Monitoring and assessment

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Monitoring and assessment

  1. 1. Monitoring and Assessment H.Zarei
  2. 2. Content & sequencing principles Principles .zzzxxl;d Goal Monitorin g and assessing Environment
  3. 3. Monitoring and assessment must take account of the environment in which the course will be used, the needs of the learners, And… principles of teaching and learning.
  4. 4. Monitoring and Assessment can provide a teacher and learners with information about… the learners’ present knowledge and progress, and it can also be a means of encouraging involvement and participation.
  5. 5. Purpose of monitoring To make sure that the learner will get the most benefit from the course. This involves;  Carefully observing the learners & the course  Suggesting changes to the course and the way it is run
  6. 6. Types of monitoring and assessment • • • • • • Placement assessment Observation of learning Short term achievement assessment Diagnostic assessment Achievement assessment Proficiency assessment
  7. 7. Types of monitoring and assessment • • • • • • Placement assessment Observation of learning Short term achievement assessment Diagnostic assessment Achievement assessment Proficiency assessment
  8. 8. Placement assessment • is used to decide what level of the course a learner should enter • usually occurs under environment constraints • It often has to be done just before a course begins • The learners may not perform their best • The Learners are unfamiliar with some of the test formats • assessment may be the learners’ first meeting with the teachers and course and could affect their attitudes to the course.
  9. 9. Placement assessment should be… • Familiar, friendly and relaxed • Reasonably brief and easy to mark • Focused on gathering the most relevant information
  10. 10. Placement tests focus on… • Knowledge of language items rather than skill in language use.
  11. 11. Tests which focus on language items include… • Pronunciation • Vocabulary • Grammar test
  12. 12. Test which focus on language use include… • • • • • Interviews Role play Listening tests(message-focused) Reading passage (message-focused) Composition writing
  13. 13. Why we don’t use tests with language use focus for placement? • Difficult to interpret • Difficult to score • Time consuming to set • May not meet many of the requirements for an effective placement test
  14. 14. Types of monitoring and assessment • • • • • • Placement assessment Observation of learning Short term achievement assessment Diagnostic assessment Achievement assessment Proficiency assessment
  15. 15. Observation of learning • Occur at the level of learning activity • does not assess the learners but is directed towards the tasks that they do The purpose; • to see if it is necessary to make changes to the learning activities in order to encourage learning
  16. 16. Questions that should be asked when observing learning activities… • What’s the learning goal of the activity? • What are the learning conditions that would lead to the achievement of this goal? • What are the observable signs that these learning conditions are occurring? • What are the design features of the activity that set up the learning conditions or that need to be changed to set up the learning conditions?
  17. 17. Monitoring can occur in different ways… • Learner diaries • Logbooks written for the teachers • Learners talking in small groups
  18. 18. Types of monitoring and assessment • • • • • • Placement assessment Observation of learning Short term achievement assessment Diagnostic assessment Achievement assessment Proficiency assessment
  19. 19. Short-Term Achievement Assessment • looks at the product of activities or a small set of activities The purpose • to see if the learners are making progress on a daily or weekly basis
  20. 20. Short-term assessment can also have motivational purposes… Why? to make learners do required work and to give them feelings of achievement through success on the tests
  21. 21. Short-term achievement is more easily assessed if there are clear performance objectives for some of the learning goals. A performance objective is a statement consisting of five parts; 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. the subject The performance The conditions The measure The criterion
  22. 22. According to Brown… • curriculum designers should write performance objectives for some of the goals of the course, particularly where there might be misunderstanding of what is to be learned and where focused repeated practice is needed to reach the goals.
  23. 23. Good short-term achievement assessment should … • Provide a clear record of progress that is easily to interpreted • In a form to motivate learners to keep working toward the course goals • Not occupy too much class time • Be a regular expected of class activity
  24. 24. Types of monitoring and assessment • • • • • • Placement assessment Observation of learning Short term achievement assessment Diagnostic assessment Achievement assessment Proficiency assessment
  25. 25. Diagnostic assessment • used to find the gaps and weaknesses in learners’ knowledge so that something can be done about them • used to find what learners know well so that time is not wasted on teaching that
  26. 26. Diagnostic assessment • The findings of diagnostic assessment are used to determine what goes into a course • good diagnostic assessment is accurate and easy to interpret in terms of what should be done as a result
  27. 27. The Vocabulary levels test • This test helps a teacher decide whether learners should be focusing on high-frequency vocabulary, academic vocabulary or low-frequency vocabulary. Why it is important? • because high-frequency vocabulary and low-frequency vocabulary require quite different teaching strategies.
