1862 1864 1866 The Cheyenne tribe Buffalo soldiers wereThe Homestead Act assumed that they members of the 10thof 1862 offered 160 were under Calvary. This was anacres of land to free government all black regimentany citizen or protection so they that was establishedintended citizen who moved to Colorado’s by congress. Theywas head of the sand creek reserve. were the firsthousehold. General S.R. Curtis peacetime all black U.S. wanted the regiment in the U.S. Indians to suffer army. more. Him and his troops killed about 150 people including women and children.
Tatanka Iyotanka, leader of the Hunkapa Sioux tribe never signed the treaty of Fort Laramie. 1867 1868 1870Oliver Hudson AgarianKelley started an economicorganization for movement infarmers that the late 1800s.became popularly Farmersknown as wanted toGrange. Themain purpose of decrease debt,it was to provide poverty, anda social outlet & low crop pricesan educational throughforum for isolated education.families.
1871-1904 1876 1879 The Battle of Little ExodustersNez Perce was Big Horn was alsoa member of known as Custer’s were African-the Shapatain last stand by the Americans Native Americans. who movedpeople living on This battle was thethe Pacific most prominent from the post-Coast. action of the Great reconstruction Sioux War of 1876. south to The Lakota, Northern Cheyenne Kansas. combined w/ Arapho tribes against the U.S. 7th Calvary
Congress passed the Dawes Act in an attempt to “Americanize” Native’s. This act broke up reservations, and gave some of the land to single natives. If you had a family, you got 160 acres and if you were single you only got 80 acres. 1881 1886 1887The Native The coloredAmericans had farmer’sa plan of alliance wasassimilation. made up ofThis plan black andstated that they white farmerswould give up who faced problems withtheir beliefs decreasingand way of life, profits. Soto become part blacks decidedof the white to make theirculture. own organization.
1890 1896 1896On December 28,1890 the 7th William McKinley At the 1896Calvary; which was was nominated Democraticmade up of Custer’s by the Convention,old regiment, Republican partyrounded up natives for the Williamand took them to a presidential Jennings Bryancamp in Wounded delivered theKnee Creek in South election. He wasDakota. The next soon elected “cross of Goldday, soldiers were president, but his Speech”. Hetaking the natives election caused also was theweapons, and in the populism toprocess, a shot was editor of the collapse buryingfired. The Calvary the hopes of Omaha World.killed 300 natives. farmers.
The Vanderbilt Sweat shops wasfamily was an a negative wordAmerican that was used to describe anyfamily of the workingrailroad. They environment.became Thesesocially environmentsprominent in were very difficultthe 1st half of and dangerous tothe 19th work in.century. 1795 1827 1830-1850 Socialism was an economic system characterized by social ownership, and means of production. Co- operative management of the economy.
Social Darwinism came from Charles Darwin’s theory of biological evolution. Social Darwinism explained natural selections and how people pass some traits to their offspring. 1850 1859 1870The Bessemer Andrew CarnegieProcess was one of the 1stdeveloped industrial mogulsindependently by to make his ownthe British fortune. He gavemanufacturer money toHenry Bessemer communities so& William Kelly. they could buildThis process was public libraries.to inject air into He hoped thatmolten iron to this would inspireremove impurities others to make their own rags-to- riches stories.
John D.Rockefellerestablished thestandard oilcompany. Heused a trust togain total controlof the oil industryin America. Hisoil companyprocessed 2/3 ofthe country’scrude oil. 1870 1876 1876 Alexander The telephone Graham Bell was invented helped create the by Alexander telephone. He actually took a Graham Bell. previous The telephone invention that affected office was similar to the work and telephone to created new make it. This jobs for invention opened women. way for a worldwide communication network.
1879 1884 1885 Mugwumps wereThomas Alva Eugene v. republicanEdison political activists Debs was abecame a who bolted from court casepioneer on the the republican thatnew industrial party byfrontier. He supporting the attempted toestablished the democratic form an candidate Grover industrialworld’s 1st Cleveland in theresearch U.S. presidential union. Thelaboratory in election. AmericanMenlo park, RailwayNew Jersey. Union (ARU)
Strikebackers were known as “scabs” . They kept the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad (B&O) during the strike. 1886 1890 1892 The ShermanSamuel Anti-Trust ActGompers led made it illegalthe Cigar to form a trustMakers’ that interferedInternational with freeUnion to join tradewith other betweencraft unions. states or with other countries.
