Textile and material understanding

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Textile and material understanding

  1. 1. STEP.<br />INSTITUTE OF PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT AND MANAGEMENT.<br />
  2. 2. FIBER.<br />FILAMENT (TEXTILE).<br />YARN.<br />TEXTILE.<br /><ul><li>NATURAL TEXTILES.
  3. 3. SYNTHETICS.
  4. 4. REGENERATED SYNTHETHIC.
  5. 5. TRUE SYNTHETHIC.
  6. 6. GEOTEXTILES.</li></ul>TABLE OF CONTENTS.<br />
  7. 7. ANY SUBSTANCE NATURAL OR MANUFACTURED WITH A HIGH LENGTH TO WIDTH RATIO & WITH SUITABLE CHARACTERISTICS FOR BEING PROCESSED INTO FABRIC.<br />FILAMENT IS A SINGLE LONG FIBER USED TO PRODUCE YARN FOIR DIFFERENT TYPES OF FABRIC. SYNTHETIC FIBER IS INITIALLY PRODUCED AS SINGLE FILAMENTS, MADE WHEN SPINNING LIQUID IS FORCED THROUGH FINE HOLES IN A PIECE OF METAL AND THE RESULTING FILAMENTS ARE HARDENED, DRAWN AND TWISED TO PRODUCE A YARN, OR CUT TO FORM STAPLE(SHORTER) FIBERS. SILK IS THE ONLY NATURALLYU OCCURING SINGLE FILAMENT FIBER.A CONTINUOUS FILAMENT OF UP TO 3KM/2 MI CAN BE UNWOUND FROM THE COCOON OF A SILKWORM.<br /> FIBER. FILAMENT.<br />
  8. 8. THERE ARE TWO MAIN CATEGORIES OF YARN SINGLE, CONTINUOUS FILAMENT YARN AND SPUN YARN. CONTINUOUS FILAMENT YARN IS MADE WHEN TWO OR MORE FILAMENTS ARE DRAWN AND TWISTED TOGHTER . SYNTHETIC FIBER IS INTIALLY PRODUCED AS SINGLE FILAMENTS. SILK IS THE ONLY NATURALLY-OCCURING SINGLE SILAMENT FIBER. SPUN YARN IS MADE FROM SHORTER FIBERS.THESE INCLUDE ALL FIBERS EXCEPT SILK, BUT MAYU ALSO INCLUDE SYNTHETIC FILAMENTS WHICH HAVE BEEN CUT TO FORM STAPLE FIBERS.<br /> YARN.<br />
  9. 9. THESE ARE MADE FROM NATURAL FIBERS AND INCLUDE COTTON, LINEN, SILK AND WOOL.FOR PARTICULAR QUALITIES, SUCH AS FLAME RESISTANCE OR WATER STAIN REPELLENCE, THESE MAY BE COMBINED WITH A SYNTHETIC FIBER OR TREATED WITH VARIOUS<br /> CHEMICALS.<br /> SYNTHETIC:<br /> THERE ARE TWO TYPES OF SYNTHETIC FIBER TRUE SYNTHETIC OR REGENERATED SYNTHETIC.<br /> REGENERATED SYNTHETIC FIBERS ARE PRODUCED FROM RAW MATERIALS, THESE ARE REFORMED TO PRODUCE FIBERS OR FILAMENTS SUITABLE FOR MAKING INTO YARNS OR FABRICS. THE FIRST COMMERCIAL REGENERATED SYNTHETIC FIBER WAS ARTIFICIAL SILK, AND WAS MADE FROM MODIFIED CELLULOSE KNOWN ACCORDING TO LATER METHODS OF MANUFACTURE AS VISCOSE. <br /> TEXTILE. NATURAL TEXTILES.<br />
