at least 1.92 mil- Deminer 0 0 lion submunitions became ERW. However, Unknown 0 0 using the higher rate of 30 percent, initial con- Dominant Activity Handling submunitions (70) tamination could be as high as 5.77 million sub- Dominant Location Livelihood areas (67) munitions. In optimal condition testing at Nellis Air Force Base in 1966, BLU-26 submunitions had a 26 percent failure rate after deployment.5Key Findings But given tree canopy and soil conditions in• Differentiation of ERW type casualties, eastern Cambodia, the failure rate was likely at including those caused by cluster submuni- least 30 percent resulting in 3.11 million unex- tions, started in September 2006. The exer- ploded BLU-26s. cise has, so far, confirmed 120 cluster sub- munitions casualties (29 killed and 91 Data Collection injured). Data collection is considered nearly com-• The total number of cluster submunitions plete in Cambodia and the Cambodia Mine UXO casualties is unknown, as complete informa- Victim Information System (CMVIS) is the defin- tion on strike, post-strike and post-conflict itive source of landmine/ERW casualty data,6 casualties is not available. containing records on over 62,556 casualties• From 1969-1973 the United States used a collected through the Cambodian Red Cross wide range of BLU cluster submunitions network and mine action operators.7 Fatal Footprint: The Global Human Impact of Cluster Munition / 11
  10. 10. In 2005, CMVIS developed a new data col- to 24, encountered a submunition in a rice lection form for differentiating ERW types, paddy: the girl was killed and the rest were including cluster submunitions, among land- injured. mine/ERW casualties. In September 2006, a final review process of the new form was under- Conflict/Post-Conflict Comparison way to expand the differentiation process All confirmed submunitions casualties through training of data collection imple- reported are post-conflict: while specific infor- menters.8 mation on civilian and military casualties during the conflict is not available, estimates range Casualties and Analysis9 from as low as 30,000 to as high as 500,000 A CMVIS pilot project resulted in detailed Cambodians killed during the US bombing cam- records for 120 cluster submunitions casualties paigns: how many of these were due to cluster in 64 incidents: 29 killed and 91 injured in 18 munitions will likely never be known.11 provinces of Cambodia10 and dated from 1998 to© Handicap International 2006. Analysis of available data shows that Comparison with Post-Conflict Casualties males are most at risk: 83 percent (99 casual- Attributed to Mines and ERW ties) were male; men accounted for 36 percent (43: 16 killed and 27 injured) and boys under 18 There was insufficient data with differenti- for 47 percent (56: 10 killed and 46 injured), ation of ERW item type to permit extensive com- respectively, of all cluster submunitions casual- parison of trends among landmine and cluster ties. Boys were 86 percent of child casualties; submunitions casualties. However, a random only nine were girls (one killed and eight sample of 120 landmine casualties showed a injured). Twelve casualties were women (two total of 104 incidents, as opposed to 64 for clus- killed and 10 injured). ter submunitions.12 Further analysis of the sam- ple showed that only 42.5 percent of casualties On average 1.8 persons were involved per (51) occurred in livelihood areas and seven per- incident. However, 18 percent of total incidents cent (eight) in villages. Handling a landmine involved three or more people and accounted accounted for only nine percent (11) of land- for 39 percent of total cluster submunitions mine casualties. On average 1.2 people were casualties. involved per incident. Only three percent The most common incident activity was (three) of total landmine incidents involved handling submunitions at 58 percent of all three or more people, and these accounted for casualties (70), followed by “doing nothing” at only nine percent (11) of landmine casualties. 26 percent (31), and then livelihood activities at 13 percent (16). The most common incident locations were livelihood areas (such as rice fields and forests, etc.) at 56 percent (67), in vil- Life Experience lages at 25 percent (30), and along roads at In 2005, Choen Ha and two other boys 12.5 percent (15). Handling cluster submuni- were playing near their village in Kampong tions in livelihood areas accounted for 37 per- Speu province when they found four steel cent (44) of all reported casualties. The worst balls. Each took a turn throwing them, of these incidents occurred on 1 April 2003, in playing ‘marbles’. They did not know that the village of Chuuk (Krouch Chhmar District, the balls were BLU-63s, or that they were Kampong Cham province), when two men, two dangerous. When the third boy’s turn women, a boy, and a girl, ranging in age from 17 came, he struck his mark and one of the items exploded. One boy died of massive abdominal injuries from the shrapnel, while the two other boys were injured. Ha was 17 at the time of the incident near Rol An Beng village and did not finish school. To pay for medical treatment his family spent their entire life savings. There are eight in his family and Ha is the third of six children (four boys and two girls): they are all “angry against the Americans” and during the interview © Handicap International called for clearance, destruction of stock- piles, and a ban on the production of clus- ter munitions.13 12 / Fatal Footprint: The Global Human Impact of Cluster Munitions
