Research methodology

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Research methodology

  1. 1. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY AN INTRODUCTION Sneha Subhedar, DCJ, K. P. B. Hinduja College
  2. 2. What is research? <ul><li>It is an academic activity. </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore the term is to be used in its technical sense although the word is used more randomly to denote even a remotely investigative exercise. </li></ul>Sneha Subhedar, DCJ, K. P. B. Hinduja College
  3. 3. Clifford Woody <ul><li>Research comprises of the following steps - </li></ul><ul><li>Defining and redefining problems </li></ul><ul><li>Formulating hypothesis or suggested solutions </li></ul><ul><li>Collecting, organising and evaluating data </li></ul><ul><li>Making deductions </li></ul><ul><li>Reaching conclusions </li></ul><ul><li>Carefully testing the conclusions to determine whether they fit the formulating hypothesis. </li></ul>Sneha Subhedar, DCJ, K. P. B. Hinduja College
  4. 4. <ul><li>Research is therefore an original contribution to the existing stock of knowledge making for its advancement. </li></ul><ul><li>It is the pursuit of truth with the help of study, observation, comparison and experiment. </li></ul>Sneha Subhedar, DCJ, K. P. B. Hinduja College
  5. 5. <ul><li>THE PURPOSE OF RESEARCH IS TO DISCOVER ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS THROUGH THE APPLICATION OF SCIENTIFIC PROCEDURES. </li></ul>Sneha Subhedar, DCJ, K. P. B. Hinduja College
  6. 6. Each research study has its own specific purpose but research objectives fall into four broad groups Sneha Subhedar, DCJ, K. P. B. Hinduja College
  7. 7. EXPLORATORY OR FORMULATIVE <ul><li>To be able to decide what research one wants to do one has to know what research has been done, what are the issues involved, who are the people working on the issues/ideas concerned, find the scope and the scale of the issues in question. One has to KNOW what has been and is being done NOW . This process involves exploration, groping around, meeting experts, reading up on the issues/ideas and some investigating. </li></ul><ul><li>Studies with this object in view are termed as exploratory or formulative research studies </li></ul>Sneha Subhedar, DCJ, K. P. B. Hinduja College
  8. 8. DESCRIPTIVE <ul><li>What are the characteristics of the individual, the issue, the situation, the group one is studying? These characteristics could be of any kind. Who is thinking what and how, who is behaving in what manner and why, how different is a situation from another, what are the similarities and differences between two groups? </li></ul><ul><li>When studies are conducted with a view to accurately portray such characteristics they are called descriptive research studies. </li></ul>Sneha Subhedar, DCJ, K. P. B. Hinduja College
  9. 9. DIAGNOSTIC <ul><li>How often is something happening? What is the frequency? What is the rate at which an event, a phenomenon is occurring? How is one event related to another? How often is such a relationship established? </li></ul><ul><li>When studies are conducted with the object of determining the frequency of occurrence of an event or phenomenon it is called diagnostic research study. </li></ul>Sneha Subhedar, DCJ, K. P. B. Hinduja College
  10. 10. HYPOTHESIS-TESTING <ul><li>It always rains heavily when I wear my Jeans. Is there a causal relationship here? Can I conclude ‘ If I wear Jeans, then it rains’. A relationship that can be defined as – ‘If this, then that’ is called a causal relationship. There is a cause and there is an effect and every time the cause happens, the effect happens too. </li></ul><ul><li>When studies are conducted to test the hypothesis of a causal relationship between variables (I don’t always wear Jeans and it does not always rain) such studies are known as hypothesis-testing research studies. </li></ul>Sneha Subhedar, DCJ, K. P. B. Hinduja College
  11. 11. TYPES OF RESEARCH Sneha Subhedar, DCJ, K. P. B. Hinduja College
  12. 12. DESCRIPTIVE <ul><li>The major purpose of such research is description of the state of affairs as it exists at present by collecting, correlating, comparing data. </li></ul><ul><li>Frequency of shopping, what people prefer to buy or sell, at what price are events that are happening all the time. We have no control over them. They vary from person to person, place to place. </li></ul><ul><li>Starting from what is, and trying to determine what is, involves research of a descriptive nature. </li></ul><ul><li>Which is why trends are important in this kind of research. </li></ul>Sneha Subhedar, DCJ, K. P. B. Hinduja College
  13. 13. ANALYTICAL <ul><li>Surveys are constantly conducted, trends are being identified but what do these really mean? The circulation figures of a newspaper, how many people bought railway tickets today, how many people visited a theatre today are figures that are easily available but what this means, can the information lead to some analysis of behaviour, patterns of economic, political, social activity? </li></ul><ul><li>When we start from existing data and then analyse it to make a critical evaluation that kind of research is analytical </li></ul>Sneha Subhedar, DCJ, K. P. B. Hinduja College
  14. 14. APPLIED <ul><li>The central aim of applied research is to find a practical, applicable solution to a pressing practical problem. </li></ul><ul><li>Rain stopped Mumbai in its tracks over the past week. There must be some immediate solutions to it, solutions that can be put into operation immediately, solutions that can be applied immediately. </li></ul><ul><li>Research done by marketing firms, by the newspapers to assess reader responses, by advertisers, the kind done by DNA before its launch are all applied research. </li></ul>Sneha Subhedar, DCJ, K. P. B. Hinduja College
