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QM-028-QFD(Quality Function Development)

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QM-028-QFD(Quality Function Development)

  1. 1. Logistics Decision Analysis Methods Quality Function Development Presented by Tsan-hwan Lin E-mail: percy@ccms.nkfust.edu.tw
  2. 2. Milestones for QFD Development - 1 Professor Makabe of Tokyo Institute of Technology explains QFD to Don Clausing (a Xerox employee then, learning Robust Design methods of Genichi Taguchi. Don later joined faculty of MIT). March, 1984 Akao and others introduce QFD at a U.S. workshop in Chicago, Illinois. One of the attendants is Henry Klein of Black and Decker. November, 1983 Dr. Shigeru Mizuno and Dr. Yoji Akao publish Development of the Quality Function (Japanese book on QFD) 1978 Yoji Akao introduces QFD quality tables at Kobe Shipyards 1972 Japanese industry begins to formalize QFD concepts developed by Yoji Akao (赤尾洋二)( and by late Shigeru Mizuno ) 1966 Event Year/Date
  3. 3. Milestones for QFD Development - 2 GOAL/QPC publishes the first full-length book on QFD in U.S.: Better Designs in Half the Time . 1987 Bernie Avishai, associate editor of Harvard Business Review , asks Don Clausing to write an article on QFD. Don invites John Hauser to co-author it. It is published in May-June 1988. 1987 Bob King (,the founder and executive director of GOAL/QPC, learned QFD from Henry Klein) begins offering a one-day course on QFD. March, 1984 Sponsorship of QFD symposium at Novi, Michigan 1989 - present Event Year/Date
  4. 4. Quality Function Development <ul><li>Quality Function Deployment ( QFD ;品質機能展開) is a method for structured planning and development that enables a development team to specify clearly the customer’s wants and needs (要求與需求) , and then to evaluate each proposed product or service capability systematically in terms of its impact on meeting those needs. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Meaning of QFD <ul><li>The Japanese characters for QFD are, phonetically, </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hinshitsu quality; features; attributes; qualities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kino function; mechanism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tenkai deployment; diffusion; development; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>evolution </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Basic QFD Process <ul><li>The QFD process involves constructing one or more matrices (sometimes called “ quality table ;品質表” ) . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The first of these matrices is called the House of Quality (品質屋; HOQ ) . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Beyond the HOQ, QFD optionally involves constructing additional matrices which further guide the detailed decisions that must be made throughout the product or service development process. </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. QFD - Revisit <ul><li>QFD is not just a prioritization tool, it is also a “ deployment tool.” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What we mean by “deployment” is that QFD helps us to start with the highest level of “Whats,” generally the VOC, and to deploy, or translate, that voice into a new language that opens the way for appropriate action. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>QFD provides a repository for product planning information. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The repository is based on the structure of the QFD matrices. The matrices allow for entering (1) the VOC and all related quantitative information, (2) the Voice of Developer and all related quantitative information, and (3) the relationships between these voices. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Kano’s Model <ul><li>The Japanese TQM consultant Noriaki Kano, has provided us with a very useful model of customer satisfaction as it relates to product characteristics. </li></ul><ul><li>Kano’s model divides product characteristics into three distinct categories, each of which affects customers in a different way. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dissatisfiers , also known as “must-be,” “basic,” or “expected” characteristics. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Satisfiers , also known as “one-dimensional” or “straight-line”characteristics. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Delighters , also known as “attractive” or “exciting” characteristics. </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Kano’s Model Diagram Customer satisfaction Actual performance 100% 0% _ + Delighters Dissatisfiers Satisfiers
  10. 10. Market Dynamics of Dissatisfiers, Satisfiers, and Delighters <ul><li>Delighters often create new markets or new market segments, thereby giving their creators a temporary competitive advantage. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Once the novelty of a delighter wears off, and the competition includes the delighter or some equivalent solution into their own products, customers begin to expect (desire) the delighter, since it’s available in all competing products. In other words, delighters become demoted to satisfiers . </li></ul></ul><ul><li>After awhile, many satisfiers become “expected quality,” and customers assume these satisfiers will be included in the product. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When this happens, the satisfiers have become demoted to dissatisfers . </li></ul></ul><ul><li>This migration of quality attributes happens all the time with all products. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In order to remain competitive, the product or service developer must continually search for new delighters, provide more satisfiers than anyone else, and see to it that no dissatisfiers reach the customer. