Each commercial center is known by its own name; F-6 is Supermarket, F-7 Jinnah Supermarket, F-8 Ayub Market, while G-6 is Civic Center or Melody Market and G-7 Sitara Market. The sectors are further divided into sub-sectors, numbered 1 to 4 from the bottom left clockwise (e.g. F-6/1) and streets within these are also numbered.The streets dividing sectors (usually consisting of two parallel roads) and sub sectors are named. Aabpara, Islamabad's oldest market lies in the southern part of G-6/1, along Khayaban-e-Sahrwardy. Government buildings-the Presidency, Parliament, Secretariat etc, and the diplomatic enclave are situated at the eastern end of the city.Zero point was planned as the center of the city, although the political, administrative and commercial center of gravity has developed towards the north east. Blue Area, running east to west through the center of Islamabad is the main commercial thoroughfare, with many of the major banks, airlines, tour operators, restaurants and shops located here. Islamabad's direction of the growth has been towards the Grand Trunk Road on one side and towards Rawalpindi on the other.
Islamic City Planning
IN THE NAME OF ALLAH ,MOST GRACIOUS MOST MERCIFUL
ISLAM IS A MONOTHEISTIC AND ABRAHAMIC RELIGION ARTICULATED BY THE
HOLY QURAN AND THE TEACHINGS AND SAYINGS OF PROPHET
MOHAMMAD(PBUH) THE LAST PROPHET OF ISLAM.
ISLAM IS NOT A NEW RELIGION BUT THE SAME TRUTH THAT GOD REVEALED
THROUGH ALL HIS PROPHETS TO EVERY PEOPLE.
FOR THE FIFTTH OF WORLDS POPULATION ISLAM IS BOTH A RELIGION AND A
WAY OF LIFE.
ISLAMIC PRINCIPLES OF
ISLAMIC URBAN BYELAWS:
These principles and guidelines are used by the Islamic planners while
planning cities and are also used to resolve the conflicts between people
relating to construction and land ownership and usage.
Harm: the spirit is that on should exercise one’s full rights on whatever is
duly his, provided that his action will not do any harm to others.
Privacy: literally it refers to personal clothing and private area of the house.
It also refers to the privacy of communication. The privacy of others must be
respected and its invasion is prohibited, e.g. via direct visual corridors into
private domain of others.
Rights of usage: this principle is used in resolving conflicts related to
ownership and rights of party walls, location of windows, doors, etc
Width of streets: a public street should have a minimum
width of 7 cubits(3.23m – 3.50m). The basis of this width is to
allow to fully loaded camels to pass. It is preferred that the
height be also 7 cubits (3.23m – 3.50m) as this corresponds to
the maximum vertical height of the camel with highest load
Any public street should not be obstructed by temporary or
Water should not be barred from others: people must share
water, and the owner must give to others any surplus water he
has for drinking or irrigation. This principle resulted in public
water fountains in the streets of Islamic cities.
The right of usage of exterior setbacks belong to the owner
of the house or building which abuts it.
Sources of unpleasant smell, and uses that generate noise
should not be located adjacent to or near masjids: this
principle influenced the layout of the souq (market) which was
built typically adjacent to the major city mosque.
ISLAMIC VALUES AND
Encouragement to keep things clean, including the interior and exterior
setback: this principle was self regulation by inspiring guilt and shame in
the person who did not practice it, particularly with regards to the
Encouragement to feel responsible and sense of public awareness: such
as removing obstacles in public right of ways.
Beauty without arrogance.
Trust, respect and peace among neighbors.
Defects should be announced and not hidden when selling properties.
DESIGN PRINCIPLES OF THE MUSLIM CITY
1. NATURAL LAWS:
The first principle that defined much of the character of the Muslim city is the adaptation of
the built form and plan of the city to natural circumstances expressed through weather
conditions and topography. These were expressed in the adoption of concepts such as
courtyard, terrace, narrow covered streets and gar dens. Such elements were designed for
coping with hot weather conditions dominating the Muslim environment.
