IE-007 Erp簡介


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IE-007 Erp簡介

  1. 1. ERP簡介 C. Ou-Yang (歐陽超) Professor Dept. of Industrial Management National Taiwan University of Science and Technology
  2. 2. ERP Definition An accounting oriented information system for identifying and planning the enterprise wide resources needed to take, make, ship and account for customer orders.
  3. 3. ERP Definition (Continued) An ERP system differs from the typical MRPII system in technical requirements such as graphical user interface, relational database, and computer aided software engineering tools in development , client/server architecture, and open-system portability. Customer-oriented manufacturing management system Resources: APICS (American Production and Inventory Control Society) 美國生產管理學會
  4. 4. Elements of ERP Production Planning Integrated Logistics Sales, Customer/ Distribution Employee (Order Entry) Accounting & Financials Human Resources
  5. 5. ERP Functions-SAP Case Logistics Accounting SD FI Sales & Financial Distribution Accounting MM AM Materials Asset Mgmt. Mgmt. PP CO Production R/3 Controlling Planning PS QM Project Quality System Mgmt. PM OC Cross Application Plant Office Maintenance HR Comm IS Functions Human Industry Resources Solutions Human Resources
  6. 6. SAP Function Overview -SD (Sales and Distribution) The solution for the integrated handling of all tasks for sales, shipping and billing. Sales Support Sales • Competitors •Customer inquiry MM • Sales activities PP • Customer quotation PM • Direct mailing campaigns • Order processing CO •Orders FI •Scheduling agreements PS •Contracts Billing Shipping •Picking • Invoice FI MM •Packing CO FI • Credit/Debit memo •Transportation
  7. 7. PP CO SD FI MM 利潤分析 產生訂單 預期營收 相關成本 訂單內容 建立訂單 MRP 保留存貨 撿貨 交貨 請款文件 出貨 應收帳款 現金管理 存貨扣除 客戶信用 風險管理
  8. 8. SAP Function Overview -MM (Material Management) MRP Purchasing Warehouse Mgmt PP • BOM FI PP • Requisition • Lot sizing PP SD SD • Order creation CO • Invoice verification AM Receiving Inventory Management FI • Cycle counting • Quality assurance • Physical inventory • Inspection QM PP • Movement PP SD
  9. 9. CO MM FI SD PP 檢查存貨 採購成本計算 採購 存貨預留 出具請購單 庫存成本計算 庫存管理 物料需求規劃 發貨單確認 決定發貨單帳號
  10. 10. SAP Function Overview -PP (Production Planning) Sales & Operation Capacity Planning SD Management Distribution Requirements Planning SD MRP MM Production Planning/MPS CO Production Activity Control
  11. 11. FI CO PP MM SD 物料採購 間接成本 建立 建立產品銷售 與處存 控制 物料主檔 與配消資料 銷售規劃與 利潤分析 作業規劃 銷售計畫 內向物流 需求管理 應收帳款 Inbound Logistics 外向物流 Outbound Logistics 主生產規劃 應付帳款 建立 物料需求規劃 存貨 銷售單 成本控制 建立 工單規劃 採購單 會計總帳 建立 登錄 工單
  12. 12. SAP Function Overview -FI&AM (Financial Accounting & Asset Management) General Ledger Account Payable • Financial Statements MM •Account Analysis • Account Analysis MM MM •Payments History FI • Multi-currency CO • Taxation SD Accountable Receivable MM • Account Analysis SD •Credit Asset Management FI PP •Asset Values Cash Management CO • Depreciation Forecast FI • Additions PS • Cash Plan • Retirements • Cash Forecasting
  13. 13. HR MM FI SD PP 會計總帳 應收帳款 銷貨與交貨 採購材料之 應付帳款 驗收入庫 員工薪資 應付薪資處理
  14. 14. SAP Function Overview -CO (Controlling) Profit Center Accounting Cost Center Accounting MM MM MM • Financial Statements • Cost Center Expense SD CO • Management Account Analysis • Planning FI • Multi-currency • Budgeting Internal Order Profitability Analysis CO SD • Project Tracking PS PS • Profitability • Planning AM • Budgeting CO PA
  15. 15. SAP Function Overview -Financial Integration EIS Department A/P MM Acct. Job/Work A/R SD Orders Payroll Project HR Logistics Management Product AM FA Costing MM Inventory Profitability Analysis Document Database Optical archive
  16. 16. Business Process Customer Company Supplier order Purchasing material placing vendor data data provide purchase shipment shipment order purchasing release procure- ment demand occured drawings product create data material product PO customer data order product order purchase production acceptance finished processing order sales laundry machine office IT system Order Processing Production Legend IT resources, or machine resources data function organization material
  17. 17. Function vs. Process Based Business Structure
  18. 18. 生 產 存 貨 流 程 資料來源:艾一資訊
  19. 19. 採 購 付 款 流 程 資料來源:艾一資訊
  20. 20. Traditional MRP Business Process 1. 不同部門可能需重複輸入客戶所下之訂 單資料 2. 公司內不同部門無法知道其他部門對該 訂單之處理情形。 3. 例如財物部門無法進入倉儲部門之資訊 系統以瞭解某訂單之出貨情形。
  21. 21. ERP & Intra Enterprise Integration 業務人員在接訂單時可同時查詢相關資料如客 戶信用,過去之訂購資料,公司之庫存與可能 之運貨時間。 公司其他部門之人員亦可從ERP系統中得知新 進訂單之資料並可進行相關之配合。 當某部門完成其訂單作業時,ERP系統會自動 將相關資料傳至下一部門進行後續之訂單作業。
  22. 22. Build or Buy ERP Software The reasons to buy commercial off- the-shelf (COTS) software from third-party vendors : Few organizations can maintain the high total cost of ownership and complexity associated with developing and maintaining custom-designed apps. Installed applications are becoming technically outdated and the ongoing re-design of business processes makes existing software functionally outdated.