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>QFD is an excellent planning tool for sorting out these different qualities and for managing them. </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Lesson from Kano’s Model <ul><li>First, all customer satisfaction attributes are not equal. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not only are some more important to the customer than others, but some are important to the customer in different ways than others. (Dissatisfiers => deduct; Satisfiers => linearly add; Delighters => extra points) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Second, the old product quality strategy of responding to customer complaints can now be seen to be inadequate. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A quality strategy based solely on removing dissatisfiers can never result in satisfied customers. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A strategy which will lead to customer satisfaction and to a leadership product or service must be far more proactive. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The strategy must be based on a deliberate policy of seeking out customers and potential customers to discover and characterize their needs, both met and unmet. (Finding needs) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It must aim at breaking old thought patterns and finding creative ways of meeting those needs and exceeding customers’ expectations. (Designing responses) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Finally, it must be based on a clear, reliable way of estimating the efficacy of each potential method for meeting customer needs, so that the best way can be exploited. (Evaluating efficiency) </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Seven Management and Planning Tools <ul><li>QFD uses certain problem-solving and planning tools drawn from a set called the “Seven Management and Planning Tools.” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In the late seventies, a book appeared in Japan, published by the Japanese Union of Scientists and Engineers (JUSE), entitles The Seven New Tools . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>These tools were intended to provide a level of problem solving power in the conceptual domain equivalent to the power of the Seven Basic Tools in the process improvement domain. ( 新品管七大手法 vs. 品管七大手法 ) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Seven New Tools are usually called the Seven Management and Planning Tools in the United States. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tools which are the mainstays of QFD are: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Affinity Diagram Tree Diagram </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Matrix Diagram Prioritization Matrix </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tools which are not directly required for QFD, but are helpful, are: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Interrelationship Diagram Process Decision Program Chart </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Matrix Data Analysis Arrow Diagram </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Overview of the HOQ <ul><li>There are two reasons to focus so much on the HOQ (House of Quality): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First, it contains many of the features we will see in other parts of QFD, so once we have studied it, the remaining QFD matrices and charts will be fairly easy to understand. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Second, a mandatory basic introduction to QFD must include the HOQ, and once mastered, the HOQ leads fairly naturally to various extensions. (even for many teams choose not to use the rest of QFD) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The HOQ contains many sections or rooms, each of which can and should be customized by the development team to meet its needs. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>While various sequences for working on the sections each have advantages, the team must consciously choose a sequence and plan its work accordingly. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Every aspect (including sequence, content, and methodology applied) of QFD is a candidate for modification or omission according to the needs of the development team. </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Tour of the HOQ <ul><li>The first section of the HOQ to be constructed will almost always be the Customer Needs/Benefits section. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sections are also referred to as “rooms.” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Planning Matrix (also, Preplanning Matrix ) is often the second section to e constructed. </li></ul><ul><li>The third section of the HOQ to complete is the Technical Response (also, Corporate Expectations ) section. </li></ul><ul><li>The fourth step is to complete the “ Relationship ” section of the HOQ. </li></ul><ul><li>The fifth and sixth steps in completing the HOQ are Competitive Benchmarking and Target Setting . </li></ul><ul><li>The seventh and usually final step in completing the HOQ is to fill in the Technical Correlations Matrix . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This part is also referred to as “roof.” </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Tour of the HOQ - 2 Relationships Customer Needs and Benefits Planning Matrix Technical Response (Substitute Quality Characteristics) Technical Matrix Technical Correlations Technical Response Priorities Competitive Technical Benchmarks Technical Targets
  16. 16. Q & A