  11. 11. LAO PEOPLE’S likely 30 percent failure rate. Cluster submuni- tions accounted for 46 percent (319,379 items)DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC of all ERW located and destroyed by UXO Lao from 1996 to December 2005.20 Confirmed Casualties: 1973 – 2006 In August and September 1995, a US mili- Total Strike Post- Post- tary team visited Lao to examine demining/ Strike Conflict ERW clearance options and made the following Grand Total 4,813 N/A N/A 4,813 assessment: “Submunitions consist of three Injured 2,165 2,165 types: impact fused, time delay fused, and anti- Killed 2,521 2,521 disturbance fused… [b]ecause there is no way Unknown Status 127 127 to determine the type of fuse… they must all be Man 2,257 2,257 treated as anti-disturbance devices. US doc- Woman 470 470 trine considers all areas littered with submuni- tions… as minefields.”21 Boy 1,654 1,654 Girl 275 275 Military 0 0 Data Collection Deminer 0 0 Data collection is incomplete, since Lao Unknown 157 157 has no nationwide data collection or injury sur- veillance system. However, the National Dominant Livelihood (2,674), tampering Activities (809), playing with ERW (571) Regulatory Authority (NRA) has as part of its mandate to develop and maintain a national Dominant Livelihood areas (2,761), Locations in villages (1,188) casualty surveillance system and has begun the process.22 The Handicap International (HI) impactKey Findings survey and UXO Lao are the primary sources of• Forty-two percent of incidents involve sub- ERW casualty data and together provided indi- munitions, leading to at least 4,813 con- vidual records on 11,410 post-conflict casual- firmed cluster submunitions casualties. ties. Within this total, the HI survey data holds 10,639 detailed records, and an additional• All recorded casualties are civilians – with 57 1,279 who were not interviewed for a total of percent resulting from livelihood activities. 11,918 reported casualties.23 UXO Lao, which• From 1964-1973 the United States used a receives reports of new casualties but does not wide range of BLU submunitions resulting in actively collect data, has records on 870 an estimated contamination of 20.9 to 62.6 mine/ERW casualties (260 killed and 610 million submunitions. injured) from 1999 to December 2005,24 though records for only 771 detailed records were avail-Use Background and Contamination able. Cluster munitions were used in vast quan- All data sources in Lao differentiate ERWtities by the US from 1964 to 1973 in an attempt item types: for example, in the HI survey thereto interdict the flow of supplies on the Ho Chi were only 12 percent of items reported asMinh Trail in southern Lao, and in support of ‘unknown’ and the UXO Lao data generallyRoyal Lao Government military campaigns in specifies the BLU type encountered.the north, during the conflict with Vietnam.14Air-delivered submunitions used include: BLU- Casualties and Analysis3, 7, 18, 24/66, 26/36/59, 42/54, 43, 44, 45, 61,63, 66, 73, and Mk 118.15 The most common In total, 4,813 cluster submunitions casu-submunitions encountered are the BLU-3, 24, alties were reported from 1973 to 2006: 2,52126, 42, 61, and 63.16 Of the approximately killed, 2,165 injured, and 127 whose status was208.75 million submunitions dispensed, the unknown.25 This is 42 percent of the total 11,410BLU-26 was the most common at 76 percent casualties with detailed records. Therefore,(158.79 million units), followed by the Mk 118 at based on the extrapolation of an average rate ofsix percent (13.18 million).18 42 percent cluster submunitions casualties among the 1,279 reported casualties lacking Accepting low and high failure rates of 10 detailed records, there are likely at least 537and 30 percent, respectively, between 20.9 and additional cluster submunitions casualties.62.6 million cluster submunitions became ERW. This leads to an estimated total of 5,350 clusterWith a failure rate of 26 percent in optimal con- submunitions casualties.dition testing,19 there were at least 41.3 millionunexploded BLU-26s alone remaining at the Analysis of available data for 4,656 clusterend of the war, and 47.6 million given a more submunitions casualties (excluding 157 casual- Fatal Footprint: The Global Human Impact of Cluster Munition / 13
  12. 12. ties for whom not all the required details were are estimated from 200 to 400, so it is likely recorded) shows that males are most at risk and that between 80 (at 42 percent) and 200 (at 51 accounted for 84 percent (3,911) of all cluster percent) per year are cluster submunitions submunitions casualties, with men represent- casualties.30 ing 48 percent (2,257) and boys 36 percent In the HI national survey, 49 percent of (1,654), respectively. Boys make up nearly 86 10,639 casualties with detailed records indicat- percent of child casualties (1,929). Women ed that more than one person was involved in accounted for 10 percent (470) and girls for six the incident (5,168). Cluster submunitions percent (275) of the total. accounted for 43 percent (2,229) of multiple The most common incident activities were casualty incidents, with all other ERW combined related to livelihood (digging, planting, harvest- at 47 percent (2,442), and mines at 10 percent© Handicap International ing, collecting forest products and cooking) at (497).31 57 percent (2,674), followed by tampering at 17 Cluster submunitions alone accounted for percent (809), and then playing with ERW at 12 40 percent (1,815) of 4,525 of those injured, and percent (571). By far the most common activi- led to the greatest proportion of multiple ties for both women and girls were livelihood injuries amongst all other casualties, with 64 areas, accounting for 71 percent (532) of a total percent (706) of 1,109 total multiple injuries. 