  10. 10. TRUE SYNTHETIC FIBERS ARE USUALLY PRODUCED FROM SUBSTANCES LIKE PETROCHEMICALS, WHICH DO NOT NATURALLY FORM FIBERS. THE FIRST FULLY SYNTHETIC TEXTILE FIBER, NYLON WAS DEVELOPED IN 1937. NYLON, ACRYLIC, POLYESTER AND SPANDEX FIBERS SUCH AS LYCRA, FORM THE BASIS OF MOST OF THE MODERN TEXTILE INDUYSTRY.<br />GEOTEXTILES USED IN DRAINAGE SYSTEMS, ROAD FOUNDATIONS, BARRIERS TO SEA AND RIVER DEFENCES AGAINIST EROSION ARE KNOW AS GEOTEXTILES. THEY ARE MADE FROM SYNTHETIC FIBERS, WHICH ARE EITHER FELTEDFOR USE AS FILTERS OR WOOVEN FOR STRENGTH.<br /> TRUE SYNTHETIC. GEOTEXTILES.<br />
  11. 11. NATURAL FIBERS:<br />ANGORA.<br />CAMEL FAMILY: CAMEL,ALPACA.<br />CASHMERE.<br />COTTON.<br />HEMP.<br />LINEN.<br />MOHAIR.<br />OTHER PLANT FIBERS(BANANA. PINEAPPLE).<br />RAMIE.<br />SILK.<br />WOOL.<br />INDEX OF FIBERS.<br />
  12. 12. MANUFACTURED FIBERS:<br />ACETATE.<br />ACRYLIC.<br />MICROFIBERS.<br />LYOCELL.<br />NYLON.<br />PLA FIBER.<br />POLYESTER.<br />POLYOLEFIN.<br />RAYON.<br />SPANDEX.<br />TRIACETATE.<br />INDEX OF FIBERS.<br />
  13. 13. NATURAL FABRICS ARE CREATED FROM FIBERS OF ANIMALS COATS, SILKWORM COCOONS AND PLANTS SEEDS, LEAVES AND STEMS. <br />WOOL: FIBER FROM ANIMALCOATS, SHEEP,GOAT,RABBITS,LLAMA.<br />COTTON: FIBERS FROM THE COTTON PLANT’S SEED POD.<br />SILK: FIBERS FROM THE COCOON OF THE SILKWORM.<br />LINEN: LINEN IS FROM FLAX. A BAST FIBER TAKEN FROM STALK OF THE PLANT.<br />HEMP,RAMIE AND JUTE: ALL OF THESE ARE SIMILAR TO LINEN BUT THE PLANTS ARE PROCESSED SLIGHTLY DIFFERENT.<br />NATURAL FIBERS.<br />
  14. 14. ANGOIRA: MOHAIR MADE FROM THE HAIR OF THE ANGORA GOAT.<br />ANGORA RABBIT HAIR.<br />FINE HAIR FIBERS.<br />LIGHTWEIGHT.<br />VERY WARM.<br />OFTEN BLENDED WITH WOOL TO DECREASE THE PRICE AND TO OBTAIN NOVELTY EFFECTS.<br />MAJOR END USES:<br />APPAREL: SWEATERS, SOCKS, ACCESSORIES,SHAWLS AND SUITS.<br />HOME FASHIONS: BLANKETS, THROWS.<br /> CHARACTERISTCS ANGORA.<br />
  15. 15. NATURAL FIBER.<br />LUSTROUS.<br />STRONG ITS RELATION TO DIAMTER.<br />GOOD INSULATION QUALITY.<br />MAJOR END USES:<br />SWEATERS, SOCKS, SHAWLS, COATS.<br />HOME FASHIONS: BLANKETS, THROWS.<br /> CHARACTERISTICS OF CAMEL FAMILY.<br />
  16. 16. NTURAL FIBER MADE FROM FLEECE OF KASHMIR GOATS.<br />OUTSTANDING SOFTNESS.<br />VERY LUXURIOUS.<br />VERY DRAPE ABLE.<br />EXPENSIVE.<br />SHORTER CASHMERE FIBERS MAY PILL.<br />MAJOR END USES:<br />SWQEATERS, SOCKS, COATS, SHAWLS.<br />HOME FASHION: BLANKETS, THROWS.<br /> CASHMERE.<br />
  17. 17. NATURAL FIBER CELLULOSIC.<br />COMFORTABLE.<br />SOFT HAND.<br />ABSORBENT.<br />GOOD COLOR RETENTION,PRINTS WELL.<br />MACHINE WASHABLE.<br />GOOD STRENGTH.<br />DRAPES WELL.<br />EASY TO HANDLE AND SEW.<br />MAJOR END USES:<br />WIDE RANGE OF WEARING APPAREL,SHIRTS,BLOUSES,DRESSES,PANTS,NECKWEAR,SUITS.<br />HOME FASHIONS: CURTAINS DRAPERIES,BEDSPREADS,COMFORTERS,TOWELS,TABLE CLOTH,NAPKINS E.T.C.<br />COTTON.<br />