  15. 15. QUANTITATIVE/QUALITATIVE <ul><li>The orgasm is the least understood biological phenomenon because it cannot be measured. What can be measured is the rate of the heart beat, the pulse, the blood pressure, the chemical movements in the brain, breathing etc but what precisely happens in an orgasm is not understood. Therefore also the motivation of human beings, the literal ‘run’ towards an orgasm, is something that has been puzzling behavioural scientists. So much of human activity is directed towards that orgasm. Especially after the control that humans gained over the process of reproduction one would imagine humans no longer had to grapple with sexual desire and yet the modern man is more repressed than his predecessors. </li></ul><ul><li>Any research that involves quantities like blood pressure etc in the above case would be quantitative research. </li></ul><ul><li>Any research that would involve qualities as in the quality of orgasm, it would be qualitative research. </li></ul>Sneha Subhedar, DCJ, K. P. B. Hinduja College
  16. 16. CONCEPTUAL <ul><li>Axioms are ‘truths’ that do not require ‘proofs’ like 2+2=4. What’s to prove there? But just try proving this simple ‘truth’ and you will find that you cannot prove it directly. You can only prove that 2+2 is not equal to any other number but 4. This is an indirect method. Out of a given set of answers if none except one fits then that must be the correct answer. This is fine with mathematics because it helps us that 2+2=4. This axiom makes life easier. We can buy vegetables and fruits and other things as a result of such axioms. But when axioms begin to form in areas like politics, philosophy, sociology, history then we have problems and we begin to stare at conclusions like All Muslims Are Communal, All Hindus Are Tolerant, All Christians Are Christian etc. </li></ul><ul><li>When research is directed to the study and analysis of concepts, abstract ideas, notions and axioms it is conceptual. </li></ul>Sneha Subhedar, DCJ, K. P. B. Hinduja College
  17. 17. EMPIRICAL/Empiricism <ul><li>2+2=4 cannot be proven by mathematics. Why then do we accept it as truth? Because we ‘observe’ it happening all the time. Anywhere in the Universe when two and two are put together what emerges is four. This axiom has been ‘proved’ empirically . </li></ul><ul><li>The Sun stays where it is and the earth keeps going in circles but we say the Sun rises from the east . The Sun in reality simply seems to come up from a certain direction around the same time. We have named that direction east. How can one prove that the Sun indeed rises from the east without actually sitting down days on end and watching it? This is the empirical method of research where you actually look at phenomenon. At times the researcher tries to control the variables, deliberate manipulate the environment to conduct the experiment. Experiment is the mainstay of such research. It also necessitates a presumption, a hypothesis that the researcher has to formulate and then go about gathering facts to prove or disprove the hypothesis. </li></ul>Sneha Subhedar, DCJ, K. P. B. Hinduja College
  18. 18. <ul><li>Depending on </li></ul><ul><li>time taken for research, issues involved, methods adopted and goals set </li></ul><ul><li>research can be further divided into sub types. </li></ul>Sneha Subhedar, DCJ, K. P. B. Hinduja College
  19. 19. One-time/Longitudinal <ul><li>Depending on the time taken research can be one-time affair like a product launch or longitudinal where one keeps identifying and tracking trends and patterns. </li></ul>Sneha Subhedar, DCJ, K. P. B. Hinduja College
  20. 20. FIELD-SETTING/LABORATORY OR SIMULATED <ul><li>Field research is necessary when one has to get out there, talk to people, observe phenomena, record it. </li></ul><ul><li>There are situations though when either the field itself is too large or the researcher wants to have a control over the variable factors. In such situation an environment is simulated, created within the confines of a laboratory. </li></ul>Sneha Subhedar, DCJ, K. P. B. Hinduja College
  21. 21. CLINICAL OR DIAGNOSTIC <ul><li>Such research involves case studies, in depth studies to reach the basic causal relations, it goes deep into the causes of things or events using very small samples and very deep probing data gathering devices. </li></ul>Sneha Subhedar, DCJ, K. P. B. Hinduja College
  22. 22. EXPLORATORY OR FORMALISED <ul><li>The objective of exploratory research is the development of hypotheses rather than their testing, whereas formalised research studies are those with substantial structure and with specific hypotheses to be tested. </li></ul>Sneha Subhedar, DCJ, K. P. B. Hinduja College
  23. 23. HISTORICAL <ul><li>In this kind of research historical material like documents, remains from archeological explorations etc are the object of study to draw conclusions on the past, including ideas, philosophies, the social context etc. </li></ul>Sneha Subhedar, DCJ, K. P. B. Hinduja College
  24. 24. CONCLUSION ORIENTED <ul><li>A decision has to be reached quickly about something. In this situation the researcher is guided by the decision maker. The researcher picks the problem, redesigns the enquiry as he proceeds with the enquiry and conceptualises on the way. Operations research, which provides executive departments with a quantitative basis for decisions regarding operations under their control, falls in this category </li></ul>Sneha Subhedar, DCJ, K. P. B. Hinduja College
  25. 25. THERE ARE TWO APPROACHES TO RESEARCH Sneha Subhedar, DCJ, K. P. B. Hinduja College
  26. 26. QUANTITATIVE <ul><li>This involves generation of data that can be measured on a scale and be rigorously tested in a formal and rigid fashion. </li></ul>Sneha Subhedar, DCJ, K. P. B. Hinduja College
  27. 27. <ul><li>Quantitative approach can be further classified into: </li></ul><ul><li>a) Inferential approach – A data base is formed on the basis of which characteristics, relationships are inferred. ‘If this, then that’ where ‘this’ is the data collected and ‘that’ is the inference from the data. </li></ul>Sneha Subhedar, DCJ, K. P. B. Hinduja College
  28. 28. <ul><li>b) Experimental approach – There is greater control over the environment, the subject of study and some variables are manipulated to observe their effect on other variables. </li></ul>Sneha Subhedar, DCJ, K. P. B. Hinduja College
  29. 29. <ul><li>c) Simulation approach – This involves creating an artificial environment within which relevant information and data can be generated. Simulation means operation of a numerical model that represents the structure of a dynamic process. </li></ul>Sneha Subhedar, DCJ, K. P. B. Hinduja College
