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Discuss about sudden infant death syndrome
Know Risk factor for SIDS
Learn about prevent methods and co-sleeping.
Learn about management and nursing process
Definition of SIDS
The sudden and unexplained death of an infant
under one year of age.
– Leading cause of death in infants under 12 months
Triple risk hypothesis :
Critical developmental period in homeostatic
Proposed Causes (External/Internal)
The baby is in the prone position
(Lying on its stomach)
The temperature of the environment would
determine how warmly the infant is dressed or
how tightly a blanket is wrapped around the
The presence of smoke during pregnancy
increases the infants chance 3 times for having
The use of narcotics during pregnancy
increases the infants chance 10 times for
Improper bedding such as a too soft mattress
or a big fluffy blanket could cause the infant to
inhale stale air during the night.
Autopsy’s revealed that tiny hemorrhages
inside of the babies chest could be responsible
for congestion in the lungs during the night.
Asphyxiation by carbon dioxide is associated
with soft bedding because the infant only
breathes in stale air (containing mostly carbon
dioxide) throughout the night, and does not
receive the proper amount of oxygen.
Immune System Disorders
Infants who have an immune system disorder
are at higher risk than those who do not,
because it is likely to cause a change in heart
rate during the night.
The cessation of airflow to the nose and mouth
– The pause is called central and usually last for
about 15 seconds
Most widely accepted hypothesis
Sleep Apnea Hypothesis
There is an abnormality in the regulation of the
breathing activity that leads to prolonged
central apnea, hypoxia which leads to coma,
Because SIDS has no
known cause and
happens randomly there
is no treatment available.
Lying the infant on its back during sleep
Controlled environment temperature
Good prenatal care
Avoidance of smoke and narcotics
Co-sleeping with parents
Co-sleeping is widely
believed to be a
prevention of SIDS
What does Co-sleeping do?
Allows for the mother and infant to interact their
Exchange sensory stimuli such as sound, movement,
touch, vision, gas, and temperature.
Infants spend less time in the deep stages of sleep.
Allows the baby to be near the mother for breast
feeding during the night.
Human milk provides less calories than
formula, which indicates the need for more
– More frequent contact with mother
Natural Selection and SIDS
When an infant is separated from its caregiver,
its natural instinct is to protest (cry).
Natural selection probably favored the infants
There is no known cause or treatment for
SIDS. Although there is action that can be
taken for the prevention of SIDS. Co-sleeping
and breast feeding, under proper conditions,
are the two most significant prevention
In addition to loss of infant, families face
could face police investigation, long wait for
autopsy results and continued uncertainty
leading to prolonged emotional distress
consequently affecting the grieving
Physician can play active role by
advocating for an autopsy, discussing
autopsy results with the family and
providing emotional support
Surviving siblings and other family
members need age appropriate emotional
If appropriate refer family for genetic
counselling and/or metabolic testing
Direct family to local counselling and
Management and support
Nursing Dx with SID
Interrupted family processes
Nursing Outcomes Nursing Care Plans For
Sudden Infant Death Syndrome SIDS
Family members will seek appropriate support persons
Family members will use available support systems to
assist in coping with fear.
Family members will identify feelings of hopelessness
regarding the current situation.
Family members will share feelings about the event.
Family members will verbalize measures to prevent
Family members will use effective coping strategies to
ease spiritual discomfort.
Nursing Interventions NCP Nursing Care
Plans For Sudden Infant Death Syndrome
Grief Work Facilitation: Assistance with the resolution of a significant loss
Grief Work Facilitation: Perinatal Death: Assistance with the resolution of
a perinatal loss
Coping Enhancement: Assisting a patient to adapt to perceived stressors,
changes, or threats that interfere with meeting life demands and roles
Anxiety Reduction: Minimizing apprehension, dread, foreboding, or
uneasiness related to an unidentified source or anticipated danger
Security Enhancement: Intensifying a patient’s sense of physical and
Hope Instillation: Facilitation of the development of a positive outlook in a
Emotional Support: Provision of reassurance, acceptance, and
encouragement during times of stress
Family Process Maintenance: Minimization of family process disruption
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syndrome. J Fam Health Care. 2007;17(5):149-151.