745 female casualties; females make up 20 per- Among all survivors, 68 percent (3,060) had cent of casualties engaging in livelihood activi- amputations and three percent (143) were mul- ties. tiple amputees: cluster submunitions survivors were 40 percent (1,211) of amputees and 43 per- Locations where incidents were most like- cent (61) of multiple amputees.32 ly to occur were livelihood areas (rice fields, forests, streams, etc.) at 59 percent (2,761) and villages at 26 percent (1,188) of casualties.26 Again, by far the most common incident loca- Life Experience tion for females were livelihood areas, account- In 2003, Dam was injured near his home in ing for 57 percent (423) of all female casualties. Phalanexay district when he found and Approximately 39 percent (1,801) of cluster sub- played with a BLU-63 submunition. His munitions casualties occurred in livelihood injuries were typical of many such inci- areas and involved livelihood activities, while dents – massive abdominal trauma, tampering in livelihood areas constituted nine shrapnel wounds, as well as a leg and an percent (430) of total casualties and playing arm broken by the blast. Evacuated to with ERW four percent (209). Savannakhet he received initial treatment, and after two days seemed stable: howev- Comparison with Casualties due to er, his condition deteriorated as infection Mines/Other ERW set in. The family had no money to pay for treatment so HI decided to evacuate Dam When unknown or unidentified ERW casu- to Thailand. His father recalled that when alties are included, cluster submunitions casu- the boy was ferried across the river he alties averaged 44 percent of all casualties for thought he would never see his son alive the period 1973-1996,27 which was as much as again. all other ERW and mines together (12 percent unknown). From 1999-2005, this was an aver- Nearly 12 now, Dam was revisited by HI age of 42 percent, but in the first four months of staff in September 2006. When ques-© Handicap International 2006, it peaked to 72 percent of all recorded tioned directly about what happened he casualties.28 did not reply. His father explained that Dam does not remember the event itself – When the item type is known or differenti- instead he has recurring nightmares of the ated in data collection, cluster submunitions explosion. But he went on to say that he casualties made up at least 51 percent of casu- had returned to school and is doing well. alties between 1999 and 2006, similar to some One thing Dam did have to say was that he other affected countries in the region.29 tries to avoid ERW, but they are every- With high number of incidents involving where in the fields near the village.33 livelihood activities that disturb soil or vegeta- tion, in combination with (disturbance fuzed) munitions that have become increasingly unstable over the decades, cluster submuni- tions are the likely cause of a similar proportion of incidents where the device type is unknown. According to the NRA, annual ERW casualties 14 / Fatal Footprint: The Global Human Impact of Cluster Munitions
  13. 13. VIETNAM was dropped on Lao, for an estimated 70.9 mil- lion.38 Accepting a low failure rate of 10 percent, Confirmed Casualties: 1973 – 2006 more than seven million submunitions became Total Strike Post- Post- ERW; however, using the higher rate of 30 per- Strike Conflict cent, initial contamination could have been 21.2 Grand Total 1,275 N/A N/A 1,275 million submunitions.39 Injured 557 557 Killed 278 278 Data Collection Unknown Status 440 440 Casualty data collection is incomplete, as Man 391 391 Vietnam has no national data collection or Woman 104 104 injury surveillance system.40 Project RENEW and Boy 278 278 Clear Path International (CPI) are the primary Girl 56 56 operational sources collecting ERW casualty data. CPI has shared its new casualty data with Military 5 5 RENEW, whose database contains records of Deminer 1 1 casualties in Quang Tri province from 1975 to Unknown 440 440 2006. However, detailed full province data was Dominant Livelihood (596) unavailable from RENEW due to a database Activities update in progress.41 In both the RENEW and Dominant Livelihood areas (602) CPI data, ERW type is differentiated if known. Location A survey was conducted in A Luoi district of Thua-Thien Hue province in 2001, which dif- ferentiated ERW types.42 In 2005, the first phaseKey Findings of a national landmine/UXO impact survey was• Total post-conflict submunitions casualties conducted in three provinces, but it is not are estimated at 34,550 to 52,350 – 1,275 known what level of detail was collected and are confirmed. the November 2005 summary report did not dif-• The vast majority of casualties are civilians ferentiate casualties per device type.43 Catholic doing livelihood activities – at least 50 per- Relief Services (CRS) conducted an MRE base- cent of incidents where the device is known line study, including casualty data in three dis- were caused by submunitions. tricts and one municipality of Quang Tri in mid- 2006.44• From 1965-1973, the United States used a wide range of BLU submunitions with an esti- mated contamination of between seven and Casualties and Analysis45 21.2 million. In total, 1,275 cluster submunitions casu- alties were recorded from 1973 to 2006: 278Use Background and Contamination killed, 557 injured, and 440 with unknown sta- Cluster munitions were used by the US tus. At least one was military clearance person-from 1965-1973 during the conflict in Vietnam. nel.46Fifty-five out of 64 provinces were struck