  18. 18. NATURAL FIBER.<br />THREE TIMES STRONGER THAN COTTON.<br />GOOD ABRASION RESISTANCE/VERY DURABLE.<br />ANTI-MICROBIAL AND UV RESISTANCE.<br />READILY DYES.<br />BREATHABLE.<br />POOR DRAPE ABILITY.<br />NOT SOFT AS OTHER FIBERS.<br />MAJOR END USES:<br />DRESSES,SKIRTS,JACKETS,PANTS,SHIRTS E.T.C.<br />HOME FASHION: CURTAINS,DRAPARIES,TABLE LINEN,SHEETS,DISH TOWEL.<br /> HEMP.<br />
  19. 19. COMFORTABLE.<br />GOOD STRENGTH, TWICE AS STRONG AS COTTON.<br />HAND WASHABLE.<br />CRISP HAND.<br />TAILORS WELL.<br />ABSORBENT.<br />DYES AND PRINT WELL.<br />LIGHTWEIGHT TO HEAVY WEIGHT/<br />NO STATIC OR PILLING PROBLEMS.<br />MAJOR END USES:<br />DRESSES,SUITS,SKIRTS,PANTS,SHIRTS,BLOUSES.<br />HOME FASHIONS: CURTAINS,BEDSPREAD,TABLE LINENS,SHEETS,DISH TOWEL.<br /> LINEN.<br />
  20. 20. NATURAL FIBER MADE FROM THE HAIR OF ANGORA GOAT.<br />LONG, LUSTROUS, STRONG FIBER.<br />LUXURIOUS.<br />SOFT HAND.<br />MOST RESILIENT NATURAL TEXTILE FIBER.<br />LIGHTWEIGHT, WARMS, GOOD INSULATOR.<br />DYES WELL, BRILLIANT COLORS.<br />RESIST FADING.<br />MAJOR END USES:<br />APPAREL: COATS,DRESSES,SWEATER,SOCKS.<br />HOME FASHION: BLANKETS, THROWS,CARPETS, RUGS.<br /> MOHAIR.<br />
  21. 21. NATURAL FIBER.<br />SOFT HAND.<br />LUXURIOUS.<br />DRAPES AND TAILORS WELL.<br />HAND WASGHABLE.<br />LITTLE PROBLEM WITH STATIC.<br />POOR RESISTANCE TO PROLONGED EXPOSURE TO SUNLIGHT.<br />MAJOR END USES:<br />DRESSES,BLOUSES,SHIRTS,JACKETS,PANTS,SCARVES,TIES.<br />CURTAINS,DRAPAERIES.<br /> SILK.<br />
  22. 22. NATURAL FIBER MADE FROM THE FLEECE OF SHEEP.<br />COMFORTABLE.<br />LUXURIOUS, SOF HAND.<br />VERSATILE.<br />GOOD INSULATOR.<br />LIGHTWEIGHT.<br />WASHABLES.<br />WRINKLE RESISTANT.<br />EASY TO DYE.<br />ABSORBENT.<br />MAJOR END USES:<br />SWEATERS,DRESSES,SUITS,COATS,PANTS,SKIRTS.<br />CARPETS,BLANKETS.<br /> WOOL.<br />
  23. 23. ACETATE.<br />ACRYLIC.<br />LYOCELL.<br />NYLON.<br />PLA FIBERS.<br />POLYESTER.SS<br />RAYON.<br />SPANDEX.<br /> MANUFACTURED FIBERS.<br />
  24. 24. LUXURIOUS APPEARANCE.<br />CRISP OR SOF HAND.<br />WIDE RANGE OF COLORS, DYES AND PRINTS WELL.<br />EXCELLENT DRAPE ABILITY.<br />SHRINK AND MILDEW RESISTANT.<br />LOW MOISTURE ABSORBENCY.<br />NO PILLING PROBLEMS.<br />MAJOR END USES:<br />BLOUSES,DRESSES,LINNINGS.<br />BEDSPREADS,CURTAINS.<br />ACETATE TAKES COLOR EXTREMELY WELL.IT IS ALSO VERY SOFT AND DRAPEABLE.<br /> ACETATE.<br />