  30. 30. QUALITATIVE <ul><li>The subjective assessment of attitudes, opinions, behaviour involves qualitative research. </li></ul><ul><li>Research here is a function of the insights and impressions of the researcher. </li></ul><ul><li>The result of such research is in a form that cannot be measured on a scale and cannot be subjected to rigorous methods of formal, objective testing. </li></ul>Sneha Subhedar, DCJ, K. P. B. Hinduja College
  31. 31. <ul><li>Research inculcates </li></ul><ul><li>scientific and inductive thinking , </li></ul><ul><li>promotes the development of logical habits of thinking </li></ul><ul><li>and </li></ul><ul><li>organisation . </li></ul>Sneha Subhedar, DCJ, K. P. B. Hinduja College
  32. 32. <ul><li>In the context of government, </li></ul><ul><li>research as a tool of economic policy has three distinct phases of operation </li></ul><ul><li>Investigation of economic structure through continual compilation of facts </li></ul><ul><li>Diagnosis of events that are taking place and the analysis of the forces underlying them </li></ul><ul><li>The prognosis – the prediction of future development </li></ul>Sneha Subhedar, DCJ, K. P. B. Hinduja College
  33. 33. <ul><li>Research methods are used in performing research operations. All methods used by the researcher during the course of studying a research problem are termed as research methods. </li></ul><ul><li>Research methods can be put into three groups </li></ul>Sneha Subhedar, DCJ, K. P. B. Hinduja College
  34. 34. <ul><li>1.Methods that involved collection of data. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Statistical techniques used for establishing relationships between what is known through data collection and what is not known. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Methods used to evaluate the accuracy of the results obtained. </li></ul>Sneha Subhedar, DCJ, K. P. B. Hinduja College
  35. 35. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY <ul><li>The term has a wider connotation than a research method. A method is part of a methodology. Subjects of research determine the method. Researchers have to design their own methodology according to the problem they choose to address. For instance one has to evaluate and justify why and on what basis a particular sample and sample size was chosen. </li></ul><ul><li>In research the scientist has to expose the research decisions to evaluation before they are implemented. </li></ul><ul><li>Researchers need to know how to develop indices, tests, calculate the mean, median or standard deviation or chi-square, how, where and why to apply particular research techniques, what such techniques would indicate and why? </li></ul>Sneha Subhedar, DCJ, K. P. B. Hinduja College
  36. 36. <ul><li>When we talk of research methodology we talk of methods and we talk of the logic behind the methods used in the context of the research study and why a particular method or technique was used to the exclusion of other methods so that research results can be evaluated either by the researcher or others. </li></ul>Sneha Subhedar, DCJ, K. P. B. Hinduja College
  37. 37. <ul><li>Research is an inquiry into the nature of, the reasons for, and the consequences of any particular set of circumstances, whether these circumstances are experimentally controlled or recorded just as they occur. </li></ul><ul><li>The researcher must be interested more than mere particular results; he must want to investigate the repeatability of results and whether they can be extended to more complicated and general situations. </li></ul>Sneha Subhedar, DCJ, K. P. B. Hinduja College
  38. 38. <ul><li>Scientific method aims at achieving a systematic interrelation of facts by experiment, observation, logical arguments from accepted postulates and a combination of these three in varying proportions. </li></ul><ul><li>Logic aids in formulating propositions explicitly and accurately so that their possible alternatives become clear. </li></ul><ul><li>The researcher or scientist can then state which alternative is most in harmony with the observed facts. </li></ul>Sneha Subhedar, DCJ, K. P. B. Hinduja College
  39. 39. <ul><li>Research thus is a </li></ul><ul><li>scientific method </li></ul>Sneha Subhedar, DCJ, K. P. B. Hinduja College
  40. 40. Problems encountered by Indian researchers <ul><li>Lack of scientific training </li></ul><ul><li>Insufficient interaction between Universities and industry </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of confidence, faith in researchers. A suspicion that data, if supplied, will be misused. </li></ul><ul><li>Overlapping of research studies. Unnecessary duplication of effort. </li></ul><ul><li>No code of conduct to regulate researchers leading to inter-university and inter-departmental rivalries and one-upmanship. </li></ul><ul><li>The difficulty of adequate and timely secretarial assistance and infrastructure. </li></ul><ul><li>Mismanagement of libraries. </li></ul><ul><li>Inaccessible historical material. </li></ul>Sneha Subhedar, DCJ, K. P. B. Hinduja College
  41. 41. Working with literature <ul><li>“ What should I be reading, and what do I do with it all?” </li></ul>Sneha Subhedar, DCJ, K. P. B. Hinduja College
  42. 42. <ul><li>Working with literature is an essential part of the research process that generates ideas, helps forms significant questions, and is instrumental in the process of research design. It is a complex task that involves developing the skills to find, manage, use, and review the literature. </li></ul>Sneha Subhedar, DCJ, K. P. B. Hinduja College
  43. 43. <ul><li>Finding relevant literature can be made easier if you are able to readily to access and draw on a wide variety of resources, including reference materials, books, journals, grey literature, official publications, and archives. In doing this, you should call on the expertise of librarians and supervisors, as well as other researchers. </li></ul>Sneha Subhedar, DCJ, K. P. B. Hinduja College