with An analysis of available data for 835 clus-cluster munitions and a number of cities were ter submunitions casualties (excluding 440targeted, including Hai Phong, Hai Duong, unknown status casualties) shows that malesHanoi, Ho Chi Minh, and Hue.34 Air-delivered are most at risk at 81 percent (675) of all clusterdevice types used include: BLU-3, 24/66, submunitions casualties. Adult men accounted26/36/59, 32, 42/54, 43/44, 59, 61, 63/86, 77, for 48 percent (397) and boys 33 percent (278),and 87.35 Artillery-delivered cluster munitions respectively, of all reported casualties. Boyswere also used in three provinces.36 represented 82 percent of 334 child casualties. US military records show that the level of Women accounted for 12 percent (104) and girlsall air-delivered munitions in the A Luoi district for seven percent (56) of the total.of Hue province peaked in 1972 to approximate- The vast majority of casualties, i.e. 71 per-ly 120,000, which is nearly half of all ordnance cent (596), occurred during livelihood activities,dropped between 1965 and 1973 and about followed by playing at six percent (48) and col-three times the rate of 1971. Cluster munitions lecting war waste at five percent (39).also accounted for nearly half of the total muni- Livelihood activities caused 79 percent of alltions dropped on the district in the final year of female casualties (126).the war.37 Incidents in livelihood areas (rice fields, In total, 413,130 tons of submunitions grazing areas, forests, and streams) accountedwere dispensed in Vietnam, 34 percent of what for 72 percent (602) of casualties and incidents Fatal Footprint: The Global Human Impact of Cluster Munition / 15
  14. 14. Conflict/Post-Conflict Comparison Given the estimate of nearly four million Vietnamese civilians and 1.5 million military personnel killed during 30 years of conflict,50 and nearly a decade of use of cluster munitions in 55 of 64 provinces, a significant portion of those casualties were certainly caused by clus- ter submunitions. However, the extent of these casualties will likely never be known. Life Experience51© Clear Path International Ho Van Lai was injured in a cluster submu- nitions incident in August 2000, which killed two cousins and slightly wounded a sibling. The boys were playing among the pine trees near their homes, where the vil- lage children often play, when they found within villages accounted for 12 percent (99). what looked like a small metal ball in the More than three quarter of female casualties sandy soil – a ball which exploded min- (122) occurred in livelihood areas. utes later as they were kicking it back and forth. Nearly 40 percent (329) of all cluster sub- munitions casualties reported that they were Lai was blinded in one eye and lost partial involved in an incident causing multiple casual- vision in the other. He lost a leg, part of ties. the remaining foot, one hand and the thumb of the other, and was terribly Comparison with Post-Conflict Casualties scarred by the blast. After his initial recov- Attributed to Mines and ERW ery, he faced three surgical revisions to be fitted for prosthetics, spending months in Submunitions caused 33 percent (1,275) recovery and rehabilitation. As with many of all recorded landmine/ERW casualties young boys, playing football was Lai’s (3,914), and accounted for 50 percent where the passion, and something he thought he item was known in available data from 1973 to would never be able to do again. 2006 for Vietnam. Between 2003 and 2005, the Eventually he returned to school and rate of casualties known to be caused by cluster some three years later was again seen submunitions was 55 percent. This corresponds playing football. closely with the rate of cluster submunitions casualties among ERW casualties generally in both Lao and Tajikistan.47 Therefore, it is likely that cluster submunitions cause a similar pro- portion of incidents where the device type is unknown. According to estimates provided by the Ministry of Labor, Invalids and Social Affairs there were 104,701 civilian landmine/ERW casualties between 1975 and 2000, 38,849 peo- ple were killed and 65,852 injured.48 If cluster submunitions casualties constituted 33 to 50 percent of total recorded casualties, they could account for an estimated 34,550 to 52,350 civil- ian casualties between 1975 and 2000. Without nationwide data collection, insuf- ficient data exists to establish a reliable annual landmine/ERW casualty rate, but estimates indicate that there are between 1,200 and 3,000 © Clear Path International each year.49 Taking the low estimate into account, this could mean there are between 396 and 600 cluster munitions casualties annu- ally in Vietnam. 16 / Fatal Footprint: The Global Human Impact of Cluster Munitions
  15. 15. Focus: Africa Cluster munitions use in Africa demon- destruction of only 157 submunitions. This isstrates that even limited use of the weapon can approximately 0.01 percent of the total ofhave a significant human impact. However, the 158,034 ERW cleared between September 2000extent of the threat of unexploded submuni- and March 2006.59tions has not been assessed and improved datacollection is needed to asses the humanitarianimpact and long-term needs of survivors. Data CollectionCHAD There is no comprehensive data collectionKey Findings mechanism in Chad. HCND reports of ERW casualties are not differentiated by type of ord-• Several locations in Chad are contaminated nance; even the distinction between mine and with cluster munitions. ERW incidents may not always be clearly• The absence of complete casualty data and recorded.60 Fatal casualties