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Wrought iron final

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Wrought iron final

  1. 1. 
  2. 2. NON FERROUS METALS Copper Aluminium Lead Magnesium Nickel Tin And Alloys(Brass, Bronze,) FERROUS METALS Pig iron cast iron Wrought iron And Alloys (Steel)
  3. 3. •In metallurgy, a non-ferrous metal is any metal, including alloys, that does not contain iron in appreciable amounts. • Generally more expensive than ferrous metals, non-ferrous metals are used because of desirable properties such as:  low weight (e.g., aluminium).  Higher conductivity (e.g., copper),  Non-magnetic property or resistance to corrosion (e.g., zinc). •Some non-ferrous materials are also used in the iron and steel industries. For example, bauxite is used as flux for blast furnaces, while others such as wolframite, pyrolusite and chromite are used in making ferrous alloys NON-FERROUS METALS
  4. 4. FERROUS METALS •Ferrous is an adjective used to indicate the presence of iron. •Ferrous metals include steel and pig iron (with a carbon content of a few percent) and alloys of iron with other metals (such as stainless steel). ALLOYS BRONZE - COPPER+TIN USE - Medals, statues, sculptures, etc. BRASS - COPPER+ZINC USES -UTENSILS STAINLESS STEEL : High ductility and strength.Non- magnetic. Excellent high and low temperature properties. USES: Utensils, corrosive piping, dairy equipment, food processing equipment etc.
  5. 5.  Wrought Iron Is An Iron Alloy With A Very Low Carbon Content In Contrast To Steel, And Has Fibrous Inclusions, Known As Slag.  This Is What Gives It A "Grain" Resembling Wood, Which Is Visible When It Is Etched Or Bent To The Point Of Failure.  Wrought Iron Is Tough, Malleable, Ductile And Easily Welded.
  6. 6. Due to its malleability and toughness, wrought iron has been coveted for thousands of years.. To look at the history of wrought iron is to look at the history of man's innovations.  •Throughout time, wrought iron has been used to build ancient structures, warships and railways. Wrought iron has fought wars, built kingdoms, and provided the structures to everlasting historical landmarks. Today, the timeless look of wrought iron can be found anywhere in homes from light fixtures, to wine racks, to candle holders. HISTORY
  7. 7. Wrought iron has been used for many centuries, and is the "iron" that is referred to throughout western history. • Ironwork date back to ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia as far back as around 3500 B.C. • Around the 8th century B.C., early civilizations such as the Hittites and the Mycenaean Greeks began equipping their armies with iron swords. Knowledge about the use of iron spread from the Middle East to Greece and the Aegean region by 1000 B.C, and had reached western and central Europe by 600 B.C. By the 5th century B.C., iron swords had replaced bronze all over Europe. HISTORY (Ancient Period)
  8. 8. •16th century: Ironwork became sophisticated and high decorative, throughout the elaborate cathedrals of Spain to balconies, patios and gateways of France. •18th century led to beautiful railings and gates throughout London. Demand for wrought iron reached its peak in the 1860s with the adaptation of ironclad warships and railways, - Balconies - Porches and verandas - Canopies - Roof cresting - Lamps - Grilles - Hardware HISTORY (Medieval Period) ST.PETERSBURG PALACE Notre dame Roof crestinglamps
  9. 9. The raw material wrought iron gradually disappeared, until the last ironworks ceased production in the 1970's. Wrought iron is no longer produced on a commercial scale, but is still made for replication, restoration and conservation of historical ironwork. • Nails •Iron cramps (i.e. to secure masonry veneer building frames) • Structural members in tension such as tie rods (or strap work), bulb-tees and I-beams. The standard sections of wrought iron included bar iron, angle and T irons, channel iron (half iron), rolled girder iron (rolled joist iron, beam iron, I or H iron), various special sections (sash bar, beading iron, cross iron, quadrant iron), iron bars, rivet iron, chain iron, horseshoe iron, nail iron, plate iron, coated iron (tin or lead), and corrugated sheet iron (generally galvanized). HISTORY (Early Period)
  10. 10. NOW (21TH CENTURY) In fencing In main entrance gates In railings As balusters •The wrought is replaced to a very great extent by mild steel. •It is used where a tough material is required. Used for rivets, chains, ornamental iron work, railway couplings, water and steam pipes. •It is manufactured for steel, bolts and nuts, horse shoe bars, handrails, straps for timer roof trusses, boiler tubes, roofing sheets, armatures, electromagnets etc.