  17. 17. The House of Quality - 1 <ul><li>HOQ displays (1) the customer’s wants and needs ( Voice of Customer ; VOC) along the left, and (2) the development team’s technical response to meeting those wants and needs along the top. </li></ul><ul><li>Each of the labeled sections, A through E, is a structured, systematic expression of a product or process development team’s understanding of an aspect of the overall planning process for a new product, service, or process. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The lettering sequence suggests one logical sequence for filling the matrix. </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. The House of Quality - 2 D . Relationships (Impact of Technical Response on Customer Needs and Benefits) A . Customer Needs and Benefits B . Planning Matrix (Market Research and Strategic Planning) C . Technical Response F . Technical Matrix (Technical Response Priorities, Competitive Technical Benchmarks, Technical Targets) E . Technical Correlations
  19. 19. Customer Needs and Benefits <ul><li>Section A contains a structured list of customer wants and needs. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The structure is usually determined by qualitative market research. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The data is in the form of a tree diagram . </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Planning Matrix <ul><li>Section B contains three main types of information: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Quantitative market data , indicating (1)the relative importance of the wants and needs to the customer, and (2) the customer’s satisfaction levels with the organization’s and its competition’s current offering (usually by survey) . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strategic goal setting for the new product or service. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Computations for rank ordering the customer wants and needs. </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Technical Response <ul><li>Section C contains, in the organization’s technical language, a high-level description of the product or service they plan to develop. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Normally, this technical description is generated (deployed) from the customer’s wants and needs. </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Relationships <ul><li>Section D contains the development team’s judgments of the strength of the relationship between (1) each element of their technical response and (2) each customer want and need. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Technical Correlations <ul><li>Section E contains the development team’s assessments of the implementation interrelationships between elements of the technical response. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Technical Matrix <ul><li>Section F contains three types of information: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The computed rank ordering of the technical responses, based on (1) the rank ordering of customer wants and needs from Section B and (2) the relationships in Section D. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Comparative information on the competition’s technical performance. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Technical performance targets . </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Interrelated Matrices - 1 House of Quality HOQ: “Hows” HOQ: “Hows” Priorities HOQ: “Whats” Priorities HOQ: “Whats” Matrix 2 2.: “Hows” 2.: “Hows” Priorities HOQ: “Hows” Priorities HOQ: “Hows” Matrix 3 3.: “Hows” 3.: “Hows” Priorities 2.: “Hows” 2.: “Hows” Priorities
  26. 26. Interrelated Matrices - 2 <ul><li>The HOQ is constructed as discussed earlier. </li></ul><ul><li>To link HOQ to Matrix 2, the development team places all, or the most important, of the HOQ “Hows” on the left of Matrix 2, and their priorities on the right of Matrix 2. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>These HOQ “Hows” now become the “ Whats ” of Matrix 2, and their relative importance to the development team is what was determined in the HOQ. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To achieve the Matrix 2 “Whats,” the development team needs a new, more technical or more detailed set of “ Hows ,” which they generate and put at the top of Matrix 2. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>As before, the team uses the weights of the Matrix 2 “Whats,” and their estimates of the degree of relationship between the Matrix “Hows” and the Matrix “Whats,” to arrive at weights or priorities for the Matrix 2 “Hows.” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Each matrix in the chain represents a more specific or more technical expression of the product or service. </li></ul>
  27. 27. Classical Model for QFD <ul><li>The following model mirrors the process of designing and manufacturing a product. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some QFD matrix schemes involve as many as 30 matrices (that use the VOC priorities to plan multiple levels of design detail, Quality Improvement Plans, Process Planning, Manufacturing Equipment Planning, and various Value Engineering plans). </li></ul></ul>Production Operations Process Parameters Process Design Matrix Process Parameters Piece-Part Characteristics Piece-Part Design Matrix Piece-Part Characteristics Technical Performance Measures Subsystem Design Matrix Technical Performance Measures Voice of the Customer House of Quality How What Matrix