  28. 28. Learner self-assessment • Self-assessment usually involves learners working with checklists or scales to indicate their perceived areas of strength and weakness. What’s the problem? • It is often difficult to separate the learners’ subjective concerns from objective judgment.
  29. 29. Types of monitoring and assessment • • • • • • Placement assessment Observation of learning Short term achievement assessment Diagnostic assessment Achievement assessment Proficiency assessment
  30. 30. Achievement test • measures both the achievement of learners during a course and the effectiveness of the course. • The tests part of the way through a course may have the purpose of picking up learners who are not achieving, so that something can be done to help them learn.
  31. 31. Characteristics of achievement test 1. They are based on material taught in the course. 2. Learners usually know what kinds of questions will be asked and what material will be covered. 3. They are criterion referenced.
  32. 32. Mastery test  a high criterion is set  Achievement tests may be mastery tests • Mastery achievement tests usually focus on a small area of knowledge so that learners are clear about what has to be learned and so that they can set themselves a series of short-term goals to eventually cover the area of knowledge.
  33. 33. The thinking behind masteryittest be 1. if something is to be learned, should learned well 2. every learner is capable of achieving mastery, some may require more time to do so than others 3. The teacher’s responsibility is to the students and to learning and thus every learner should have the chance to learn well 4. mastery of an area is rewarding and motivating for both teacher and learners.
  34. 34. Opposing views 1. the teacher’s responsibility is to the subject matter and not to the students. 1. one role of courses is to indicate to employers and those responsible for admission to further education that some learners are more capable than others. 2. learners are responsible for their learning and the management of their learning.
  35. 35. Types of monitoring and assessment • • • • • • Placement assessment Observation of learning Short term achievement assessment Diagnostic assessment Achievement assessment Proficiency assessment
  36. 36. Proficiency assessment • draws items for the test not from the course that the learners are studying, but from the language itself, independent of any course Purpose • To show how much the learners know of the language or a particular part of the language
  37. 37. The difference between proficiency test and achievement test … • The proficiency test is likely to cover a larger range of items and skills.
  38. 38. TOEFL & IELTS • This test may be working as a criterion-referenced test to determine whether a learner goes into an Englishmedium university or not. • Sometimes the test may simply act as a norm-referenced test which shows learners at which percentile of proficiency they are in relation to others.
  39. 39. TOEFL washback • A proficiency test like TOEFL which is used as a criterion-referenced test can have a profound washback effect on a language course that precedes the sitting of the test. • It can be a major environmental factor affecting the course. • It can have the effect of encouraging learners to drop out of the course if the course does not clearly and directly address the requirements of the test.
  40. 40. It can have the effect of • encouraging learners to drop out of the course if the course does not clearly and address the requirements of the test. Courses which copy the format of the test in their learning activities are in effect trying to make the proficiency test be like an achievement test(that instead of the test drawing items from the course, the course is drawing items from old tests. )
  41. 41. All assessment needs to be checked to see that it’s doing its job properly … Reliability Validity Practicality
  42. 42. Reliability A test is more reliable if 1. it is always given under the same conditions 2. it is consistently marked 3. it has a large number of points of assessment 4. its questions and instructions are clear and unambiguous
  43. 43. validity • A valid test measures what it is supposed to measure. Face validity • if the test is called a reading test, does it look like a reading test? • is important because it reflects how the learners and perhaps their parents, and other teachers will react to the test.
  44. 44. Content Validity • the decision-making about validity is not made by looking at the test’s “face”, but by analysing the test and comparing it to what it is supposed to test.
  45. 45. How we can see that we have content validity in the test? • look at the part of the course that was being tested and list the items and skills taught. Then we would have to look at the test and list the items and skills tested. If these two lists matched each other quite closely, or if the test involved a representative sample of the course list.
  46. 46. practicality Examined by looking at… 1. the cost involved in administering and scoring the test 2. the time taken to administer and sit the test 3. the time taken to mark the test 4. the number of people needed to administer and mark the test 5. the ease in interpreting and applying the results of the test
  47. 47. SOME POINTS • The requirements of practicality and reliability and validity do not always agree with each other, for example short tests are practical but not very reliable or valid. • Where possible, reliability and validity should be preferred over practicality, but usually compromise is necessary.
  48. 48. Thank you

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