  44. 44. <ul><li>The ever-increasing availability of literature requires students to develop proficient search skills. Working with key words is the most common way to navigate the internet and relevant data bases. </li></ul>Sneha Subhedar, DCJ, K. P. B. Hinduja College
  45. 45. <ul><li>Managing the literature requires efficient reading skills to allow to cull through vast amounts of written work. It also pays to be organised and diligent when it comes to keeping references. </li></ul>Sneha Subhedar, DCJ, K. P. B. Hinduja College
  46. 46. <ul><li>Annotating your sources provides you with a record of relevant literature. It should include the citation, articulation of the author and the audience, a short summary, critical commentary, and notes on relevance that remind you of the significance, accuracy and quality of the sources cited. </li></ul>Sneha Subhedar, DCJ, K. P. B. Hinduja College
  47. 47. <ul><li>Literature is used for disparate purposes throughout the research process. Whether it be focussing interests, defining questions, articulating a rationale, theoretically informing your study, developing appropriate design, or writing a formal literature review, every stage of the research process demands literary engagement. </li></ul>Sneha Subhedar, DCJ, K. P. B. Hinduja College
  48. 48. <ul><li>The formal literature review is a very specific of writing designed to inform your readers of your topic, establish your credibility as a researcher, and argue the need for, and relevance of, your work. Most find it a difficult task, that takes patience, practice, drafts, and redrafts. </li></ul>Sneha Subhedar, DCJ, K. P. B. Hinduja College
  49. 49. <ul><li>Students are often unsure of what needs to be included in the literature review. Some have difficulty finding relevant literature, while others have difficulty focussing their reading. Organising and searching for the literature according to various concepts/variables can help manage the task. </li></ul>Sneha Subhedar, DCJ, K. P. B. Hinduja College
  50. 50. <ul><li>A good literature review is an argument that is more purposeful than a review of relevant literature. Writing a good review requires you to: read a few good reviews; write critical annotations; develop a structure; write purposefully; use the literature to back up your argument; review and write throughout the research process; get feedback; and be prepared to redraft. </li></ul>Sneha Subhedar, DCJ, K. P. B. Hinduja College
  51. 51. <ul><li>Writing a good literature review can be likened to holding a good dinner party conversation. They both require individuals who can engage, learn, debate, argue, contribute, and evolve their own ideas, without being hyper critical or sycophantic. </li></ul>Sneha Subhedar, DCJ, K. P. B. Hinduja College
  52. 52. Case Study <ul><li>A method of studying elements of the social environment through comprehensive description and analysis of a single situation or case. </li></ul><ul><li>A case study is ‘a way of organising social data so as to preserve the unitary character of the social object being studied’. (Goode and Hart 1952:331) </li></ul>Sneha Subhedar, DCJ, K. P. B. Hinduja College
  53. 53. Strengths <ul><li>The concentrate research efforts on one case or one site and therefore can offer one se of boundaries for the study. </li></ul><ul><li>Minimize travel, therefore doable. </li></ul><ul><li>Attempt to build holistic understandings through the development of rapport and trust. </li></ul><ul><li>The goal is ‘authenticity’ and a richness and a depth in understanding that goes beyond what is generally possible in large-scale survey research. </li></ul>Sneha Subhedar, DCJ, K. P. B. Hinduja College
  54. 54. Case studies can: <ul><li>Have an intrinsic value – be unique, interesting or even misunderstood. </li></ul><ul><li>Be used to debunk a theory – one case can show that what is commonly accepted might, in face, be wrong. </li></ul><ul><li>Bring new variables to light – exploratory case studies can often bring new understandings to the fore. </li></ul><ul><li>Provide supportive evidence for a theory – can be used to provide anecdotal evidence for a theory or to triangulate other data collection methods </li></ul><ul><li>Be used collectively to form the basis of a theory – a number of cases may be used to inductively generate new theory. </li></ul>Sneha Subhedar, DCJ, K. P. B. Hinduja College
  55. 55. Difficulties associated with case studies <ul><li>Required level of access can be difficult to negotiate </li></ul><ul><li>Demands on the one or the few ‘samples’ can be very high. </li></ul><ul><li>Researcher can come to have an effect on the researched and vice versa. </li></ul><ul><li>Immersion can come with emotional costs for all parties involved. </li></ul>Sneha Subhedar, DCJ, K. P. B. Hinduja College
  56. 56. Case selection <ul><li>Define a ‘case’ – Defining boundaries that separate some aspect of the case that makes it distinct. </li></ul><ul><li>Determine how many cases you will explore – The number is dependent on your research goals and what you wish to uncover. </li></ul><ul><li>Select cases for study – Researchers handpick cases on a pragmatic or theoretical basis. </li></ul>Sneha Subhedar, DCJ, K. P. B. Hinduja College
  57. 57. Methodologies for case studies <ul><li>Ethnography – study of a cultural group </li></ul><ul><li>Phenomenology – exploration of the lived experience of a particular phenomenon. </li></ul><ul><li>Ethnomethodology – exploring specific interactions like doctor-patient. </li></ul><ul><li>Action research – an attempt to change the focus through research. </li></ul>Sneha Subhedar, DCJ, K. P. B. Hinduja College
  58. 58. Exploring cultural groups <ul><li>Whether it be foreign cultures, marginal cultures closer to home, or even our own culture, delving into cultural complexities often involves an attempt to understand the world from the perspective of the participants and often involves prolonged and participative cultural engagement. Ethnography, a research methodology with roots in cultural anthropology, can be quite powerful in building understandings at this level. </li></ul>Sneha Subhedar, DCJ, K. P. B. Hinduja College