  25. 25. LIGHT WEIGHT,SOFT,WARM WITH A WOOL LIKE HAND.<br />DYES TO BRIGHT COLORS WITH EXCELLENT FASTNESS.<br />OUTSTANDING WICK ABILITY.<br />MACHINE WASHABLE,QUICK DRYING.<br />RESILIENT, RETAINS SHAPE.<br />EXCELLENT PLEAT PATTERN.<br />RESISTANT TO MOTHS,OIL AND CHEMICALS.<br />STATIC AND PILLING CAN BE A PROBLEM.<br />MAJOR END USES:<br />SWEATERS,SOCKS,FLEECE,SPORTSWEAR,CHILDRENSWEAR.<br />HOME FASHIONS: BLANKETS, OUTDORE FURNITURE, RUGS.<br /> ACRYLIC.<br />
  26. 26. MANUFACTURED FIBER CELLULOSE BASED.<br />EXCELLENT STRENGTH.<br />WASHABLE.<br />SHRINK AND WRINKLE RESISTANT.<br />SOFT HAND.<br />EXCELLENT DRAPE.<br />ABSORBENT.<br />DYES AND PRINTS WELL.<br />MAJOR END USES:<br />DRESSES,SUITS,PANTS,JACKETS,SKIRTS.<br />CURTAINS,BEDSPREAD,TABLE LINENS.<br /> LYOCELL.<br />
  27. 27. ULTRA FINE, FINER THAN THE MMOST DELICATE SILK.<br />EXTREMELY DRAPEABLE.<br />VERY SOFT, LUXURIOUS HAND WITH A SILKEN.<br />WASHABLE DRY CLEANABLE.<br />SHRINK-RESISTANT.<br />HIGH STRENGTH.<br />INSULATES WELL AGAINST WIND, RAIN AND COLD.<br />MAJOR END USES.<br />HOISERY,BLOUSES,SEPARATES,SPORTSWEAR,TIES,SCARVES,MENSWEAR.<br />CURTAINS,DRAPARIES,SHEETS,TOWELS,BLANKETS.<br />THEY CAN BE WOOVEN SO TOGHTLY THAT THE FABRIC CAN’T BE PENETRATED BY WIND,RAIN OR COLD.<br /> MICROFIBERS.<br />
  28. 28. MANUFACTURED FIBER.<br />LIGHTWEIGHT.<br />EXCEPTIONAL STRENGTH.<br />GOOD SHAPE ABILITY.<br />ABRASION RESISTANT.<br />EASY TO WASH.<br />RESISTS SHRINKAGE AND WRINKLING.<br />FAST DRYING.<br />CAN BE PRECOLOURED OR DYED IN A WIDE RANGE OF COLORS.<br />RESISTANT TO DAMAGE FROM OIL AND MANY CHEMICALS.<br />STATIC AND PILLING CAN BE A PROBLEM.<br />POOR RESISTANCE TO CONTINOUS SUNLIGHT.<br /> NYLON.<br />
  29. 29. MAJOR END USES:<br />APPAREL: SWIMWEAR,ACTIVEWEAR,FOUNDATION GARMENTS,BLOUSES,DRESSES,SPORTSWEAR,PANTS,JACKETS,SKIRTS,RAINCOATS,SKI AND SNOW APPAREL.<br />HOME FASHIONS: CARPETS, RUGS, BEDSPREADS.<br />OTHER: LUGGAGE,LIFE VESTS,UMBERALLAS,SLEEPING BAGS,TENTS.<br />NYLON IS ONE THE STRONGEST FIBERS. FOR THIS REASON IT IS USED IN GARMENTS THAT TAKE A GREAT DEAL OF HARD WEAR, LIKE PANTY HOSE AND SWIMWEAR.<br /> NYLON.<br />
  30. 30. SIMILAR TO COTTON IN APPEARANCE.<br />NATURAL FIBER HAND.<br />WICK ABILITY OF NATURAL FIBERS.<br />GOOD PERFORMANCE QUALITY.<br />MADE FROM A RENEWABLE RESOURCE, WHICH IS BIODEGRABLE.<br />HIGH UV RESISTAMCE.<br />EXCELLENT DRAPE ABILITY.<br />MAJOR END USES.<br />APPAREL: EARLY MARKETS FOR THIS NEW FIBER INCLUDE LINGERIE,OUTERWEAR.<br />THE PLA IN THE FIBERS NAME STANDS FOR POLYLACTIC ACID. THE FIBER CAN BE USED IN BLENDS WITH COTTON AND POLYESTER. PLA IS BIODEGRADEABLE LIKE NATURAL FIBERS.<br /> PLA FIBER.<br />
