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Paresh Naik  December 3, 2004  STC India’s 6 th  Annual Conference Using DFSS Tools  for Better Technical Writing Processe...
Agenda <ul><li>What we will do today? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Explain DFSS tools: TPM, PM,SIPOC, FMEA, C&E, QFD, Pugh Chart,...
Background <ul><li>Why bother? </li></ul><ul><li>Various quality frameworks </li></ul><ul><li>Six sigma: Origin and releva...
Thought Process Map <ul><li>Visual representation of interconnected thoughts/ideas </li></ul><ul><li>Presents structure of...
Thought Process Map - Examples ? 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 Example Mind map Affinity Diagram <ul><li>Additional inform...
Thought Process Map - Usage <ul><li>Thinking through complex problems </li></ul><ul><li>Note taking, summarizing informati...
Process Map <ul><li>Visualizing process steps </li></ul><ul><li>Basis for continuous improvement </li></ul><ul><li>Develop...
Process Map - Usage As you see it The hidden factory <ul><li>Improving your documentation process </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex...
Process Map - Usage <ul><li>Question each step for </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SIPOC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Process step own...
Process Map - Usage <ul><li>In information products to provide context, overview </li></ul>Receiving Site = Processing Sit...
SIPOC Requirements Requirements Measures Measures Suppliers Inputs Outputs Customers Input Boundary Output Boundary Proces...
SIPOC - How? <ul><li>Steps: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify customers and stakeholders. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify...
SIPOC - Usage <ul><li>Document the links between suppliers and customers </li></ul><ul><li>Identify “gaps” and improvement...
FMEA <ul><li>Failure mode effect analysis </li></ul><ul><li>A tool used in: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Product design to priori...
FMEA – How? <ul><li>Identify potential failure modes, effects, and causes </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the existing controls...
FMEA - Usage <ul><li>Identify and mitigate risks in any major process change, new initiative </li></ul><ul><li>Track risks...
Relationship Matrices <ul><li>Quality Function Deployment/House of Quality </li></ul><ul><li>Cause and Effect Matrix </li>...
QFD <ul><li>A tool for product/process design focused on meeting customer needs </li></ul>
QFD - Interpreting  Need with No Feature Unnecessary Feature Some relations Overlooked ? Strong Moderate Weak Customer nee...
Cause and Effect Matrix <ul><li>A matrix relating the key process steps and inputs to the key customer requirements to ide...
Pugh Matrix <ul><li>A tool from product design to evaluate alternative design concepts </li></ul>
Relationship Matrices - Usage <ul><li>Use as is or extend and adopt the concept of relationship matrix </li></ul><ul><li>Q...
Relationship Matrices - Examples
Scorecard <ul><li>Balanced scorecards for tracking </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Quality, Productivity, Predictability, Customer S...
Summary <ul><li>Thought Process Maps - Correlations </li></ul><ul><li>Process Maps - Basis for improvement </li></ul><ul><...
Key takeaways <ul><li>DFSS tools help you to  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Quantify </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduce subjectivit...
References <ul><li>www.isixsigma.com </li></ul><ul><li>DocQment, Quarterly Newsletter of the STC Quality Special Interest ...
Thank You! Thank You!
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QM-037-Using DFSS tool