  59. 59. Ethnography – To ‘write a culture’ <ul><li>It is a study of ‘cultural groups’. Cultural suggests that what binds the group is more than just genetics, biology, or geography. Such groups are bound by tradition, common patterns of belief and behaviours. The premise of ethnographic studies is ‘how an individual processes the world is constructed and constrained by cultural experience’. </li></ul>Sneha Subhedar, DCJ, K. P. B. Hinduja College
  60. 60. <ul><li>Explores a way of life from the ‘point of view of its participants’. The goal is to ‘see’ things the way the group members do and grasp the meanings that they use to understand and make sense of the world. Ethnography thus accepts multiple realities and requires cultural empathy. </li></ul>Sneha Subhedar, DCJ, K. P. B. Hinduja College
  61. 61. <ul><li>To explore is to ‘understand, discover, describe and interpret’. These descriptions of course are filtered through a researcher’s worldview, inherent biases, and theoretical and analytical frameworks. </li></ul>Sneha Subhedar, DCJ, K. P. B. Hinduja College
  62. 62. <ul><li>Ethnography thus – involves exploration of a cultural group in a bid to understand , discover , describe , and interpret a way of life from the point of view of its participants . </li></ul>Sneha Subhedar, DCJ, K. P. B. Hinduja College
  63. 63. Methods of data collection <ul><li>Observation </li></ul><ul><li>Interviews </li></ul><ul><li>Document analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Surveys </li></ul>Sneha Subhedar, DCJ, K. P. B. Hinduja College
  64. 64. Exploring phenomena <ul><li>Phenomenology is premised on a world that is a) ‘constructed’ – people are creative agents in building a social world and b) ‘intersubjective’ – we experience the world with and through others. </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore to understand the world you need to explore human phenomena without worrying about their causes, truth-value, reality, or appearances. </li></ul>Sneha Subhedar, DCJ, K. P. B. Hinduja College
  65. 65. <ul><li>Phenomenology is therefore – a study of phenomena as they present themselves in direct experience. </li></ul><ul><li>What is a phenomena and how can one study it? </li></ul>Sneha Subhedar, DCJ, K. P. B. Hinduja College
  66. 66. <ul><li>Refugees, athletes or leaders might be called upon to provide descriptions of the experience of displacement, victory and power respectively. Individuals are therefore central to the conduct of such studies. It is their ‘description’ of lived experience, rather than they themselves, that are the focus of phenomenology. </li></ul>Sneha Subhedar, DCJ, K. P. B. Hinduja College
  67. 67. <ul><li>Phenomenological studies are also highly dependent on ‘constructs’. Constructs such as displacement, victory and power are central to the phenomenological experience being explored. </li></ul><ul><li>In phenomenological studies the ‘reality’ of the construct is not of concern and in fact should be ‘bracketed’ or they should be explored as free as possible from what the world says they are supposed to be or supposed to mean. In phenomenology, a construct freed from its constructed meaning is often referred to as an ‘object’. </li></ul><ul><li>Rather than ask ‘what causes x’ or ‘what is x’, phenomenology explores the experience of x. It is the study thus of a phenomenon as it presents in an individual’s direct awareness. </li></ul>Sneha Subhedar, DCJ, K. P. B. Hinduja College
  68. 68. Strengths <ul><li>Phenomenology reminds that: </li></ul><ul><li>There are things called phenomena in the social world; </li></ul><ul><li>That these things can be researched; and </li></ul><ul><li>They are a worthy object of inquiry. </li></ul><ul><li>For example understanding and describing the lived experience of critical illness. </li></ul>Sneha Subhedar, DCJ, K. P. B. Hinduja College
  69. 69. Action Research <ul><li>Action research is a research strategy that pursues action and knowledge in an integrated fashion through a cyclical and participatory process. In action research, process, outcome, and application are inextricably linked. </li></ul>Sneha Subhedar, DCJ, K. P. B. Hinduja College
  70. 70. Basic tenets of action research <ul><li>Addresses practical problems </li></ul><ul><li>Generates knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Enacts change </li></ul><ul><li>Is participatory </li></ul><ul><li>Relies on a cyclical process </li></ul>Sneha Subhedar, DCJ, K. P. B. Hinduja College
  71. 71. Issues in action research <ul><li>The ultimate direction is not in your hands </li></ul><ul><li>It can be difficult to control the pace of the project. </li></ul><ul><li>Facilitating collaboration is not always easy. </li></ul><ul><li>The researcher carries the burden of ethical responsibility for the production of knowledge and for the welfare of the researched. </li></ul><ul><li>The researcher needs to negotiate ownership of research outcomes, which may include rights to publish, issues of authorship, etc. </li></ul>Sneha Subhedar, DCJ, K. P. B. Hinduja College
  72. 72. <ul><li>Cycles in action research </li></ul><ul><li>Observe (research/data collection) </li></ul><ul><li>Reflect (critical reflexivity) </li></ul><ul><li>Plan (strategic action plan) </li></ul><ul><li>Act (implementation) </li></ul><ul><li>Observe </li></ul><ul><li>Reflect </li></ul><ul><li>Plan </li></ul><ul><li>Act…. </li></ul>Sneha Subhedar, DCJ, K. P. B. Hinduja College
  73. 73. Writing it <ul><li>The questions </li></ul><ul><li>So tell me what your research is about? </li></ul><ul><li>The answers that structure the chapters/sections of the conventional report </li></ul><ul><li>Title </li></ul><ul><li>Abstract </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Research question (s) </li></ul><ul><li>Hypothesis (as appropriate) </li></ul>Sneha Subhedar, DCJ, K. P. B. Hinduja College
  74. 74. <ul><li>And why did you choose this particular topic/question? </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>rationale </li></ul>Sneha Subhedar, DCJ, K. P. B. Hinduja College
  75. 75. Action Research <ul><li>Action research is a research strategy that pursues action and knowledge in an integrated fashion through a cyclical and participatory process. In action research, process, outcome, and application are inextricably linked. </li></ul>Sneha Subhedar, DCJ, K. P. B. Hinduja College