2. RELIGIOUS AND CULTURAL BELIEFS:
The religious beliefs and practices formed the centre of cultural life for these
populations, thus giving the mosque the central position in spatial and institutional
hierarchies. The cultural beliefs separating public and private lives regulated the spatial
order between uses and areas. Thus, the town plan consisted of narrow streets and cul-desacs separating private and public domains, while the land use emphasized the separation
of male and female users. Consequently, economic activity that involved exchange and
public presence was separated from residential (private dwellings) use and concentrated in
public areas and in the main streets.
3. VASTU-SHASTRA :
The street plan seems to have followed vastu shastra text which contains directions for
constructing buildings and for laying out and dividing settlements of different kinds.
4. DESIGN PRINCIPLES STEMMED FROM SHARIA LAW:
The Muslim city also reflected the rules of Sharia (Islamic Law)
in terms of physical and social relations between public and
private realms, and between neighbours and social groups.
The privacy principle was made into a law which sets the height
of the wall above the height of a camel rider.
This as well as the laws of the property rights, for example, were
all factors determining the form of the Muslim city .
5. SOCIAL PRINCIPLES:
The social organisation of the urban society was based on social groupings sharing the same
blood, ethnic origin and cultural perspectives. Development was therefore directed towards
meeting these social needs especially in terms of kinship solidarity, defence, social order and
religious practices (figure).
Such groups included; Arabs, Moors, Jews and other groups such as Andalusians, Turkish, and
Berbers as in cities of the Maghreb. These were reflected in the concept of quarters known as Ahiaa
(in the Mashraq) or Huma (in the Maghreb) .
BASIC LAYOUT OF ISLAMIC CITIES
1.THE MAIN MOSQUE:
It occupied the heart of the town and was usually surrounded by the Suq (market).
Attached to it there was the Madrassa providing religious and scientific teaching.
Located outside the main mosque provided the economic activity in the town.
Goods sold were usually spatially distributed corresponding to their nature.
The central area was also the gathering of other public activities such as social
services, administration, trade, arts and crafts and baths (Hammam) and hotels (Funduq
Also known as Casbah, representing the palace of the governor, the citadel was surrounded
by its own walls and constituted a district on its own with its own
mosque, guards, offices, and residence.
4. RESIDENTIAL QUARTERS:
They were described by Eikelman (
1981) as clusters of households of
particular quality of life based on
closeness (Qaraba) which is manifested
in personal ties, common interests and
shared moral unity.
They were usually dense and each
quarter had its own mosque used only
for daily prayers, Quranic school
(Madrassa), bakery, shops and other
first necessity objects.
They even had their own gates which
were usually closed at night after last
prayers and opened early morning at
early prayers time such was the case of
Algiers and Tunis .
Figure . Old city of Dubai (the Bastaa)
Source: UNESCO (1981, p.27)
Connecting between these quarters and to the central place was a network of narrow
winding streets consisting of public and private and semi-private streets and cul de sacs.
A well-defended wall surrounded the town with a number of gates.
there were the cemeteries (Muslim and Jews cemeteries), a weekly market just outside
the main gate where most animal suqs were held in addition to private gardens and
PLANNING OF SHAHJAHANABAD
•The city was planned according to
Shilpashastra from Vaastushastra
• The site was placed on a high land as in
the Shastras and was Karmukha or bow
shaped, for this ensured its prosperity.
•The arm of the archer was Chandni
•The string wasYamuna.
•The junction of the two main axes is
the most auspicious point in the whole
region and was therefore the Red Fort.
The designed infrastructure of Shahjahanabad
• The fort,
• The Friday mosque,
• The other major mosques.