  28. 28. Kano’s Model - Dissatisfiers <ul><li>A dissatisfier (不滿足因子) is a product characteristic that the customer takes for granted when it is presented, but that causes dissatisfaction when it is missing. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dissatisfiers are things that customers don’t normally ask about , because they expect them to be taken care of. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dissatisfiers are the absence of “expected quality,” (期待品質) in the sense that customers expect products to be essentially flawless, and if they are not, the customers are dissatisfied. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: scratches or blemishes on product surface, broken parts, missing instruction booklets, or missing features routinely supplied. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If we deliver a product or service that has many dissatisfiers, customers will be extremely unhappy. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>However, if we eliminate them all, we won’t have achieved a very high level of customer satisfaction. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Customer complaints (客戶抱怨) are a primary source of information on existing dissatisfiers in our current products. </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Kano’s Model - Satisfiers <ul><li>A satisfier (滿足因子) is something that customers want in their products, and usually ask for . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The more we provide of a satisfier, the happier customers will be. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Satisfiers are sometimes called “desired quality” (需求品質) because they represent the aspects of the product that define it for the customer. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: increased capacity, lower cost, higher reliability, greater speed, and easier use. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Satisfiers are the attributes that tend to be easy to measure, and therefore they become the benchmarks used for competitive analysis. </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Kano’s Model – Delighters (1) <ul><li>Delighters (取悅因子) are product attributes or features that are pleasant surprises to customers when they first encounter them. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>However, if delighters are not present, customers will not be dissatisfied, since they will be unaware of what they are missing. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Delighters are sometimes called “exciting quality” (令人興奮品質) or “unexpected quality.” (超乎預期品質) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>As with dissatisfiers, customers don’t tell us they want delighters, but for very different reasons. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Customers can’t expect “unexpected quality” by definition. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Kano’s Model – Delighters (2) <ul><ul><li>Each delighter is unique, and as a group there are no patterns. Some delighters are entire products that have created new markets (a typical consequence of building delighters into products). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: Sony Walkman; 3M Post-it Note </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: “redial” button on telephone receiver; spare change holders/ soft drink holders in automobiles; one-touch recording button on some VCRs; graphic user interfaces (GUI) of some desktop computers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The needs that delighters fill are often called “latent” or “hidden” needs (潛在需求;隱藏需求) , either because they cannot be explicitly identified or because customers don’t say that the needs are important to them. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>These hidden needs are sometimes intimately linked to customer’s perceptions of the limits of technology. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: five-hour travel method from New York to San Francisco in 1840 => unimaginable (the existence of a airplane) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  32. 32. Kano’s Model – Delighters (3) <ul><ul><li>There is no clear method for discovering delighters that is guaranteed to work in all cases. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>One of the disciplines that QFD helps us to maintain is to separate customer needs from technical solutions. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>So, it is consistent with the intent of QFD to search first for customer needs (Part A in HOQ), and only afterwards for technical responses (Part C in HOQ) to those needs, including delighters. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  33. 33. 新品管七大手法 <ul><li>KJ 法 ( Affinity Diagram ;親和圖 ) </li></ul><ul><li>系統圖 ( Tree Diagram ;樹狀圖 ) </li></ul><ul><li>矩陣圖 ( Matrix Diagram ) </li></ul><ul><li>優先次序矩陣 ( Prioritization Matrix ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>矩陣數據解析法 ( Matrix Data Analysis ) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>關連圖 ( Interrelationship Diagram ) </li></ul><ul><li>過程決定計畫圖法 ( Process Decision Program Chart; PDPC ) </li></ul><ul><li>箭頭圖 ( Arrow Diagram ; Activity Network Diagram ) </li></ul>
  34. 34. Affinity Diagram - 1 <ul><li>The Affinity Diagram provides for a hierarchical structuring of ideas. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It is a powerful tool for organizing qualitative information ( such as customer’s voice ) . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The hierarchy is built from the bottom up , and the relationships between the ideas are based on the intuition of the team creating the diagram. </li></ul></ul>
  35. 35. Affinity Diagram - 2 BACK The (word processing) program is a pleasure to use Program is quick and responsive Can adjust the cursor to move as quickly as I’d like Enables me to find things in the document Know what an icon is going to do before I click on it Commands are easy to know and use Easy font management Offers lots of size, font, and design options Can customize the icon display so that it’s easy for me to use Clear relationship between menu commands and icons Able to execute common operations in a single step Able to see what the fonts look like as I’m choosing them Can organize the listing of fonts to reflect the way I use them Everything stays neat and aligned when I change fonts Can execute commands quickly