  11. 11. Property Value Ultimate tensile strength [psi (MPa)] 34,000–54,000 (234–372) Ultimate compression strength [psi (MPa)] 34,000–54,000 (234–372) Ultimate shear strength [psi (MPa)] 28,000–45,000 (193–310) Yield point [psi (MPa)] 23,000–32,000 (159–221) Modulus of elasticity (in tension) [psi (MPa)] 28,000,000 (193,100) Melting point [°F (°C)] 2,800 (1,540) Specific gravity 7.6–7.9 7.5–7.8
  12. 12. •It becomes soft at white heat and it can be easily forged and welded. •It can be used to form temporary magnets but cannot be magnetised permanently. •It fuses with difficulty . •It cannot be adopted for making castings. • high elasticity and tensile strength •It is moderately elastic ,ductile, malleable and tough. •Unaffected by saline water. • If pulled apart, the fracture shows a fibrous break. •Suitable for members in tension OR compression; whereas, cast iron is suitable for members in compression ONLY. PROPERTIES
  13. 13. • Its ability to RESIST CORROSION and fatigue failure. The slag fibers in wrought iron are present in such great numbers that they serve in one capacity as an effective mechanical barrier against corrosion. • DUCTILITY -its ability to be drawn out. • MALLEABILITY -its ability to be hammered into shapes. • DURABILITY and ELEGANCE, • LOW MAINTAINANCE-Wrought iron is also easy to maintain and is low in maintenance. QUALITY
  14. 14. Material Iron Carbon Manganese Sulfur Phosphorus Silicon Pig iron 91–94 3.5–4.5 0.5–2.5 0.018–0.1 0.03–0.1 0.25–3.5 Carbon steel 98.1–99.5 0.07–1.3 0.3–1.0 0.02–0.06 0.002–0.1 0.005–0.5 Wrought iron 99–99.8 0.05–0.25 0.01–0.1 0.02–0.1 0.05–0.2 0.02–0.2 All units are percent weight FERROUS METALS
  15. 15. Wrought iron Cast Iron Steel Rusting Rusts more than Cast Iron Does not rust easily Rusts easily Malleability & Ductility Tough, malleable, ductile & moderately elastic Brittle & cannot be welded or rolled into sheets Tough, malleable & Ductile Reaction to sudden shock Cannot stand heavy shocks Does not absorb shocks Absorbs shocks Welding Easily welded Brittle and cannot be welded or rolled into sheets Rapidly welded
  16. 16. Iron Ore Blast Furnace Pig Iron Smelted, Hammered, Re- heated, Rolled Smelted,Alloyed, Rolled Wrought Iron Cast Iron Mild Iron(Steel) Re- melted, Poured into sand molds
  17. 17. IRON ORE PIG IRON CAST IRON WROUGHT IRON STEEL IRON MANUFACTURING Cast iron, wrought iron and steel are all essentially alloys of iron and carbon Iron is extracted from naturally occurring ores and we can think of these ores as providing the source material, iron oxide (FeO) When iron oxide is heated at high temperatures it becomes transformed into iron. Iron Oxide + Carbon heated along with a blast of air yields Iron + Carbon Monoxide. This process does not yield pure iron, but an impure product called pig iron. This pig iron contains impurities such as Iron Carbide (Fe3C) which make the material hard and brittle. The remelting of pig iron, and scrap iron, whilst blowing air into the molten mass until the Carbon content is between 2.4 and 4.0% produces Contemporary Cast Iron The strength deficiencies of cast iron were eventually partly addressed by the development of a process termed "puddling". This involved reheating cast iron and manually mixing air in with the molten mass. The invention of the Bessemer process allowed the oxidisation process after remelting to be carefully controlled and the carbon content could therefore be held at a particular level, providing good tensile strength and ductility.
  18. 18. BLOOMERY PROCESS 1100 -1500
  19. 19. charged with charcoal and iron ore and then lit. Air was blown in through a tuyere to heat the bloomery to a temperature somewhat below the melting point of iron. slag would melt and run out, and carbon monoxide from the charcoal would reduce the ore to iron iron in the solid state bloomery was allowed to become hot enough to melt the iron, carbon would dissolve into it and form pig or cast iron After smelting was complete, the bloom was removed, and the process could then be started again
  20. 20. FINERY PROCESS They re-melted the pig iron and burnt out the carbon, producing a bloom, which was then forged into a bar iron After the bloomery process In the 15th century, the blast furnace spread in Belgium and it was improved further.
  21. 21. A number of processes for making wrought iron without charcoal were devised as the Industrial Revolution began during the latter half of the 18th century. The most successful of these was pudling, using a pudling furnace.. PUDLING PROCESS This metal was placed into the hearth of the pudling furnace where it was melted. The hearth was lined with oxidizing agents such as haematite and iron oxide. This mixture is subjected to a strong current of air and stirred with long bars, called puddling bars The air, stirring, and "boiling" action of the metal help the oxidizing agents to oxidize the impurities and carbon out of the pig iron to their maximum capability
  22. 22. In 1925, James Aston of the United States developed a process for manufacturing wrought iron quickly and economically. It involves taking molten steel from a Bessemer converter and pouring it into cooler liquid slag. The molten steel contains a large amount of dissolved gases. so when the liquid steel hits the cooler surfaces of the liquid slag the gases are liberated. The molten steel then freezes to yield a spongy mass having a temperature of about 1370 °C. This spongy mass must then be finished by being shingled and rolled. ASTON PROCESS
  23. 23. There is still some slag left in the puddle balls, so while they are still hot they must be shingled to remove the remaining slag and cinder.It may be achieved by forging the balls under a power hammer, or by squeezing the bloom in a machine. The material obtained at the end of shingling is known as bloom and it is still red-hot. The blooms are not useful in this form, so they must be rolled into a final product. Rolling The bloom is passed through grooved rollers and flat bars were produced. These bars of wrought iron were of poor quality, called muck bars or puddle bars. To improve the quality of wrought iron, these bars were cut up, piled and tied together by wires, a process known as faggoting or piling. They were then reheated and rolled again in merchant rolls. This process may be repeated several times to get wrought iron of desired quality. Wrought iron that has been rolled multiple times is called merchant bar or merchant iron
  24. 24. ADVANTAGES :- (1) It welds better than does steel, (2) lasts longer when exposed to weather or to water, (3) It is better to resist shock and vibration (fatigue), in use, (4) Its fibrous structure arrests fracture, as its breaking is in the nature of a gradual tearing, which often gives warning of a dangerous stress, while steel breaks suddenly. DISADVANTAGES (1) Its elastic and tensile strength are lower than those of steel, (2) Its production is more costly.