  31. 31. MANUFACTURED FIBERS.<br />STRONG.<br />CRISP,SOFT HAND.<br />RESISTANT TO STRETCHING AND SHRINKAGE.<br />WASHABLE OR DRY CLEANABLE.<br />QUICK DYING.<br />ABRASION RESISTANT.<br />RESISTANT TO MOST CHEMICALS.<br />STATIC AND PILLING PROBLEMS.<br />MAJOR END USES:<br />APPAREL: ESSENTIALLY EVERY FORM OF CLOTHING, DRESSES,BLOUSES,JACKETS,SEPARATES,SPORTSWEAR,SUITS,SHIRTS,PANTS,RAINWEAR.<br />OF ALL THE MANUFACTURED FIBERS, POLYESTER IS THE MOST USED. POLYESTER IS THE BEST WASH AND WEAR FIBER.<br /> POLYESTER.<br />
  32. 32. SOFT AND COMFORTABLE.<br />DRAPES WELL.<br />HIGHLY ABSORBENT.<br />DYES AND PRINTS WELL.<br />NO PILLING PROBLEMS<br />FABRIC CAN SJRINK.<br />WASHABLE OR DRY.<br />MAJOR END USES:<br />LINGERIE,SLACKS,SPORTS SHIRTS,TIES.<br />BEDSPREADS,BLANKETS,CURTAINS,SLIP COVERS.<br /> RAYON.<br />
  33. 33. LIGHTWEIGHT.<br />CAN BE STRETCHED OVER 500% WITHOUT BREAKING.<br />ABLE TO BE STRETCHED REPETITIVELY AND STILL RECOVER ORIGINAL LENGTH.<br />ABRASION RESISTANT.<br />SOFT, SMOOTH AND SUPPLE.<br />STRONGER MORE DURABLE THAN RUBBER.<br />NO STATIC OR PILLING PROBLEMS.<br />MAJOR END USES:<br />BATHING SUITS, FOUNDATION GARMENTS, BELTS, SOCKS, SKI PANTS.<br />LYCRA IS THE MOST FAMILIAR SPANDEX FIBER.S<br /> SPANDEX.<br />
  34. 34. FIBER MADE BY CHEMICAL PROCESSES, UNKNOWN IN NATURE. THERE ARE TWO KINDS. ONE A REGENERATED SYNTHETIC FIBER IS MADE FROM NATURAL MATERIALS THAT HAVE BEEN CHEMICALLY PROCESS IN SOME WAY RAYON FOR EXAMPLE IS MADE BY PROCESSING THE CELLULOSE IN WOOD PULP.<br />COMMON SYNTHETIC FIBERS INCLUDE:<br />RAYON.<br />ACETATE.<br />NYLON.<br />OLEFIN.<br />POLYESTER.<br />PLA.<br /> SYNTHETIC FIBERS.<br />
  35. 35. MAN MADE FIBERS MAY COME FROM NATURAL RAW MATERIALSOR FROM SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS.MANY TYPES OF FIBER ARE MANUFACTURED FROM NATURAL CELLULOSE,INCLUDING RAYON, MODEL AND MORE RECENTLY DEVELOPED LYOCELL.<br /> MAN-MADE FIBERS.<br />
  36. 36. ALMOST ANY TEXTILE YARN CAN BE USED TO PRODUCE SUCH INTERLACED FABRIC AS WOOVEN AND KNITTED TYPES.IN WEAVING THE WARP OR LENGTH WISE YARNS ARE SUBJECTED TO GREATER STRESS AND ARE USUALLY STRONGER, SMOOTHER AND MORE EVEN AND HAVE TIGHTER TWIST THEN THE WEFT OR CROSSWISE YARNS. A SIZING MATERIALS SUCH AS STARCH MAY BE APPLIED TO WARP YARNS, INCREASING THERE STRENGTH TO WITHSTAND THE STRESSES OF FABRIC CONSTRUCTION OPERATIONS .<br /> YARN CLASSIFICATION. YARN CONSTRUCTION.<br />