often go unreported data differentiated by item type impedes and accurate reporting of new casualties is assessment of the human impact of cluster affected by limited access to incident loca- submunitions. tions.61 The LIS for Chad did not adequately dif- ferentiate between casualties of mines andUse Background and Contamination ERW62 and no differentiation for casualties of cluster submunitions was made. Cluster munitions were used in Chad bythe Libyan army after the departure of its troopsfrom the country in mid-1987.52 The 2002Landmine Impact Survey (LIS) reports 92 sites Casualties and Analysiswith cluster munitions contamination.53Submunitions and/or their containers have HCND is not able to estimate the numberbeen found in several areas of the following of casualties related to cluster submunitionsregions of Chad: the Borkou Ennedi Tibesti due to a lack of clear incident reporting.63 The(BET) region (northeastern Chad), the Biltine International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC)region (northeastern Chad), and east of does not know of cluster submunitions casual-N’Djamena.54 ties, and is not in a position to provide informa- tion about some of the areas affected by cluster Two types of submunitions have been munitions.64 Mines Advisory Group (MAG) doesfound, both of former Soviet Union (USSR) man- not have knowledge of casualties due to clusterufacture: PTAB-2.5 antivehicle submunitions submunitions in Chad.65and AO-1SCh antipersonnel submunitions.55There have also been reports of French use of Of the 339 casualties of mines and ERWcluster munitions in Chad.56 However, as of 3 recorded in the LIS, 330, or 97 percent, wereOctober 2006, mine clearance operators have civilian. The most common activity type duringnot found evidence of unexploded French sub- incidents recorded in the LIS was tampering,munitions.57 representing 121 casualties, or 36 percent, the In Chad, mines and other ERW seem to next most common activity was herding, 73pose a graver danger than unexploded submu- people, or 22 percent.66 The LIS data show thatnitions. The National High Commission for many casualties sustained injuries to the upperDemining (Haut Commissariat National de body, and state that this is predominantlyDéminage, HCND)58 recorded clearance and caused by tampering with ERW.67, Fatal Footprint: The Global Human Impact of Cluster Munition / 17
  16. 16. ERITREA One child was killed during the cluster munitions strike on the Korokon IDP camp inKey Findings May 2000. The low level of casualties during• Cluster submunitions casualties have been the strike has been attributed to the high failure reported as the immediate result of at least rate of the submunitions, subsequently result- two strikes, and as a result of post-strike ing in extensive ERW contamination.76 Many of contamination. the unexploded submunitions found at Korokon failed to arm correctly, which may have also• The limited casualty data collection mecha- resulted in them being less sensitive to han- nism does not include specific reference to dling. cluster submunitions casualties. The May 2000 cluster munitions strike on Asmara airport facilities reportedly resulted inUse Background and Contamination at least two civilians injured during the strike, Ethiopian forces used cluster munitions in as the intended targets were not hit. 77Eritrea during the Badme border area conflict, By August 2000, UNMEE MACC receivedwhich started in 1998.68 On 9 May 2000, the reports of three children killed in separate inci-Korokon internally displaced persons’ (IDP) dents in the BL755-contaminated area nearcamp was bombed with UK-manufactured Korokon.78 Also in 2000, a 16-year-old boy wasBL755 cluster munitions each containing 147 killed attempting to open a BL755 submunitionsubmunitions. Soviet-designed PTAB and AO-1 with a stone.79 HALO Trust found some 20type submunitions were also found in the BL755 submunitions collected by children at aBadme area.69 Contamination from unexploded nearby site. Some of the children had beencluster submunitions was reported in the using the copper cone of the submunitions’Korokon IDP camp in Gash Barka, as well as at explosive charge to make bells. Other risk-tak-an IDP camp in Adi Bare in Shambiko, both in ing behavior included adults moving unexplod-Sector West of the Temporary Security Zone ed submunitions to prevent children from play-(TSZ).70 ing with them.80 In May 2000, the Ethiopian airforce report- In January 2006, two boys were killed andedly hit the military and civilian airports in one injured while tampering with ERW near theAsmara with rockets and cluster munitions.71 village of Ksad Ekka. Preliminary investigationAccording to an Eritrean Ministry of Foreign by UNMEE determined that the device wasAffairs press release, the bombing of the airport either a grenade or a submunition.81facilities and a nearby soap factory missed theintended targets.72 It has also been alleged thatthe Eritrean ports of Massawa and Assab on theRed Sea coast were struck with cluster muni- ETHIOPIAtions in the same period.73 Key Findings • One cluster munitions strike reportedlyData Collection caused more than 200 casualties in Ethiopia, but the scope of the problem is unknown due The Mine Action Coordination Centre to the lack of an adequate casualty data(MACC) of the UN Mission in Ethiopia and mechanism.Eritrea (UNMEE) collects casualty data in the • Use of cluster munitions and subsequentTSZ. The information is entered into IMSMA but submunitions contamination has not beendoes not provide a breakdown according to recorded or differentiated by mine actiondevice type beyond