  25. 25. PROBLEMS AND DETERIORATION
  26. 26. Chemical corrosion can attack decorative and structural wrought iron features in several ways: 1. Uniform Attack: Corrosion attacks the metal surface evenly. 2. Pitting: Attacks the metal surface in selected areas. 3. Selective Attack: When a metal is not homogenous throughout, certain areas may be attacked in preference to others. 4. Stress corrosion cracking: Attacks areas in a metal which were stressed during metal working and were later exposed to a corrosive environment. 5. Rust: It occurs when unprotected metal is exposed to oxygen in the atmosphere in the presence of moisture. 6. Galvanic (or Electro-Chemical) Corrosion: Galvanic corrosion occurs when two dissimilar metals are in contact with one another and an electrolyte. Pitting attack Rust Selective attack Galvanic corrosion Uniform attack
  27. 27. Mechanical or physical deterioration: 1. Fatigue: Failure of metal that has been repeatedly stressed beyond its elastic limit. a. Wrought iron is generally fatigue resistant because it is so tough. It will deform considerably, within its elastic limit, without failure. b. Even if past overloading has caused deformation, wrought iron fixings will usually continue to function. c. Defects in the wrought iron itself, or stress points can cause a feature to fracture. 2. Heat: Usually in the form of fire, will cause wrought iron features to become plastic, distort, and fail. 3. Distortion: Permanent deformation or failure may occur when a metal is overloaded beyond its yield point because of increased live or dead loads, thermal stresses, or structural modifications altering a stress regime
  28. 28. REDSHORT – It contains sulfur in excess quantity. It makes the iron brittle due to formation of iron sulphide. It has sufficient tenacity when cold, but cracks when bent or finished at a red heat. It is therefore useless for welding or forging. COLDSHORT-It contains excessive phosphorus. It is very brittle when it is cold. It cracks if bent. It may, however, be worked at high temperature. Historically, coldshort iron was considered good enough for nails. PROBLEMS DUE TO ITS CONSTITUENTS
  29. 29. DEFECTS CORROSION CRACKS RUSTING INCLUSIONS
  30. 30. PROCESS OF MAKING DESIGNS
  31. 31. WROUGHT IRON SECTIONS
  32. 32. HOME DÉCOR ITEMS Baker's racks Gates wine racks Candle holders Table basesBeds USES OF WROUGHT IRON Lamp Balconies
  33. 33. Handrails Horseshoes Pipes Chains Wire RIVET Nail EXTERNAL USE
  34. 34. WEAPONARY USE OF WROUGHT IRON
  35. 35. CASE STUDY
  36. 36. USES OF WROUGHT IRON IN A HOUSE: WROUGHT IRON FLOOR VENT FRONT PORCH WHITE WITH IRON RAILS BALUSTERS RAILINGS INTERIOR FURNITURE KITCHEN HANDLES AND DOOR KNOBS WINDOW GRILLS
  37. 37. CASE STUDY IRON PILLAR Iron pillar at Delhi, India, containing 98% wrought iron. Analysis of the Iron Pillar of Delhi gives 0.10% in the slags for .18% in the iron itself, for a total P content of 0.28% in the metal and accounts for much of its corrosion resistance.
  38. 38. EIFFEL TOWER CASE STUDY The Eiffel tower is constructed from puddled iron, a form of wrought iron. Structure of the Eiffel Tower weighs 7,300 tonnes.
  39. 39. RATE ANALYSIS SHOP RATES 1. BABA RAMDEV KI DUKAAN BHOGAL for shopkeeper for customer rate of wrought iron in kg 45-50 per kg 60-70 per kg rate of wrought iron in sq. feet Rs.130 for simple design Rs.300-350 for typical designs
  40. 40. BIBLIOGRAPHY WEBSITES WIKIPEDIA GOOGLE IMAGES BOOKS MACHINES DESIGN-R.S.KHURMI ORES AND MINERALS BUILDING MATERIALS -B.C.PUNMIA
  41. 41. THANK u

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