• The bazaars around the Friday mosque
• The elaborate system of water channels
The city originated, when The fort at Agra faced the agonizing heat, coupled with
insufficient accommodation and space for Shahjahan’s lavish lifestyle and his grand
The Fort and its buildings cost nearly 6 million.
On the auspicious day of 8th April 1648, Shahjahan finally entered Shahjahanabad.
From 1803 to 1857 the East India Company virtually controlled Delhi.
The city was taken over by the British after the defeat of the Marathas at the battle of
Patparganj in 1803.
•Irregular pattern of lanes block
dust storm , summer wind.
•Compact settlement is
conductive to heat conservation
•Passive cooling & shading due to
projection on upper floor.
•There emerges a hierarchy of streets in
the layout of the city.
•The secondary streets were the ones
which entered the south of the city from
Chandni Chowk. (thus they were
perpendicular for some distance and then
assumed an organic form once deep in
•The secondary street structure also
includes the streets that are parallel to
the city walls- forming a concentric ring
so to say, in the southern part of the city.
They then intermingle at chowks with the
third layering of streets, which derive
their character from the fact that they are
perpendicular to the main mosque, Jama
THE CITY FORMMORPHOLOGY ELEMENTS
•The urban infrastructure was laid out in a geometric pattern.
•Shows traces of both Persian and Hindu traditions of town planning and
architecture with the Persian influence largely accounting for the formalism
and symmetry of the palaces gardens and boulevards.
The designed infrastructure of Shahjahanabad comprised•The fort
•The Friday mosque.
•The other major mosques, including the corresponding waqf properties.
•The two main boulevards.
•The bazaars around the Friday mosque.
•The elaborate system of water channels.
•The major gardens and the city wall.
•The arrangement of these planned elements was influenced by certain site
features, which precluded absolute geometry.
THE FORT & THE MOSQUE
The Red Fort and Jama Masjid were
thorough fares that framed the city.
From Lahore Gate ran a broad avenue
with a covered arcade designed and
paid for by Jahan Ara- that housed over
1500 shops. Today known as Chatta
The remainder of Shahjahanabad took
shape within the city walls with its
havelis mansions, mosques, temples,
Sikh shrines and the gardens of the
establishments of these grandees
included private living quarters for the
nobles and their harem.
Masjid Fatehpuri, Masjid Akbarabadi, Masjid Sirhindi, Masjid
Aurangabadi, Zinat-al-Masjid, Sunahri Masjid, Masjid Sharif-adDaulah, Fakhr-al-Masjid.
They were located next to the two main lines of communication
which subdivided the city.
Second in rank to the Jama Masjid was the Fatehpuri Masjid .
Secondary mosques were the mahallas mosques :Numbering about 200 in Shahjahanabad, these mosques often
bear the name of their founders and they are mostly located on
They were at the bottom of the hierarchy and lay scattered all
over the city.
They served the people in the immediate vicinity and were built
by prominent or wealthy residents of the respective Mahallah or
by guilds of the merchants or artisans.
WATER SYSTEMS AND CANALS:
The hot dry climate of Delhi made it necessary to
develop an hydraulic strategy . Shahjahan ordered
his architects to restore the Firoz Shah canal and
extend it to the new city. The canal ran through the
outskirts of the city, watering gardens and fields.
It entered the city through the Kabuli Gate in the
north-western part of the city and then split into two
branches. One flowed down the middle of Chandni
Chowk. The other one passed through the gardens
north of Chandni Chowk and then entered the palace
through the Shah Burj.
The north area of Chandni Chowk was occupied by a bagh called the Jahanara
Begumi’s Garden. It was laid out in a planned fashion, in addition to the road
planning of Chandni Chowk.
The layout o the city walls was based on a geometrical planning; i.e. to say, a
polygonal plan with gateways. The four main gates were Delhi Darwaza on
south, the Ajmeri Darwaza on the south-west, the Lahori Darwaza on the west and
the Kashmiri Darwaza on the north. These important gates were positioned
according to the basic network of the city, being laced on the cardinal points. The
graphic representation of the city was indicated geometric planning and the
geometric placement of the main gates.