mine and ERW, making it actors or in the Landmine Impact Survey.difficult to identify cluster submunitions inci-dents. This lack of detail in reporting isbelieved to be exacerbated by the limited tech- Use Background and Contaminationnical knowledge of investigators and The Eritrean army used cluster munitionsreporters.74 Casualty data in the TSZ is primari- against Ethiopia during the Badme border con-ly reported by military observers, UNMEE MACC flict that began in 1998. On 5 June of that year,staff, ICRC, and NGO workers.75 Eritrea launched air-delivered Cluster munitions targeting the Mekele airport runway. At least two cluster munitions struck a school and a res-Casualties and Analysis idential area in Mekele instead. The Eritrea The total number of cluster submunitions Ethiopia Claims Commission in The Haguecasualties is unknown, but recorded casualties found that the cluster munitions strike resultedinclude at least seven people killed and three in civilian “deaths, wounds and suffering.”82 Itinjured: eight of them were children. was reported that submunitions pose “at least 18 / Fatal Footprint: The Global Human Impact of Cluster Munitions
  17. 17. some extent” of a threat on the Ethiopian side Use Background and Contaminationof the TSZ.83 However, the UNMEE MACC has not Cluster munitions were reportedly used infound evidence of submunitions during land- Sierra Leone by Nigerian forces undertaking anmine/ERW clearance. The UNDP remarked that Economic Community of West African Statesthe nationwide LIS undertaken in 2003-2004 Monitoring Group (ECOMOG) intervention mis-did not report unexploded submunitions found sion after a military coup in May 1997. On 11as ERW. Moreover, the UNDP in Ethiopia is not December 1997, three cluster munitions wereaware of cluster weapons being used in allegedly dropped in Kenema, 240 kilometresEthiopia or by Ethiopia.84 However, the Survey from Freetown.89 According to 1997 mediaAction Centre (SAC) – responsible for the LIS – reports, two cluster munitions also struckindicated that the reason for not having infor- Lokosama, near Port Loko in September 1997.mation on cluster munitions contamination in This was denied by ECOMOG.90 In October 1997,Ethiopia is because, at the time of the LIS, clus- Sierra Leone Armed Forces personnel accusedter munitions were not considered to be a con- Nigerian military pilots of using cluster bombscern. According to SAC, the LIS could, if asked on civilian targets in Freetown.91 It has beenand needed, distinguish casualties from cluster reported that French-manufactured Belugamunitions, as well as other ERW and land- cluster submunitions were collected in armsmines.85 hand-ins in Sierra Leone.92 British-manufac- tured BL755 munitions also appear to have been found near Freetown.93Data Collection There is no nationwide casualty data col- Data Collectionlection mechanism in Ethiopia. Existing data There is no systematic ERW casualty datacollection is not coordinated nor is it clear collection in Sierra Leone.94which organization has the mandate to collectdata. It was reported that, in 2005 and 2006,the Ethiopian Mine Action Office (EMAO) was Casualties and Analysisnot able to collect casualty data due to a lack of The cluster munitions strike by thepolitical will, coordination and funding issues. Nigerian ECOMOG mission in Kenema resultedInformation contained in IMSMA at EMAO is not in 28 casualties; 10 people were killed and 18accessible. Various operators handed responsi- injured.95 No further details regarding addition-bility of casualty data collection to the local al strike or post-conflict cluster submunitionsBureaus of Labor and Social Affairs (BoLSA). casualties are available and no ERW incidentsHowever, these have not been able to generate causing casualties have been recorded sincedata and it is unclear if data is collected.86 the end of the civil war in 2002.96 This is partly due to the non-existence of a data collection mechanism.Casualties and Analysis Cluster munitions targeting the Mekeleairport instead struck the Ayder school and sur- SUDANrounding neighborhood, resulting in a total of238 civilian casualties: 53 killed (including 12 Key Findingschildren) and 185 injured (including 42 chil- • At least 36 cluster submunitions casualtiesdren).87 Additionally, cluster munitions used on have been reported, of which several11 June 1998 in Adigrat are reported to have occurred during cluster munitions strikes inkilled four and injured 30.88 civilian areas. The number of post-strike casualties is • Data collection is not comprehensive andunknown due to inadequate data collection and due to limited differentiation only 23 post-a lack of information on cluster munitions con- conflict casualties of cluster submunitionstamination, which impede a full grasp of the were recorded in IMSMA.scope of the problem. Use Background and Contamination Sudanese government forces used cluster munitions against the Sudan People’sSIERRA LEONE Liberation Movement /Army (SPLM/A) in south-Key Findings ern Sudan between 1995 and 2000.97 Cluster munitions strikes were mostly conducted by• There are at least 28 reported cluster submu- aerial bombing.98 The Sudanese government nitions casualties in Sierra Leone. reportedly used cluster munitions, amongst Fatal Footprint: The Global Human Impact of Cluster Munition / 19
