General embryo 2nd

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General embryo 2nd

  1. 1. Embryonic Period ( 3rd to 8th weeks) Fetus (3rd month to Birth)
  2. 2. First week of development: Ovulation to Implantation
  3. 3. Second week of development: Bilaminar germ disc  Two embryonic layers – epiblast and hypoblast.  Two cavities – Amnionic cavity and exocoelomic cavity (yolk sac).  Two layers of trophoblast – cytotrophoblast & syncytiotrophoblast.  Formation of extraembryonic mesoderm.
  4. 4. Third week of development: Trilaminar germ disc  Formation of the Three Germ Layer - GASTRULATION - Migration of epiblast cells to form the mesoderm and endoderm - The remaining epiblast gives rise to the ectoderm  Formation of the primitive streak, pit and node  Formation of the notochord 
  5. 5. Embryonic Period/ Organogenesis (3rd to 8th weeks)  Formation & development of body organs from embryonic tissue is called organogenesis  Each of the 3 germ layers gives rise to a number of specific tissues & organs Formation of the Neural tube (Neurulation)      The neuro-ectoderm (neural plate) is derived from the ectoderm overlying the notochord. By the end of third week the lateral edges of neural plate elevates to form neural fold. Depressed mid region forms the neural groove The neural groove deepens and eventually forms a neural tube. Two masses of ectoderm at edges of neural plate, form neural crest. 
  6. 6.   Initially the neural crest separates neuro-ectoderm from skin ectoderm. As folding of the neural tube occurs, the neural crest cells detach from the ectoderm and form clusters that migrate into the mesoderm.
  7. 7. Derivaties of Ectoderm 1. Surface Ectoderm: A. Lining epithelia  Skin epidermis  Mucous membrane of lips ,cheeks , gums, part of floor of mouth , part of the palate, nasal cavity & sinuses  Lower part of anal canal ( below pectinate line)  Terminal parts of male urethra  Outer surface of labia minora & whole of labia majora  Anterior epithelium of cornea, epithelium of conjunctiva, epithelial layers of ciliary body & iris  Outer layer of tympanic membrane, epithelial lining of membranous labyrinth including the special end organs  Lacrimal canaliculi, sac, nasolacrimal duct
  8. 8. B. Glands : • Sweat glands, sebaceous glands, parotid gland, mammary glands, pars anterior of pituitary gland C. Other derivatives: • Tooth enamel • Hair • Nails
  9. 9.  2. Neuroectoderm  A. Neural tube  CNS  Retina & Optic nerve & musculature of iris  Pineal & pituitary gland  Neurons  Neuroglia – Ependymal cells , Macroglia(Astrocytes, oligodendrocytes) B. Neural crest  Schwann cells  Chromaffin cells (adrenal medulla)  Dorsal root ganglia & dorsal root of spinal nerve  Sympathetic ganglia  Sensory ganglia of V, VII, IX & X cranial nerves  Melanocytes of skin  Leptomeninges  Bones & connective tissues of cranio-fascial structues  Parts of heart  Odontoblast  Adrenal medulla 
  10. 10. 3. Ectodermal Placode  Otic placode – gives rise to structures needed for hearing & balance  Lens placode – forms lens  Nasal placode – nasal cavities & para nasal sinus
  11. 11. Derivaties of Mesoderm Mesoderm in the lateral part of the embryo is divided into three distinct longitudinal masses: Paraxial mesoderm  -  a longitudinal column of cells that lies next to the notochord  - it gives rise to the axial skeleton and skeletal muscle Intermediate mesoderm  -  it gives rise to the genitourinary system Lateral plate mesoderm  - gives rise to body wall structures  -  is continuous with the extra-embryonic mesoderm  - splits into two layers enclosing the intra-embryonic coelom a. Somatic layer of mesoderm – mesodermal derivatives of the body wall. b. Splanchnic layer of mesoderm – wall of the gut tube & connective tissue of viscera
  12. 12. Paraxial mesoderm  The Paraxial mesoderm further forms segmental cuboidal bodies by third week - somites  Differentiates – sclerotome & dermatomyotome.  It gives rise to the axial skeletal ,the associated muscles ( true back muscles) and part of the overlying dermis.  There are about 42- 44 pairs of somites – but a first occipital and last 5-7 coccygeal somites disappear.
  13. 13. Lateral plate mesoderm & intraembryonic coelom  A cavity – intraembryonic coelom appears in the lateral plate mesoderm.  Has somatic (parietal) layer and splanchnic (visceral) layer: a. Somatic layer of mesoderm – mesodermal derivatives of the body wall. b. Splanchnic layer of mesoderm – wall of the gut tube & connective tissue of viscera.
  14. 14. Development of blood vessel   Blood cells and blood vessels develop from the mesoderm. Mesodermal cells differentiate into endothelial cells surrounding a central group of erythroblasts.  These are blood islands that coalesce to form blood vessels. Almost all parts of the mesoderm gives rise to blood vessels.  Differentiation of blood vessels     Blood islands and eventually blood vessels appear: in the extra-embryonic mesoderm in the second week in the intra-embryonic mesoderm in the third week the primitve heart tube develops in the cardiogenic mesoderm (in the transverse mesoderm) at the beginning of the fourth week and a primitive circulation is established
  15. 15. Derivatives of Endoderm  Epithelium : G.I.tract, liver, pancreas, gallbladder, part of the urinary bladder & urachus.  Epithelium: trachea, bronchi & lungs.  Epithelium [in part] : pharynx, thyroid, tympanic cavity, auditory tube & tonsils.