  37. 37. YARN IS A STRAND COMPOSED OF FIBERS, FILAMENTS OR OTHER MATERIALS, EITHER NATURAL OR MAN MADE SUITABLE FOR USE IN THE CONSTRUCTION OF INTERLACED FABRICS SUCH AS WOOVEN OR KNITTED TYPES.<br />THE STRAND MAY CONSISTS OF NUMBER OF FIBERS TWISTED TOGHTER, A NUMBER OF FILAMENTS GROUPED TOGETHER BUT NOT TWISTED.<br />THE PROPERTIES OF THE YARN EMPLOYED GREATLY INFLUENCE THE APPEARANCE, TEXTURE AND PERFORMANCE OF THE COMPLETED FABRIC.<br /> PRODUCTION OF YARN<br />
  38. 38. WEAVING.<br />CHARACTERISTICS.<br />TYPES OF PLAIN WEAVES.<br />SHEER FABRIC.<br />TWILL WEAVE.<br />CHARACTERISTICS OF TWILL WEAVE.<br />SATIN WEAVE.<br />CHARACTERISTICS OF SATIN WEAVE.<br />FABRIC PRODUCTION.<br />
  39. 39. IN WEAVING PROCESS FABRICS ARE PRODUCES BY CRISIS CROSSING OF VERTICAL AND HORIZONTAL YARNS.OVER AND UNDER EACH OTHER. THE LEGTH WAYS YARNS RUNNING PARALLEL TO THE SELVEDGE ARE CALLED WARP YARNS AND CROSS WISE RUNNING BETWEEN THE SELVEDGES ARE CALLED WEFT OR FILLING YARNS.<br />TYPES OF PLAIN WEAVE:<br />BASKET WEAVE.<br />RIBBED WEAVE.<br />CORDED WEAVE.<br />TYPES OF PLAIN FABRICS:<br />PURE COTTON.<br />CAMBRIC.<br />LAWN.<br /> WEAVING.<br />
  40. 40. ITS VERY THIN LIGHT WEIGHT, TRANSPARENT OR SEMI TRANSPARENT BECAUSE OF FEW OR FINE YAENS. IT CAN BE DURABLE AND SERVICEABLE DEPENDING UPON THE NUMBER OF YARNS USED.<br />EXAMPLE.<br />TISSUE.<br />ORGANZA.<br />CHIFFON.<br />LAWN.<br />USING:<br />CURTAINS.<br />LINING.<br />GLASS WINDOW LINING.<br />SHEER RIBBONS.<br /> SHEER FABRIC.<br />
  41. 41. A BASIC WEAVE IN WHICH WEFT YARN PASSES OVER AND UNDER AT LEAST TWO BUT NOT MORE THEN FOUR YARNS IS CALLED TWILL WEAVE. A BASIC WEAVE IN WHICH FABRICS ARE CONSTRUCTED BY INTERLACING OF WARP AND FILLING YARN CREATING A DIAGNOL EFFECTS ON RIGHT SIDE. BUT IN SOME FABRICS DIAGONAL EFFECT CAN BE SEEN AT THE BACK SIDE OF THE FABRIC.<br />CHARACTERISTICS OF TWILL WEAVE:<br />TWILL WEAVE ARE MORE TIGHTLY WOVEN, SO THEY DON’T GET DIRTY AS QUICKLY AS PLAIN WEAVE. TWILL WEAVE ARE MORE DIFFERENT TO CLEAN WHEN THEY GET STAINS. THE DEPTHS OF DIAGONAL LINES INDICATES STRENGTH AND DURABILITY.<br />FIBER CONTENT:<br />COTTON.<br /> TWILL WEAVE,<br />
  42. 42. WEIGHT:<br />MEDIUM.<br />HEAVY.<br />LIGHT WEIGHT.<br />USES:<br />JACKETS.<br />JEANS.<br />SHIRTS.<br />BAGS.<br />SPORTS WEAR.<br />FINISHING PROCESS: FABRIC IS BIOLED.<br /> CHARACTERISTICS.<br />