  18. 18. other weapons, specifically against non-military A national census has been mandatedtargets, including hospitals and IDP camps.99 under the Comprehensive Peace Agreement of Numerous cluster munitions strikes were 2005, and is scheduled for 2007.108 The censusidentified between 1995 and 2000, including is expected to include questions regarding peo-five cluster munitions dropped on cultivated ple with disabilities and thus increase knowl-land surrounding Chukudum on 20 April 1995; edge of mine/ERW casualties. Additionally,at least 16 cluster munitions dropped in UNMAO plans to initiate a casualty data surveyChukudum on 17 June 1996; at least seven loca- as a part of a US$1.7 million project funded bytions struck in Bahr al-Ghazal province in early the UN Trust for Human Security.109 The NationalFebruary 1998; Koba and Lomon in the Nuba Authority for Prosthetics and Orthotics (NAPO)Mountains attacked on 3 August 1998; one has the capacity to collect data on cluster sub-cluster munition dropped on Yei Hospital on 28 munitions casualties through the patient files inSeptember 1998; Nimule struck on 30 its ICRC-supported database.110September 1998; 24 cluster munitions droppedin Akak on 16 May 1999; two cluster munitions Casualties and Analysisdropped on Kajo Keji Hospital and Médecins There are at least 36 cluster submunitionssans Frontières (MSF) in Kajo Keji on 20 June casualties in Sudan, including 16 killed and 201999.100 In late April or early May 2000, govern- injured. At least six were children. UNMAO hasment troops reportedly used cluster munitions recorded 23 post-strike cluster submunitionsaround the town of Bentiu.101 casualties, nine people were killed and 14 The Government of Sudan reportedly used injured; 19 were males and four females. Of theChilean-manufactured CB-130, CB-500 or CB- 10 casualties whose ages were recorded two250-K cluster munitions, containing PM-1 CEM were children. The ages ranged from 10 to 32,combined effects submunitions.102 In 1996, the average age being 21. Activity at the time ofHALO Trust identified submunitions found at the incident was recorded for twelve casualties:Chukudum as possible Soviet-manufactured four activities were military; three were tendingPTAB-1.5 and Chilean-designed PM-1 type sub- animals; three traveling; and one farming.111munitions.103 Cluster submunitions and/or dis- Most casualties occurred in Kordofan (13) andpensers have been found in Bahr al-Ghazal, Bahr al-Ghazal (five).112 In 2005, UNMAO record-Kordofan, Equatoria, Blue Nile and Upper Nile ed one submunition incident but the number ofprovinces.104 casualties was not known.113 Additionally, a 15- year-old girl was killed and another injured inData Collection May 1996 when neighbors were burning sub- munitions from the Chukudum strike.114 No comprehensive countrywide casualtydata collection system exists in Sudan. The UN Numerous casualties have been reportedMine Action Office (UNMAO) maintains casualty during strikes. However, there are some casesdata in IMSMA;105 a limited number of entries where more than one type of weapon may havespecify cluster submunitions as the cause of been used, including in Labone IDP camp inthe incident. The South Sudan Regional Mine 1997, as well as in Adet and Thiet in 1998.115 FiveAction Center does not have detailed casualty people were killed and three injured due to sub-information, particularly regarding cluster sub- munitions in the Nuba Mountains in Augustmunitions causalities.106 Local actors also gath- 1998, and one person was injured in Yei hospi-er casualty data. However, many of these are tal in September 1998. In May 1999, one childnot entered into the IMSMA database as the was killed and one injured during a strike ininformation is incomplete.107 Akak (Bahr al-Ghazal).116 20 / Fatal Footprint: The Global Human Impact of Cluster Munitions
  19. 19. Focus: Southeast Europe Cluster munitions were used in the Balkan Executive (AMAE) stated that 13 areas along theregion in conflicts resulting from the breakup of Kosovo-Albanian border have been identified asYugoslavia. The largest numbers of known contaminated with submunitions.124 Failurecasualties in Kosovo were a consequence of rates for NATO-used munitions were estimatedunexploded submunitions scattered in the tens at between 20 and 25 percent, whereas 30 toof thousands by NATO bombing. Children were 35 percent of submunitions used by non-NATOthose killed and injured the most by the attrac- forces failed.125tive, but deadly submunitions. Data CollectionALBANIA AMAE coordinates and conducts completeKey Findings nationwide casualty data collection, which is• The total number of cluster submunitions stored in the IMSMA database at its regional casualties is 56: 10 killed and 46 injured office in Kukës. Data is collected by AMAE nearly all caused by KB-1 and BLU-97 submu- through its mine risk education (MRE) and com- nitions. munity-based rehabilitation (CBR) programs, as• Cluster munitions were used by NATO and well as its operational partners, primarily the Serbian forces along the Albania-Kosovo bor- Kukës-based NGO Victims of Mines and der. Weapons Association (VMA-Kukesi). In January 2006, AMAE completed identification of 467 previously unknown ERW casualties in theUse Background and Contamination “hotspots” in central Albania by collecting Cluster munitions were used in 1999 dur- IMSMA incident and needs assessmenting the Kosovo conflict by both the North reports.126Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) and Serbianforces: BLU-97, M118, BL755, KB-1 and KB-2(Yugoslav) submunitions were reported.117 Casualties and Analysis127Additionally, at least two artillery-delivered Between 1999 and 2006, 56 cluster muni-cluster munitions strikes were confirmed by the tions casualties occurred in 35 incidents andOrganization for Security and Cooperation in one accident, including 10 people killed (nineEurope (OSCE) in the