  76. 76. Basic tenets of action research <ul><li>Addresses practical problems </li></ul><ul><li>Generates knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Enacts change </li></ul><ul><li>Is participatory </li></ul><ul><li>Relies on a cyclical process </li></ul>Sneha Subhedar, DCJ, K. P. B. Hinduja College
  77. 77. Issues in action research <ul><li>The ultimate direction is not in your hands </li></ul><ul><li>It can be difficult to control the pace of the project. </li></ul><ul><li>Facilitating collaboration is not always easy. </li></ul><ul><li>The researcher carries the burden of ethical responsibility for the production of knowledge and for the welfare of the researched. </li></ul><ul><li>The researcher needs to negotiate ownership of research outcomes, which may include rights to publish, issues of authorship, etc. </li></ul>Sneha Subhedar, DCJ, K. P. B. Hinduja College
  78. 78. <ul><li>Cycles in action research </li></ul><ul><li>Observe (research/data collection) </li></ul><ul><li>Reflect (critical reflexivity) </li></ul><ul><li>Plan (strategic action plan) </li></ul><ul><li>Act (implementation) </li></ul><ul><li>Observe </li></ul><ul><li>Reflect </li></ul><ul><li>Plan </li></ul><ul><li>Act…. </li></ul>Sneha Subhedar, DCJ, K. P. B. Hinduja College
  79. 79. Writing it <ul><li>The questions </li></ul><ul><li>So tell me what your research is about? </li></ul><ul><li>The answers that structure the chapters/sections of the conventional report </li></ul><ul><li>Title </li></ul><ul><li>Abstract </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Research question (s) </li></ul><ul><li>Hypothesis (as appropriate) </li></ul>Sneha Subhedar, DCJ, K. P. B. Hinduja College
  80. 80. <ul><li>And why did you choose this particular topic/question? </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>rationale </li></ul>Sneha Subhedar, DCJ, K. P. B. Hinduja College
  81. 81. <ul><li>What do you hope to achieve? </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Aims and objectives </li></ul>Sneha Subhedar, DCJ, K. P. B. Hinduja College
  82. 82. <ul><li>I really don’t know much about this, can you fill me in? </li></ul><ul><li>Background </li></ul><ul><li>Recent literature and prior/research (literature review) </li></ul><ul><li>Theory (current and seminal as appropriate) </li></ul><ul><li>Context (social, cultural, historic, and geographic) </li></ul>Sneha Subhedar, DCJ, K. P. B. Hinduja College
  83. 83. <ul><li>How exactly did you go about doing your research? </li></ul><ul><li>Research design/Approach </li></ul><ul><li>Methodological approach (framework) </li></ul><ul><li>Methods (techniques/procedures) </li></ul><ul><li>Limitations </li></ul>Sneha Subhedar, DCJ, K. P. B. Hinduja College
  84. 84. <ul><li>And what did you find out? </li></ul><ul><li>Findings/results/emergent story </li></ul><ul><li>Text, tables, graphs, charts, themes, quotes etc </li></ul><ul><li>Discussion </li></ul><ul><li>Analysis, interpretation, and meaning of findings. </li></ul>Sneha Subhedar, DCJ, K. P. B. Hinduja College
  85. 85. <ul><li>How would you explain the relevance/importance of what you’ve done? </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul><ul><li>Implications </li></ul><ul><li>Significance </li></ul><ul><li>Recommendations (particularly importance in applied research) </li></ul>Sneha Subhedar, DCJ, K. P. B. Hinduja College
  86. 86. <ul><li>Reasons for reviewing the literature </li></ul><ul><li>Informing your self of what is happening in the field </li></ul><ul><li>Gaining a level of topical and methodological knowledge and expertise </li></ul><ul><li>Purposes of the ‘literature review’ </li></ul><ul><li>Informing your audience of what is happening in the field. </li></ul><ul><li>Establishing your credibility as a knowledgeable and capable researcher </li></ul>Sneha Subhedar, DCJ, K. P. B. Hinduja College
  87. 87. <ul><li>Finding potential gaps in the literature that may point to potential research questions </li></ul><ul><li>Critically evaluating common/typical methods </li></ul><ul><li>Arguing the relevance and the significance of your research question(s) </li></ul><ul><li>Providing the context for your own methodological approach </li></ul>Sneha Subhedar, DCJ, K. P. B. Hinduja College
  88. 88. <ul><li>Facilitating the development of your own methodological approaches </li></ul><ul><li>Arguing the relevance and appropriateness of your approach </li></ul>Sneha Subhedar, DCJ, K. P. B. Hinduja College
  89. 89. The writing process <ul><li>Read good, relevant reviews </li></ul><ul><li>Write critical annotations as you go </li></ul><ul><li>Develop a structure </li></ul><ul><li>Write purposefully </li></ul><ul><li>Use the literature to back up your arguments </li></ul><ul><li>Make doing the literature review an ongoing process </li></ul><ul><li>Get plenty of feedback </li></ul><ul><li>Be prepared to redraft </li></ul>Sneha Subhedar, DCJ, K. P. B. Hinduja College
  90. 90. Hypothesis <ul><li>Logical conjecture (hunch or educated guess) about the nature of relationships between two or more variables expressed in the form of a testable statement </li></ul>Sneha Subhedar, DCJ, K. P. B. Hinduja College
  91. 91. A hypothesis may not be appropriate if <ul><li>You do not have a hunch or educated guess about a particular situation </li></ul><ul><li>You do not have a set of defined variables </li></ul><ul><li>Your question centres on phenomenological description </li></ul><ul><li>Your question centers on ethnographic study of a cultural group </li></ul><ul><li>Your aim is to engage in, and research, the process of collaborative change </li></ul>Sneha Subhedar, DCJ, K. P. B. Hinduja College
  92. 92. Keeping a sense of the overall <ul><li>How should I treat my data in order to best address my research question? </li></ul><ul><li>What do I expect to find? </li></ul><ul><li>What don’t I expect to find, and how can I look for it? </li></ul><ul><li>How do my findings relate to my research question? </li></ul><ul><li>Are my findings confirming my theories? How? Why? Why not? </li></ul><ul><li>Does my theory inform/help to explain my findings? In what ways? </li></ul><ul><li>Can my unexpected findings link with alternate theories? </li></ul><ul><li>How might my methodological shortcomings be affecting my findings? </li></ul><ul><li>Can my findings be interpreted in alternate ways? What are the implications? </li></ul>Sneha Subhedar, DCJ, K. P. B. Hinduja College