A Saudi city located in the middle of the Eastern coast of the Red Sea known
as the 'Bride of the Red Sea' and is considered the economic and tourism
capital of the country.
The foundation of the city of Jeddah is dated
back to around 3000 years when groups
of fishermen used to settle in it after thei
r fishing trips. After that the trib
e of 'Quda'ah' came to Jeddah 2500 years ago
and settled in it and was known by it.
The historical transformation of Jeddah
was in the era of the third Muslim Caliph Othman Bin Affan
in 647 AD when he ordered the city to be transformed into a port to
welcome pilgrims (Hajjis) coming by sea for the Holy Pilgrimage in Makkah.
Al-Balad(Jeddah Old Town)
When the Suez Canal
became one of the
main ports on the
trade route between
Sea and the Indian
and Pacific Oceans.
As a result, the city's
Area which used to be inside the city wall before it was demolished in 1947
Wall and Gates-Sur and Baab
The wall surrounding Jeddah
was built by Hussain Al-Kurdi,
who was one of the Mamluk
Princes, because he wanted to
protect the Red Sea from the
attacks by the Portuguese , the
wall was built and had six doors;
one on the side facing Makkah :
Bab (door) Makkah, Bab AlMedina, Bab Shareef, Bab
Jadeed (Bab Al-Subba), Bab AlBantt, and Bab Al-Magharba.
The wall was removed in 1947
AD because it came into the
urban area of the city.
City wall and Gates
Streets (Sharah) and Neighborhoods
the streets of Old Jeddah were
twisting, unpaved and , flanked
by closely-packed buildings.
The configuration of the street
network was greatly influenced
by the profile of the city wall and
the location of the gates. Street
network was established on the
alignment with the gates. Even
the naming of the gates was
destinations of major streets.
The figure shows the present
road network in the walled city.
Private Areas Excluding Private Culdesacs (59.7%)
Public Areas Including Culdesacs (40.3%)
The city of Jeddah was divided inside the wall into several
neighborhoods, which were each called 'Hara' by the people of the city.
These neighborhoods acquired their names from their geographical
locations inside the city or through famous events they have witnessed:
Harat Al-Mathloum: this neighborhood was named after a man called
Abdul Karim Al-Barzunji, who was killed by the Ottoman government
(mathloum means innocent victim). It is located to the north-east inside the
wall at the north of Al-Alawi Street and includes Dar Gabel, Al-Shafei
Mosque, and Souq Al-Jame'i (market).
Harat Al-Shaam: is located in the northern part inside wall in the direction
of the Al-Sham region (currently known as Syria, Lebanon, Jordan, and
Palestine). In this neighborhood lies Dar Al-Sarti and Dar Al Zahid.
Harat Al-Yemen: is located in the southern part inside the wall, south of AlAlawi Street. It gained its name because it faces the direction of Yemen, and
includes Dar Naseef, Dar Jamjoum, Dar Sha'rawi, and Dar Abdelsamad.
Harat Al-Bahar (sea): is in the south-western part of the city of
Jeddah, which is overlooking the sea. It includes Dar Radwan, which was
then known as Radwan Al-Bahar.
Harat Al-Karanteenah: is located to the south of Jeddah and was facing the
old seaport before covering the shallow waters in front of it for the
establishment of the Port of Jeddah and the oil refinery. Pilgrims coming by
sea entered through this neighborhood, which is the oldest one outside the
walls of Jeddah. It is inhabited these days by a majority of immigrants
coming from African countries and is next to Jeddah's southern oil refinery.
Harat Al-Millioun Tifl (million children): is just to south of Jeddah and was
called this because of the presence of a lot of children in the alleyways of the
The term means the place for
goods and necessities and is
used in place names for streets
and other localities where there
is a market. Its urban
integration, development and
contribution to the development
of the city.