  23. 23. Build or Buy ERP Software Off-the-shelf solutions integrate the best business practices from a variety of industries. The ability to import and adopt these best business practices translates into bottom-line improvements. Companies realize that software development may not be a core competency. It's estimated that more than 70 percent of internal software projects fail. To minimize risk, companies increasingly outsource development activities.
  24. 24. Build or Buy ERP Software These apps require organizations to reengineer established business practices to accommodate application constraints, or to customize the apps with labor-intensive reprogramming to fit their needs. These COTS requirements significantly challenge resource-constrained organizations. COTS solutions also do not provide a competitive edge for long. Any technology can buy.
  25. 25. The Capabilities of COTS ERP Solutions Consolidation of the back office. Consolidating back-office functions allows companies present a single face to suppliers. To centralize operations Facilitation of changes in business practices Companies take the best practices solutions in various ERP to assist change.
  26. 26. The Capabilities of COTS ERP Solutions Facilitation of changes in technology. Using flexible software tool sets, customers modify the application suites to accommodate their business practices, without regard for the underlying hardware, software, and network technologies.
  27. 27. 3-Tier Client/Server Architecture Presentation Server: Allows human-to-computer interaction by means of the keyboard, mouse, and monitor. The software includes a user-friendly graphical user interface (GUI) that takes requests from the user and passes them on to the application server. Application Server Prepare, format, and process incoming data (add an new order, search customer record) Sometimes,application servers connect with databases and on-line services to provide information that users request or to make changes to the database. Database Server stores information that servers can use. The software on the database server controls database management and batch processing.
  28. 28. 3 Tier Architecture Presentation . . . Internet TCP/IP Application Dispatcher Work- Work- Work- Work- Work- Work- process process process Remote SQL Database
  29. 29. Integrating BP into IT Development User Interface A B C D Business Process Applications Databases
  30. 30. 傳統軟體發展流程 Defining the problem : 定義問題 Planning the solution : 設計解決的 方案(演算方法) Coding the program : 編寫程式 Testing the program : 測試程式 Documenting the program: 編寫程式的 發展文件
  31. 31. 傳統MRP軟體發展之特色 軟體開發往往是一個模組接著一個模組 進行,對於模組間之相互影響不易事先 發現。 軟體在最後階段才進行確認工作,無法 事先瞭解全部之狀況。 開發時間過長。 發展出之軟體較符合企業之特色。
  32. 32. ERP軟體發展流程 發展企業參考模型(Business Reference Model)及相關之軟體元件。 進行企業流程再造(BPR)。 組裝軟體元件成為套裝軟體。 運用CTO(Configuration to Order)之觀念
  33. 33. ERP軟體發展之特色 可預先瞭解軟體發展完成後之企業模型。 各模組之相互影響在參考模型中已考慮 到。 軟體發展時間較短。 企業參考模型不易進行大幅度之修改。 企業BPR成功與否對於ERP軟體能否確實 的導入佔有非常關鍵之因素。
  34. 34. ERP導入之相關作業 訓練 熟悉軟體更要熟悉流程 整合與測試 ERP與其他相關軟體(PDM, MES)之整合 測試應以流程為導向,最好從訂單輸入到製 造,交貨與相關款項之進出作一完整之測試 資料轉換 將企業現有之電子化或非電子化資料轉換並 存於ERP資料庫。
  35. 35. ERP導入之相關作業 ERP導入小組之組成與後續處理 ERP導入小組應由各部門最優秀之員工組成 企業對於ERP導入小組成員之未來應有妥善 規劃 妥善規劃ERP導入後之企業變化 流程導向之作業會將各部門結合在一起 各部門應主動處理流程中與本身相關之工作
  36. 36. The Future of ERP Applications Components, not modules. Incremental migration,rather than massive reengineering. Dynamic, rather than static, configuration of ERP systems. the ability to create dynamic suites of applications rather than best of practice components.