  93. 93. Variables <ul><li>Understanding the nature of variables is essential to statistical analysis. </li></ul>Sneha Subhedar, DCJ, K. P. B. Hinduja College
  94. 94. WHAT DEPENDS ON WHAT? <ul><li>Dependent variables – the things you are trying to study or what you are trying to measure. </li></ul><ul><li>Independent variables – What might be causing an effect on the things you are trying to understand. </li></ul>Sneha Subhedar, DCJ, K. P. B. Hinduja College
  95. 95. Methodological Design <ul><li>“ What’s the best way to design my study?” </li></ul>Sneha Subhedar, DCJ, K. P. B. Hinduja College Sanjay Ranade, Head, Department of Communication and Journalism, University of Mumbai
  96. 96. <ul><li>There are often a number of ways to credibly move from questions to answers with each part giving a different perspectives. </li></ul>Sneha Subhedar, DCJ, K. P. B. Hinduja College Sanjay Ranade, Head, Department of Communication and Journalism, University of Mumbai
  97. 97. Sampling Methods <ul><li>Sampling is the term used to refer to selecting people or units for inclusion in a research study </li></ul><ul><li>It is important for the sample to be representative of the entire group. </li></ul>Sneha Subhedar, DCJ, K. P. B. Hinduja College
  98. 98. <ul><li>Population – is an entire set of objects, observations or scores that have some characteristic in common </li></ul><ul><li>An entire population for a study would be large </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore one uses a sample </li></ul>Sneha Subhedar, DCJ, K. P. B. Hinduja College
  99. 99. Sample <ul><li>Refers to terms or units that a researcher actually includes in the study </li></ul><ul><li>Generalizable – refers to the notion that the results of studying a sample can be assumed to be true of the entire population. </li></ul>Sneha Subhedar, DCJ, K. P. B. Hinduja College
  100. 100. <ul><li>Primary task is to identify appropriate sample </li></ul><ul><li>Secondary task involves identifying all members of that group and determining how each could be contacted for inclusion in the study </li></ul><ul><li>The final step involves identifying the method that will be used to select members of the accessible population for inclusion in the sample that is contacted for the study </li></ul>Sneha Subhedar, DCJ, K. P. B. Hinduja College
  101. 101. Selecting a Sample Design <ul><li>To use probability or non probability sampling </li></ul><ul><li>Probability samplings involves random selection of participants that guarantees that each member of the population has as equal chance of being selected </li></ul><ul><li>Non-probability designs involve selecting members of the accessible population in a non random manner </li></ul>Sneha Subhedar, DCJ, K. P. B. Hinduja College
  102. 102. Probability Sampling <ul><li>Involves randomly selecting participants for the population so that all potential participants have an equal chance of being selected for the study </li></ul><ul><li>Eliminate any potential bias by ensuring that each person in the population has as equal chance of being chosen </li></ul>Sneha Subhedar, DCJ, K. P. B. Hinduja College
  103. 103. Types of Probability Sampling <ul><li>Simple Random Sampling </li></ul><ul><li>Stratified Random Sampling </li></ul><ul><li>Cluster Samples </li></ul><ul><li>Systematic Samples </li></ul>Sneha Subhedar, DCJ, K. P. B. Hinduja College
  104. 104. Simple Random Samples <ul><li>Considered the purest method of collecting samples. </li></ul><ul><li>Ensures that each member has equal chance of being selected for the study </li></ul><ul><li>The researcher makes a random decision who will be included in the sample </li></ul><ul><li>Two forms of randomization used to selected ensure the validity of the study </li></ul><ul><li>Random Assignment and Random sample </li></ul>Sneha Subhedar, DCJ, K. P. B. Hinduja College
  105. 105. <ul><li>Random sample refers to the selection of study participants </li></ul><ul><li>Random assignment refers to how the researcher assigns the sample drawn from the population of the various groups within the study. </li></ul><ul><li>Random sampling allows the researcher to generalize the results to the population, thus enhancing the external validity of the study </li></ul><ul><li>Its also allows the researcher to strengthen the internal validity of the study by ensuring that participants are randomly assigned to the conditions being examined </li></ul>Sneha Subhedar, DCJ, K. P. B. Hinduja College
  106. 106. Stratified Random Sampling <ul><li>This procedure enables the researchers to divide the population into specific strata, know as subsets of the population that have a common characteristic </li></ul><ul><li>Participants are randomly selected from the strata that have been identified </li></ul><ul><li>Eg male and female, congress and bjp supporters etc </li></ul>Sneha Subhedar, DCJ, K. P. B. Hinduja College
  107. 107. Cluster Sampling <ul><li>Allows a researcher to identify naturally occurring clusters of participants who have a variable in common within the target population </li></ul><ul><li>For e.g. if you want to conduct a study of college students across the country, the researcher divides the country into region; west; east, north and south; the sampling will involve selecting the region from which to select participants, once the region is selected then random sampling is conducted </li></ul>Sneha Subhedar, DCJ, K. P. B. Hinduja College
  108. 108. Systematic Samples <ul><li>It involves selecting a sample by determining the sample size needed from the population and selecting every ‘nth’ person from the population for inclusion in the study. </li></ul><ul><li>This method is effective as simple random sampling as long as there is no systematic order to the listing of population. </li></ul>Sneha Subhedar, DCJ, K. P. B. Hinduja College