Tropoja region.118 males and one female) and 46 injured (41 NATO executed six strikes along the males, and five females). On 24 May 2004, aKosovo-Albania border, allegedly against KB-1 submunition detonated during a trainingSerbian military positions.119 Non-NATO cluster session for technical survey project personnel:munitions strikes occurred further into Albania two people were killed and 18 injured in theand included 13 April 1999, when two cluster accident.128 On average 1.7 persons weremunitions struck the small border village of involved per incident,129 and the mortality rateZogaj in the context of other shelling;120 on 15 was nearly twice that of landmine casualties.130April, five Serbian rocket-fired 262 mm cluster All but three of the reported submunitionsmunitions fell on fields near the hamlet of casualties were civilian: the United NationsKolsh, near the city of Kukës;121 on April 21, Institute for Disarmament Research (UNIDIR)Russian-made cluster munitions were fired into identified two. Additionally, a policeman wasAlbania near Krume.122 killed in the area of Kolsh when he picked up an Immediate surface clearance by the unexploded submunition after the 15 April 1999Albanian Armed Forces located and destroyed strike.131 Additionally, it is unknown whether KLA2,759 unexploded submunitions: 97.5 percent casualties, if there were any, are included inwere KB-1s.123 The Albanian Mine Action AMAE records or recorded as such.132 Fatal Footprint: The Global Human Impact of Cluster Munition / 21
  20. 20. All but two casualties occurred post-con- casualties was not made available. The BHMACflict. During the strike on Kolsh on 15 April 1999 database contains records on casualties occur-a young goatherd was injured.133 ring during and after the conflict, but it is not Submunitions casualties reported by known whether submunitions are differentiatedAMAE involved either KB-1 (24, with two killed, from other devices.13822 injured) or BLU-97 (four killed) submuni-tions, while two other casualties resulted from Casualties and Analysisunidentified submunitions. The total number of submunitions casual- ties in Bosnia and Herzegovina is not known, as available data is very limited. There have been Life experience nine confirmed casualties between 1992-2006, including seven killed and two injured. In September 2001, 13-year-old Gazmir was playing with some friends near his The cluster munitions strike on a refugee house in Krume, in the Kukës prefecture. camp south of Tuzla killed seven and dozens Finding an interesting object, the children more were reportedly injured. BHMAC identi- began to play with it. When the KB-1 sub- fied only two deminers injured in separate acci- munition exploded Gazmir’s eyes were dents with KB-1 cluster submunitions in 2002: injured to the extent he was declared one in Vogos´ a and one in Gornji Vakuf. c legally blind. Before the incident Gazmir According to BHMAC, both accidents were had been one of the top students in his caused by breach of procedure.139 class, though afterward his studies became unsatisfactory. Aside from his ini- CROATIA tial treatment, Gazmir has received sup- Key Findings port for a private tutor, along with English and computer skills lessons.134 • Cluster munitions were used on several occa- sions by forces of the self-proclaimed Republic of Serbian Krajina (RSK) and KB-1 submunitions caused all reported casualties.BOSNIA and HERZEGOVINA • There are 277 confirmed cluster submuni-Key Findings tions casualties, including 258 killed, 17• Nine cluster submunitions casualties are injured, and two unknown – two strikes on confirmed and dozens unconfirmed. The Zagreb accounted for 243 of these. total number of cluster submunitions casual- ties are unknown due to inadequate data col- Use Background and Contamination lection. Cluster munitions were used on several• NATO and internal factions used cluster occasions by forces of the self-proclaimed munitions. Republic of Serbian Krajina (RSK) between 1991 and 1995, most notably on 2 and 3 May 1995 when Orkan M-87 multiple rocket launchersUse Background and Contamination were used to hit civilian targets in Zagreb, NATO and internal factions used cluster which caused the majority of reported casual-munitions during the conflict from 1992 to 1995. ties.140Some examples of use include: Orkan M-87multiple rocket launcher firing on the town of Data CollectionLivno and airplanes from a Krajina Serb-held The Croatian Mine Action Center (CRO-area in Croatia bombing the UN safe area of MAC) and Croatian Mine Victims AssociationBihaç with cluster munitions.135 Bosnian Serbs (CMVA) conduct nearly complete nationwidestruck a refugee camp south of Tuzla with clus- data collection since 1991 and 1990 respective-ter munitions. Bosnian Serbs claimed that NATO ly. However, only 50 percent of the CROMACstrikes also hit civilian targets in Banja Luka.136 casualties registered have complete details.141The Bosnia and Herzegovina Mine Action Center Casualties from cluster submunitions are differ-(BHMAC) data does not confirm alleged casual- entiated from casualties caused by otherties from these strikes.137 devices, but the total number of cluster submu- nitions casualties is unknown since few conflictData Collection casualties were recorded. Incomplete nationwide casualty data iscollected by BHMAC. Additionally, due to the Casualties and Analysisunification and verification of all operator data- Between 1993 and July 2005, 277 clusterbases, detailed information on landmine/ERW submunitions casualties have been confirmed, 22 / Fatal Footprint: The Global Human Impact of Cluster Munitions