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QM-037-Using DFSS tool

  1. 1. Paresh Naik December 3, 2004 STC India’s 6 th Annual Conference Using DFSS Tools for Better Technical Writing Processes and Deliverables www.vmoksha.com
  2. 2. Agenda <ul><li>What we will do today? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Explain DFSS tools: TPM, PM,SIPOC, FMEA, C&E, QFD, Pugh Chart, Balanced scorecard </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify their usage in Technical Writing projects </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What we will NOT do today? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Get into jargon </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Try to form a universal definition of quality of information products </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Discuss what metrics are relevant </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Background <ul><li>Why bother? </li></ul><ul><li>Various quality frameworks </li></ul><ul><li>Six sigma: Origin and relevance to technical writing </li></ul>
  4. 4. Thought Process Map <ul><li>Visual representation of interconnected thoughts/ideas </li></ul><ul><li>Presents structure of information </li></ul><ul><li>Related tools: Fishbone diagrams/Affinity Diagrams, RCA </li></ul>
  5. 5. Thought Process Map - Examples ? 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 Example Mind map Affinity Diagram <ul><li>Additional information layers with colours, shapes </li></ul><ul><li>Can evolve into Kuno Analysis, Profit Matrix </li></ul>
  6. 6. Thought Process Map - Usage <ul><li>Thinking through complex problems </li></ul><ul><li>Note taking, summarizing information: Brainstorming sessions, Interviewing SMEs, Information gathering </li></ul><ul><li>For consolidating information in distributed teams </li></ul><ul><li>Record all the considerations behind introduction of new processes, projects, initiatives or any major decision </li></ul><ul><li>Document design – Audience Analysis, Task Analysis </li></ul>
  7. 7. Process Map <ul><li>Visualizing process steps </li></ul><ul><li>Basis for continuous improvement </li></ul><ul><li>Developing common understanding between all stakeholders on all aspects of process steps like entry and exit points, roles and responsibilities, and so on </li></ul>
  8. 8. Process Map - Usage As you see it The hidden factory <ul><li>Improving your documentation process </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Examine your current documentation process </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Process Map - Usage <ul><li>Question each step for </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SIPOC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Process step owner, entry and exit criteria, controls, deliverables, metrics </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Identify </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Factors causing variation and defects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sources of scrap, rework, and waste </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Optimize by constant reviews </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Defect prevention – injection and removal efficiencies of different steps, Pareto and Orthogonal Defect Classification </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify mistake proofing points – Checklists etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Process organizes work – PEOPLE do it </li></ul>Step 1 Step 2 Step n Inputs Output
  10. 10. Process Map - Usage <ul><li>In information products to provide context, overview </li></ul>Receiving Site = Processing Site? Product Returned Book Product as Un-notified Return Book Product into Receipt Plant Book Product into Return Plant Redirect to Return Plant Yes No No Yes Create Notification CSR Activity ? Notified Return? Details acceptable? Start End Print Goods Receipt Note ? ? Exception Process Contact Customer Yes No Process step outside the software Manual decision Process step covered in this guide Process step not covered in this course Key Process H&S Documents SCR Activities System decision
  11. 11. SIPOC Requirements Requirements Measures Measures Suppliers Inputs Outputs Customers Input Boundary Output Boundary Process Measures S I P O C
  12. 12. SIPOC - How? <ul><li>Steps: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify customers and stakeholders. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify customer/stakeholders requirements. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify gaps in requirements and the process outputs. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify process inputs and suppliers. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify gaps between process input requirements and the suppliers’ inputs. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify data collection needs. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify resource requirements, corrective actions to meet the gaps. </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. SIPOC - Usage <ul><li>Document the links between suppliers and customers </li></ul><ul><li>Identify “gaps” and improvement areas </li></ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul>
  14. 14. FMEA <ul><li>Failure mode effect analysis </li></ul><ul><li>A tool used in: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Product design to prioritize focus areas for robust design </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Project tracking to control key risks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Software Development to develop test cases </li></ul></ul>3. Build Contingency and Corrective Action Plans 2. Assess Risks 1. Identify Failure Modes, Effects, Causes, and Controls
  15. 15. FMEA – How? <ul><li>Identify potential failure modes, effects, and causes </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the existing controls </li></ul><ul><li>Select the rating scales for </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Severity of effects (SEV) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Frequency of cause (OCC) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Detection capability (DET) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Calculate RPN by multiplying SEV, OCC, DET values </li></ul><ul><li>Prioritize risks using the RPN </li></ul><ul><li>Plan for action items with responsibilities assigned </li></ul><ul><li>Reassign the appropriate SEV, OCC, DET values and compare RPNs </li></ul>
  16. 16. FMEA - Usage <ul><li>Identify and mitigate risks in any major process change, new initiative </li></ul><ul><li>Track risks in your documentation projects: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Recognize and evaluate potential failures and their effects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Continuous risk monitoring </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plan and track the risk mitigation actions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not one time – update at milestones, on major developments </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Identify failure risks of any new design </li></ul>
  17. 17. Relationship Matrices <ul><li>Quality Function Deployment/House of Quality </li></ul><ul><li>Cause and Effect Matrix </li></ul><ul><li>Pugh Chart/Matrix </li></ul>
  18. 18. QFD <ul><li>A tool for product/process design focused on meeting customer needs </li></ul>
  19. 19. QFD - Interpreting Need with No Feature Unnecessary Feature Some relations Overlooked ? Strong Moderate Weak Customer need Product feature Relation:
  20. 20. Cause and Effect Matrix <ul><li>A matrix relating the key process steps and inputs to the key customer requirements to identify vital process steps </li></ul>
  21. 21. Pugh Matrix <ul><li>A tool from product design to evaluate alternative design concepts </li></ul>
  22. 22. Relationship Matrices - Usage <ul><li>Use as is or extend and adopt the concept of relationship matrix </li></ul><ul><li>QFD for process improvement: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ensure customer requirements flow down to all the phases of development, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluate documentation process to identify wasteful steps </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Design information products, define set of user documents, find opportunities for information reuse </li></ul><ul><li>Pugh Matrix: Quantify decision making process </li></ul><ul><li>C&E Matrix: Prioritize based on all influencing factors </li></ul>
  23. 23. Relationship Matrices - Examples
  24. 24. Scorecard <ul><li>Balanced scorecards for tracking </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Quality, Productivity, Predictability, Customer Satisfaction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Schedule, Scope, Budget, Quality </li></ul></ul><ul><li>No one-for-all approach </li></ul><ul><li>Measurement as means and not the end </li></ul>External Internal Subjective Objective Metrics
  25. 25. Summary <ul><li>Thought Process Maps - Correlations </li></ul><ul><li>Process Maps - Basis for improvement </li></ul><ul><li>SIPOC - Critically examine process steps </li></ul><ul><li>FMEA - Risk monitoring and mitigation </li></ul><ul><li>Relationship Matrices - Decision making, prioritizing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>QFD </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pugh Matrix </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C&E Matrix </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Balanced Scorecard - See the bigger picture </li></ul>
  26. 26. Key takeaways <ul><li>DFSS tools help you to </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Quantify </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduce subjectivity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consider all correlations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>And hence, achieve better Technical Writing processes and deliverables </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. References <ul><li>www.isixsigma.com </li></ul><ul><li>DocQment, Quarterly Newsletter of the STC Quality Special Interest Group </li></ul><ul><li>Lori Beard, Jennifer Fleming, and Erin Beal Welch, Applying Six Sigma Principles to Everyday Projects , STC’s 50 th Annual Conference, Dallas, TX, May 2003 </li></ul>
  28. 28. Thank You! Thank You!

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