Jane Addams was one of the most influential people in the settlement house movement. 1780 1790 1800This period wasthe beginning of Urbanizationthe melting pot. was big atThis term was this period inused to describe history.the mixture ofpeople and Growth ofdifferent cultures cities mainlyand races who occurred inblended togetherby abandoning the region oftheir native the northwestlanguages & and mid-west.customs.
1800 1860-1896 1868Settlement The gilded age Tammany Hallhouses were was the period was wherecommunity following the boos Tweedcenters in slum civil war. This was the leader.neighborhoods was a time of Tammany Hallthat provided huge growth was a powerfulassistance to that attracted democraticpeople in the millions of machine.area , people fromespecially Europe.immigrants.
A political machine offered services to voters and business in exchange for political or financial support. 1871 1871 1871 The CivilThe Tweed ServiceRing was a consisted ofgroup of thecorrupt governmentpoliticians in administrationdefrauding going to thethe city, Brok. most qualified persons when in need.
1879 1880-1949 1892-1924 Dumbbell Jacob Riis helped Ellis Island wasTenements were the impoverished an immigrationcheap housing unitscreated when cities people in NYC. station. Aboutbecame packed with He endorsed the 20% ofpeople during the implementation of immigrantsindustrial revolution. “modelThey were called here were tenements”. Hethis because of the started out as a detained for adesign of the photographer and day or more,buildings whichlooked like he took pictures before beingdumbbells. Many of people around inspected.units even had to NYC.share a corridor.
1971-1940 1920 1930-1950Angel Island was A Kickback was a The patronageanother immigration worker who system wascenter mostly forAsians and Chinese. would kickback a givingThe processing here portion of governmentwas similar to the earnings to the jobs to peopleways at Ellis Island. machine. IllegalPeople endured who had paymentsharsh questioning enriched political helped aand long detention machines and candidate getin filthy ramshacklebuildings just for individual elected.waiting. politicians.
1857 1870 1876Fredrick Law The Grandfather Mark twainOlmstead Clause meant inspired youngspearheaded a that, if a man authors when hemovement failed the literacy declared hisplanned for urban test or couldn’t independence ofparks. He afford the poll tax, “literature and allenvisioned the he was still that other bosh”.parks as a rustic entitled to vote. He is the authorhaven in the But this is only if of “Themiddle of a busy he, his father, or Adventures ofcity. For example: his grandfather Tom Sawyer” andTimes Square in had been eligible the sequelNYC. to vote. “Huckleberry Finn”.
Ida B. Wellsworked as ateacher, and laterbecame aneditor. In herstories, racialjustice was hermain theme inher stories. In1892, 3 of herfriends werelynched illegallywithout trial. 1880 1880 1881 Ragtime was a Booker T. type of music that Washington was developed during an African- this time period. American It was a blend of educator and European leader who musical forms believed that and African- racism would end American once black spirituals. acquired useful Ragtime music labor skills. later turned into Blacks would also jazz, rhythm and have to prove blues, and rock their economic ‘n’ roll music. value to society.
Mail-Order Catalogs were pretty convenient. All you had to do was put in an order for food or other service, and you would do that all by mail. 1881 1881 1883This time periodwas the birth of Joseph Pulitzer wasthe first a HungarianVaudeville immigrant whoTheatre. These introduced the NYtype of theatres world newspaper in 1883. he pioneeredwere referred to popular innovationsas palaces. such as: the SundayPerformances edition, sports,included song comics, anddance, juggling, women’s news. Heslapstick comedy, greatly emphasized sin, sex, andand sometimes sensation. His mainchorus lines of competition wasfemale William Randolphperformers Hearst .
George Eastmandeveloped aseries of moreconvenientalternatives to the Segregation lawsheavy glass were laws thatplates. In 1888 separated whiteshe introduced the and blacks infirst Kodak public and privatecamera. facilities. 1895 1888 1900 W.E.B. Dubois was the first African-American to get a doctorate degree from Harvard. In 1905 he founded the Niagara Movement where blacks would seek liberal arts education so that the black community would have well educated leaders.
Literacy tests were given to people to test A poll tax was an their literature annual tax that abilities. Passing had to be paid this test was a before you were requirement to qualified to vote. be registered for voting in some states. 1903 1917 1937Orville and WilburWright werebrothers whoexperimented withdifferent engines.First they built aglider, then theycommissioned a 4-cylinder internalcombustion engine.Their first successfulplane was a biplanewith a wingspan of40”4’. Their firstsuccessful flight wason Dec. 17, 1903,and it lasted 12seconds, andcovered 120ft.