  36. 36. Tree Diagram - 1 <ul><li>The Tree Diagram , like the Affinity Diagram, is a hierarchical structure of ideas. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In contrast to the Affinity Diagram, which is built from the bottom up and is based on an intuitive feeling for how the ideas go together , the Tree Diagram is built from the top down and uses logic and analytical thought process. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The difference between the two is the method of producing them, not their format. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Affinity Diagrams start with the raw data and end with a hierarchical structure (bottom up); Tree Diagrams start with a presumed structure and end up with a detailed elaboration of the structure (top down) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Tree Diagram usually starts with some already-existing structure, for example, the hierarchy created by the Affinity Diagram process. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The team then examines each level of the Tree Diagram, starting with the most abstract or highest level, and analyzes that level for completeness and correctness . </li></ul></ul></ul>
  37. 37. Tree Diagram - 2 BACK The (word processing) program is a pleasure to use Program is quick and responsive Can adjust the cursor to move as quickly as I’d like Enables me to find things in the document Know what an icon is going to do before I click on it Commands are easy to know and use Easy font management Offers lots of size, font, and design options Can customize the icon display so that it’s easy for me to use Clear relationship between menu commands and icons Able to execute common operations in a single step Able to see what the fonts look like as I’m choosing them Can organize the listing of fonts to reflect the way I use them Everything stays neat and aligned when I change fonts Can execute commands quickly
  38. 38. Matrix Diagram - 1 <ul><li>A matrix is a rectangular diagram divided into horizontal rows and vertical columns . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Where a row and a column intersect, we have a cell . The cell is uniquely associated with one and only one row-column pair. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>We list a range of comparable items along the left side of the matrix. Each of these comparable items is therefore associated with a row of the matrix. We list another range of items along the top and associate each of those with a column . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Comparable items refer to items that are all attributes or facets of the same generic topic. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: green, red, blue, and yellow => COLOR </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>We can use each cell in the matrix to record some relationship between the item associated with the row and the item associated with the column. </li></ul></ul>
  39. 39. Matrix Diagram - 2 <ul><li>The Matrix is a simple but powerful tool that lies at the heart of QFD. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Its versatility is heavily exploited throughout QFD. </li></ul></ul>BACK  F  E D     C     B   A 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
  40. 40. Prioritization Matrix - 1 <ul><li>The prioritization Matrix is an extension of the Matrix Diagram. It allows us to judge the relative importance of columns of entries. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>We can put many different things into the cells of a matrix. </li></ul></ul>
  41. 41. Prioritization Matrix - 2 BACK  F    E     D    C  B     A 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
  42. 42. 品管七大手法 <ul><li>特性要因圖 ( Characteristics Diagram; Cause-and-Effect Diagram ) </li></ul><ul><li>查檢表 ( Check Sheet ) </li></ul><ul><li>柏拉圖 ( Pareto Diagram ) </li></ul><ul><li>直方圖 ( Histogram ) </li></ul><ul><li>散佈圖 ( Scatter Diagram ) </li></ul><ul><li>管制圖 ( Control Chart ) </li></ul><ul><li>層別法 ( Stratification ) </li></ul><ul><li>流程圖 ( Flow Diagram ) </li></ul>
  43. 43. HOQ: Customer Needs and Benefits <ul><li>The Customer’s Wants and Needs are normally derived from the actual words of the customer (Voice of the Customer ; VOC). </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Once gathered, the customer phrases are developed into a hierarchy by means of the Affinity Diagram process, with the most detailed needs at the lowest level, and the more abstract needs in higher levels of the hierarchy . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most development teams collect the VOC from interviews, and then create the hierarchy of wants and needs themselves , although it is possible and desirable to have the customers strongly influence or completely determine the structure. </li></ul></ul>
  44. 44. HOQ: Planning Matrix - 1 <ul><li>In Planning Matrix, the development team records its answers to a variety of marketing and product planning questions. </li></ul><ul><li>The Planning Matrix calls for high-level product goal setting , based on the team’s interpretation of the market research. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The goal setting has the effect of combining the company’s business priorities with the customer’s priorities . </li></ul></ul>
  45. 45. HOQ: Planning Matrix - 2 <ul><li>The specific information in the Planning Matrix is: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Importance to customer : How important is the need to the customer? (from market research) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Current satisfaction performance : How well does the team’s current most similar product or service offering meet customers’ need? (from market research) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Competitive satisfaction performance : How well does the competition’s current most similar product or service offering meet customers’ need? (from market research) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Company goal : How well does the team want to meet customers’ needs for the product or service being planned? (team’s determination) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sales point : To what extent could meeting-a-need-well used as a sales point? (team’s determination) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The answers to these questions combine to create a prioritization or rank ordering of the Customer Needs/Benefits. </li></ul>