  109. 109. Non-probability Samples <ul><li>Not selected randomly selected </li></ul><ul><li>A greater chance of bias existing in the results </li></ul><ul><li>Why use non –probability sampling? </li></ul><ul><li>Some instances a study might be examining a variable or phenomenon that is new </li></ul><ul><li>Efficiency of cost and time associated with finding participants </li></ul>Sneha Subhedar, DCJ, K. P. B. Hinduja College
  110. 110. Types of non-probability <ul><li>Convenience </li></ul><ul><li>Volunteer </li></ul><ul><li>Purposive </li></ul><ul><li>Quota </li></ul><ul><li>Network/Snowball </li></ul>Sneha Subhedar, DCJ, K. P. B. Hinduja College
  111. 111. Convenience Sampling <ul><li>Based on availability </li></ul><ul><li>E.g. the questionnaire you asked your classmate to fill as he was there </li></ul>Sneha Subhedar, DCJ, K. P. B. Hinduja College
  112. 112. Volunteer Sampling <ul><li>Volunteer may be participating to study </li></ul><ul><li>Volunteer samples are recruited by offering participants a reward in exchange for their time </li></ul><ul><li>The participants may choose whether or not to be a part of the sample population </li></ul>Sneha Subhedar, DCJ, K. P. B. Hinduja College
  113. 113. Purposive Samples <ul><li>Involves nonrandomly selecting participants to fulfill or meet a specific purpose the researcher has in mind </li></ul><ul><li>Sample is selected based on specific characteristics the researcher is investigating </li></ul><ul><li>For e.g. to study the perspective taught in public relations courses, only students who have enrolled in the public relations course will be interviewed </li></ul>Sneha Subhedar, DCJ, K. P. B. Hinduja College
  114. 114. Quota Samples <ul><li>To obtain quota samples participants are separated into strata or groups based on a common characteristic or variable and then participants from each group are selected non randomly for inclusion in the study </li></ul>Sneha Subhedar, DCJ, K. P. B. Hinduja College
  115. 115. Network/ Snowballing <ul><li>Asking participants to refer researchers to other people who could serve as participants </li></ul><ul><li>Is used in instances where a variable or characteristic being studied is rare or difficult to identify in a population </li></ul>Sneha Subhedar, DCJ, K. P. B. Hinduja College
  116. 116. Content analysis <ul><li>According to Neuendorf, content analysis is a ‘summarizing, quantitative analysis of messages that relies on the scientific method (including attention to objectivity – intersubjectivity, a priori design, reliability, validity, generalization, replicability and hypothesis testing) and is not limited as to the types of variables that may be measured or the context in which the messages are created or presented’. </li></ul>Sneha Subhedar, DCJ, K. P. B. Hinduja College
  117. 117. <ul><li>It may be conducted on written text, transcribed speech, verbal interactions, visual images, characterizations, non verbal behaviours , sound events or any other type of message </li></ul><ul><li>It can be used to examine a wide range of different communication phenomena. </li></ul>Sneha Subhedar, DCJ, K. P. B. Hinduja College
  118. 118. <ul><li>The major purpose of content analysis is to identify patterns in text. </li></ul><ul><li>Content analysis is an extremely broad area of research. </li></ul><ul><li>Thematic analysis of text </li></ul><ul><li>Indexing </li></ul><ul><li>Quantitative descriptive analysis </li></ul>Sneha Subhedar, DCJ, K. P. B. Hinduja College
  119. 119. Thematic analysis <ul><li>The identification of themes or major ideas in a document or set of documents. </li></ul><ul><li>The documents can be any kind of text including field notes, newspaper articles, technical papers or organizational memos. </li></ul>Sneha Subhedar, DCJ, K. P. B. Hinduja College
  120. 120. Indexing <ul><li>There are a wide variety of automated methods for rapidly indexing text documents. </li></ul><ul><li>For instance, Key Words in Context (KWIC) analysis is a computer analysis of text data. </li></ul><ul><li>A computer program scans the text and indexes all key words. </li></ul><ul><li>A key word is any term in the text that is not included in an exception dictionary. </li></ul><ul><li>Typically you would set up an exception dictionary that includes all non-essential words like &quot;is&quot;, &quot;and&quot;, and &quot;of&quot;. </li></ul>Sneha Subhedar, DCJ, K. P. B. Hinduja College
  121. 121. <ul><li>All key words are alphabetized and are listed with the text that precedes and follows it so the researcher can see the word in the context in which it occurred in the text. </li></ul><ul><li>In an analysis of interview text, for instance, one could easily identify all uses of the term &quot;abuse&quot; and the context in which they were used. </li></ul>Sneha Subhedar, DCJ, K. P. B. Hinduja College
  122. 122. Quantitative descriptive analysis <ul><li>Here the purpose is to describe features of the text quantitatively. </li></ul><ul><li>For instance, you might want to find out which words or phrases were used most frequently in the text. </li></ul><ul><li>Again, this type of analysis is most often done directly with computer programs </li></ul>Sneha Subhedar, DCJ, K. P. B. Hinduja College
  123. 123. Demerits <ul><li>First, you are limited to the types of information available in text form. </li></ul><ul><li>If you are studying the way a news story is being handled by the news media, you probably would have a ready population of news stories from which you could sample. </li></ul><ul><li>However, if you are interested in studying people's views on capital punishment, you are less likely to find an archive of text documents that would be appropriate </li></ul>Sneha Subhedar, DCJ, K. P. B. Hinduja College
  124. 124. <ul><li>Second, you have to be especially careful with sampling in order to avoid bias </li></ul><ul><li>For instance, a study of current research on methods of treatment for cancer might use the published literature as the population. This would leave out both the writing on cancer that did not get published for one reason or another as well as the most recent work that has not yet been published </li></ul>Sneha Subhedar, DCJ, K. P. B. Hinduja College
  125. 125. THE END Sneha Subhedar, DCJ, K. P. B. Hinduja College

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