  43. 43. ONE FILLING YARN PASSES OVER AND UNDER 5-12 WARP YARNS AT THE MOST. IN BASIC CONSTRUCTION IT’S SIMILAR TO TWILL WEAVE. IT IS DIFFERS IN APPEARANCE FROM TWILL WEAVE THE DIAGONAL LONE OR EFFECT IS NOT VISIBLE. IT IS PURPOSELY DONE TO GET A FLAT, SMOOTH AND LUSTROUS FINISHING.<br />CHARACTERISTICS:<br />SS<br />CONTENT: SILK<br />PROPERTY: FILAMENT, SILK.<br />STRUCTURE: SATIN WEAV.<br />WEIGHT: LIGHT WEIGHT.<br />VISUAL APPEARENCE: FLAT.<br /> SATIN WEAVE.<br />
  44. 44. THERE ARE TWO TYPES OF METHODS.<br />TESTING METHODS ARE DONE FOR FIBER IDENTIFICATION FOR CHECKING, VARIOUS PROPERTIES OF FABRICS AND DIFFERENT TYPES OF FABRICS.<br />NON-TECHNICAL TESTS:<br />DON’T REQUIRE TESTING MACHINES,LABORITES AND CHEMICALS.<br />FEELING TEST: <br />THIS TEST IS DONE TO FINISH OUT WETHER FABRIC IS CONDUCTOR OR NON-CONDUCTOR AND ITS REQUIRED A HIGH PERCEPTION TESTING ABILITY.WOOL IS NON-CONDUCTOR WHERE AS LINEN,COTTON AND RAYON ARE GOOD CONDUCTORS.<br />BURNING TEST.<br />THIS TEST IS INVOLVES BURNING OF THE FABRIC OR A FIBER. SWATCH OF FABRIC IS PASSED OR MOVED TOWARDS FLAME SLOWLY TO CHECK HOW IT BURNS AND REACTION SHOULD BE NOTICED WHILE BURNING.<br /> TESTING METHODS.<br />
  45. 45. MACHINE TESTS:<br />ATTACHED A SWATCHES TO THE MOVABLE HANDLE OF THE RUBBING MACHINE. A FABRIC PIECE SWATCHES PLACED ON PUT OF THAT MACHINES. THAT HANDLES IS PLACED OVER IT. NOW WHITE SWATCH IS RUBBING OR REMOVED OVER THE COLOR FABRIC.THERE IS SOME KIND OF STAIN OR COLOR FLASHES.<br />MANUAL TESTS:<br />TAKE A PIECE OF FABRIC COVER HALF OF THE SAMPLE WITH OPAQUE PAPER. THEN PUT THE FABRIC SWATCH OUTDOOR FOR 2-3 HOURS AFTER THAT BRING THAT INSIDE AND CHECK EXPOSED POSITION IF IT SHOWS FADING FABRIC IS NOT FAST TO LIGHT.<br />COLOR FASTNESS TEST/RUBBING TESTS:<br />
  46. 46. FOR THIS TESTING COLORED FABRIC SAMPLE IS SOAKED FOR 10 MINUTE IN A WEAK ACIDS SUCH AS DILUTED ACETIC. AFTER THAT RINSE AND ROLLS THAT SAMPLES IN PIECE OF WHITE CLOTH.LEAVE IT UNROLLED FOR SOMETIMES. IT THE ORIGINAL COLOR SHOWS THAT THE SHADE HAS BEEN CHANGED AND COLORS APPEAR ON ROLLED CLOTH IT MEANS IT IS NOT FAST FOR PREPARATION.<br />LAB TESTS:<br />THERE IS AN APRA TEST THAT IS CALLED FADE-O-METER. IT IS ALSO CALLED CARBON ARC. IT HAS SAME EFFECT AS IN SUNLIGHT. SAMPLE OR SWATCH WHICH IS TO BE TESTED REVOLVES AROUND FADE-O-METER FOR A DEFINE PERIOD. AFTER 1 HOUR TEST THERE IS ANY CHANGE IN COLOR IT MEANS FABRIC IS NOT RESISTANT TO STRONG LIGHT AND IF IT DOES NOT CHANGE COLOR IT MEANS FABRIC HAS HIGH DEGREE OF FASTNESS TO LIGHT.<br /> FASTNESS TO PREPARATION.<br />

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