The souq was the heartbeat of
Old Jeddah . Most of these
markets were associated with
the Mosques so the city became
a meeting place for the religious
scholars, traders and students
The ancient Markets of Jeddah
The mosques of the historical area
are famous for their old fashion of
building, and beautiful form of
. Those mosques were constructed
in accordance with various styles of
designs and different schools of
heritage architecture ranging from
the "Fatimi" "Ottoman" and Islamic
styles to others kinds of styles
existing in the city. The mosques
now represent a distinguished
Islamic feature of the city that is
neighboring the Holy City of
Makkah and the express highway to
the Mosque of the Holy Prophet (in
Madinah). Such features altogether
gave the city a special spiritual
atmosphere, where the building of
mosques goes side by side with the
growing progress of all forms of
architecture in the city
Othman bin Affan Mosque
Maqbarat (cemetery) Al-Sheikh
Hamed bin Nafi: is located on old
(cemetery of Our Mother Eve): is
located in the center of the city; and
it is believed that Eve died and was
buried in this cemetery.
Located in the Potohar Plateau in the northwest of the
country at 33 40′N, 73 10′E.
After independence in 1947, Pakistan realized the need
Then, Islamabad, a new capital of Pakistan was
conceived in 1959, planned from 1959 to 1963 by a
Greek architect-planner C. A. Doxiadis, and started
implementation in 1961.
CITY LAYOUT ON GRID IRON PATTERN
The city was conceived into grid-iron
patterns developed into 2 kilometers by 2
kilometers sectors segregated by the
hierarchy of wide principal roads (60 ft.)
comprising Islamabad and Rawalpindi area.
The sectors were used for distinct land uses
such as residential, educational, commercial
Housing is provided in grid-iron pattern
sectors on disciplined hierarchy of
communities according to their income
In the square grid of sectors, four
communities clustered around an enlarged
To slow down traffic, shopping activities
were organized in the centre of a larger
The city is divided into eight zones
Diplomatic Enclave zone;
Zone I consists mainly of all the
developed residential sectors.
II. Zone II consists of the underdeveloped residential sectors.
III. Zone III consists primarily of the
Margalla Hills and Margalla Hills
National Park. Rawal Lake is in this
IV. Zone IV and V consist of Islamabad
Park, and rural areas of the city. The
Soan River flows into the city through
HIERARCHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF ROADS
Local and collector low speed
roads, wide sidewalks, pedestrian
roads and bicycles lanes within
communities” provide access to
the major transportation system.
Islamabad is planned according
to a hierarchical system of
communities of various classes,
each class comprising the
functions corresponding to its
Expansion of city
Expansion of city
1. Islamabad Proper (including the institutional and
industrial areas); 220.15 km²
2. Islamabad (Margalla Hills) Park; 220.15 km²
3. Islamabad Rural Area; 446.20 km²
DISTRIBUTION OF ROADS
Islamabad is planned according to a system of
communities of various classes, each class comprising
the functions corresponding to its size.
These communities are properly served by a major
transportation system developed within wide corridors of
a grid-iron configuration.
sidewalks, pedestrian roads and bicycles lanes within the
lower class “human communities” provide access to the
major transportation system.
The above system of communities and transportation
distances/times and accidents, and to the promotion of
“green transport” (walking, cycling, public transport).
Types of street or road system used in
Islamabad are rectangular or grid iron street
system the street have equal width and they
cross each other at right angle
The advantage of this system is convenient to
traffic and so a speedy and free traffic can be
The houses are constructed in rectangular
blocks so convenient, economical and most
suited for building construction
There is no wastage of land since no irregular
portion are left out.
But the disadvantages of this system are they don’t provide short cuts which provide a
direct access to trade and shopping centres.
Since islamabad is situated on the plateau the surface is uneven where grid iron
street pattern become inconvenience, discomfort and moreover it become expensive.