  46. 46. HOQ: Planning Matrix - 3 <ul><li>One reason to fill in the Planning Matrix immediately after the Customer Needs/Benefits are completed is because once the Customer Needs/Benefits are prioritized, the QFD team may choose to restrict its analysis only to the highest ranking Customer Needs. (Efficiency) </li></ul><ul><li>However, an advantage (of developing Planning Matrix after generation of the Technical Responses and even the Relationships) is that the team will be required to become extremely familiar with the customer needs in order to generate the Technical Responses. Hence, they will be much better prepared to do the goal setting and high-level analysis in the Planning Matrix when they get to it. (Variety and Dedication) </li></ul>
  47. 47. HOQ: Technical Response - 1 <ul><li>The Technical Response can be thought of as a set of product or process requirements, stated in the organization’s internal language. </li></ul><ul><li>There are a variety of different types of information that are placed here. The most common alternatives are, </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Top-level solution – independent measures or metrics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Product (or service) requirements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Product (or service) features or capabilities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Whichever type of information is chosen, we call it Substitute Quality Characteristics ( SQC ). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Just as the Customer Needs/Benefits represents Voice of the Customer , the SQCs represent the Voice of the Developer . </li></ul></ul>
  48. 48. HOQ: Technical Response - 2 <ul><li>Whether teams use measurements, requirements, or features as their SQCs depends on the design methodology of their organization. </li></ul><ul><li>When there is a great deal of detail, the SQCs can be arranged hierarchically by means of Affinity Diagram process, followed by the Tree Diagram process. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The higher the level, the smaller the Relationship section; the lower the level, the more detailed the analysis. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This process is similar to that applied in Customer Needs/Benefits section. </li></ul></ul>
  49. 49. HOQ: Relationship - 1 <ul><li>This is the largest section of the matrix (i.e. HOQ), and therefore represents the largest volume of work. </li></ul><ul><li>This step use the Prioritization Matrix method. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For each cell in the Relationship section, the team enters a value that reflects the extent to which the SQC (at the head of the column) contributes to meeting the Customer Needs/Benefits (to the left of the row). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This value, along with the prioritization of the Customer Needs/Benefits, establishes the contribution of SQC to overall customer satisfaction . </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Once the contributions of all SQCs have been computed, the SQCs are essentially prioritized. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Those with greatest overall impact on customer satisfaction are most important. This fundamental result is one of the most important outcomes of using QFD. </li></ul></ul>
  50. 50. HOQ: Relationship - 2 <ul><li>Some QFD teams abandon QFD at this point and use the priorities of the SQC to plan later stages of the development project. </li></ul><ul><li>Other teams use the prioritization of the SQC to provide guidance about further product planning activities. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>These activities are Competitive Benchmarking and Target Setting. </li></ul></ul>
  51. 51. HOQ: Competitive Benchmarking and Target Setting <ul><li>Competitive Benchmarking and Target Setting occupy the bottom two lines of the HOQ. </li></ul><ul><li>Competitive Benchmarks and Targets are normally expressed in language compatible with the language of the SQC. </li></ul>
  52. 52. HOQ: Technical Correlations Matrix <ul><li>This matrix is used to record the way in which SQCs either support or impede each other. </li></ul><ul><li>This information helps QFD team to identify design bottlenecks, and it helps them to identify key communication paths among designers. </li></ul>
  53. 53. Backup Materials
  54. 54. Cause-and-Effect Diagram : Paint Peeling House Paint Peeling EFFECT Material Work Method Equipment Environment BACK
  55. 55. Check Sheet : Swimming Pool Mgt. BACK Mon. Tue. Wed Pool Chemical Test (add if needed) Add Water (if needed) Check Temperature Sweep and Hose Off Deck Vacuum Pool 7.6 300 gal 78  
  56. 56. Pareto Diagram : Customer Complaints - Determine the Vital Few BACK Complaints 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 49% 26% 7% 6% 5% 3% 4%
  57. 57. Histogram : Defective Parts BACK 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 0 1 2 3 4 5 Number Nonconforming Frequency
  58. 58. Scatter Diagram : Gas Mileage BACK 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 Speed (Miles per Hour) Gas Mileage (Miles per Gallon)
  59. 59. Control Chart : Gauge Diameter BACK
  60. 60. Process Flow Diagram : Order Taking BACK Telephone Fax Letter Log In Credit Check No OK Hold Contract Review Inventory Check Schedule Production

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