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# Tos ppt foundation1

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### Tos ppt foundation1

1. 1. SHALLOW FOUNDATION PREPEARED BY MOHAMMAD SHAHID B.ARCH 3RD YR
2. 2. INTRODUCTION TO FOUNDATION The lowest part of a structure is generally referred to as foundation. FUNCTION OF FOUNDATION To transfer load of the superstructure to the soil on which it is resting REQUIREMENTS A properly designed foundation is one that transfers the structural load throughout the soil without overstressing of soil which can result in either excessive settlement or shear failure, both of which can damage the structure.
3. 3. LOADS AND SETTLEMENT OF FOUNDATIONS Types of loads on foundations Dead, live, wind, inclined thrusts and uplift, water table and earthquake forces Types of settlements Uniform and differential - Differential settlement must be minimized, depends on site soil conditions and distribution of loads on columns supporting the building
4. 4. TYPES OF FOUNDATION Foundations are classified as SHALLOW FOUNDATION AND DEEP FOUNDATION 1. Shallow foundation- It has a smaller depth limited to the depth of the footing. It spreads the load from superstructure on a larger area of soil. They are classified as a. Isolated footing b. Combined footing An isolated footing supports one wall or one column .either flat Or stepped which distribute the Load of wall to the soil. An Isolated footing supporting a Single column is commonly Used where the loads on column are Small and columns are not closely Spaced. They are of the following Footing for column Shapes. Footing for wal
5. 5. SQUARE SPREAD FOOTINGS / PAD FOUNDATION    support a single centrally located column use concrete mix 1:2:4 and reinforcement the reinforcement in both axes are to resist/carry tension loads.
6. 6. RECTANGULAR SPREAD FOOTINGS Useful when obstructions prevent construction of a square footing with a sufficiently large base area and when large moment loads are present
7. 7. CIRCULAR SPREAD FOOTINGS  are round in plan view most frequently used as foundation for light standards, flagpoles and power transmission lines