  16. 16. Folding of the Embryo       Folding occurs by differential growth of tissues.  Neural ectoderm grows faster than the surrounding skin ectoderm and consequently fold to form a neural tube.  Similarly, skin ectoderm grows faster than the underlying mesoderm and endoderm, and this differential growth causes folding of the trialminar disc and gives shape to the embryo.  Folding occurs mainly at the edges of the embryonic disc and forms three main folds: Head fold Tail fold Lateral folds  - convert the embryo into a tubular structure. The notochord, neural tube and somites stiffen the dorsal axis of the embryo.
  17. 17. As a result of the formation of the head fold       The foregut is formed by folding of the endoderm The stomadeum  is an invagination of ectoderm, and has the buccopharyngeal membrane separating it from the foregut. It opens into the amniotic cavity. The pericardial cavity and cardiogenic mesoderm are shifted to the ventral aspect of the embryo and lie ventral to the foregut. The part of the transverse mesoderm between the pericardial cavity and the yolk sac is the septum transversum proper.  In it the liver will develop. The amniotic cavity extends ventral to the cranial end of the embryo. The yolk sac is constricted from the cranial aspect.
  18. 18. As a result of the formation of the tail fold       The hindgut is formed The cloaca is an invagination of ectoderm and has the cloacal membrane separating it from the hindgut. The connecting stalk is shifted ventrally The allantoic diverticulum is shifted ventrally.  It is an invagination of hindgut endoderm into the connecting stalk. The amniotic cavity extends ventral to the caudal end of the embryo. The yolk sac is constricted from the caudal end
  19. 19. Transverse folding of the embryo    Converts the endoderm into a primitive gut tube The intra-embryonic coelom surrounds the gut tube The communication between the intra- and extra- embryonic coeloms becomes constricted and eventually obliterated Note that drastic and important changes occur in the embryonic cavities as a consequence of folding:    The amniotic cavity surrounds the embryo completely on all aspects and becomes the predominant cavity. It enlarges progressively. The yolk sac becomes constricted on all sides, and becomes a small sac connected to the midgut by a narrow vitelline duct.  It becomes progressively smaller. The extra-embryonic coelom is gradually obliterated by the expanding amnion and eventually disappears completely
  20. 20. BREIF OVERVIEW –EMBRYONIC PERIOD  4th week : closure of neural tube, optic vesicles, otic placodes, 1st & 2nd branchial arches, heart tube folding.  5th week : neuropores close, upper & lower limb buds, otic vesicle, lens placode, nasal pits, 3rd & 4th branchial arches.  6th week : finger & toe rays, foot plate, auricular hillocks,fore brain vesicle prominent, pigmentation of retina.  7th week: eyelids, nipples, limbs extend ventrally, medial nasal swellings - upper lips , midgut herniation.  8th week: fingers & toes distinct, nails, limbs bent at elbows & knees, eyelids & auricles more developed, external genitalia seen.
  21. 21. Fetus (3rd month to Birth) Fetal Period:       The Period from the beginning of 3rd month to the birth is known as fetal period. The main character of this period is the period of rapid growth and maturation of the tissue. During the 4th week of the development, the age of the embryo is expressed in the number of somites. The length of the embryo between 4th and 8th developmental weeks is indicated as the crown-rump length (CRL) and is expressed in millimeters. During fetal development (9th - 40th week) the length of the conceptus is indicated as CRL or as the crown-heel length (CHL) expressed in centimeters. Growth in length is most intensive during the 3rd to the 5th month, while the increase in weight is most evident during the last two months of gestation.
  22. 22. Monthly changes: 9th – 12th week  The head constitute half of fetus.  Erythropoiesis occurs in liver.  Metanephric kidney becomes functional and urine is formed.  Physiological hernia occurs and persists till 10th week & returns by 11th week.  Primary Ossification centre appears in the long bones.  External genitalia differentiated, identification of sex possible.
  23. 23. 13th-16th weeks  Head growth slows down but rapid growth in length. The not so developed lower limbs start to develop.  Ossification centres becomes clearly evident in x-rays.  Erythropoiesis begins in spleen. In liver it is seized.  Primary follicles in ovaries seen.  Scalp hair pattern determined.  Soft thin hairs ‘lanugo’ begins to develop.
  24. 24. 17th-20th weeks  Growth slows down.  Quickening felt by mother i.e., first sign of locomotion.  Development of uterus is complete.  Testes begin to descend.
  25. 25. 21st-25th Weeks  Pneumocytes type II is differentiated and becomes functional. Therefore, surfactants are released.  Formation of capillaries plexus and pink coloration of the skin seen.  Finger nails visible.
  26. 26. 26th- 29th Weeks  Bone marrow differentiated and becomes functional.  Erythropoiesis ceases in spleen.  Lungs have matured enough to be functional. Rhythmic breathing is possible and the foetus is viable.  Subcutaneous fat develops- smoothing the wrinkles.  Eyes reopen.  Hairs develop on the scalp.  Toe nail visible.
  27. 27. 30th to 34th weeks  Quantity of fat increases considerably.  Pupillary light reflex develops by 30th weeks.  All body systems develop by 32nd weeks and foetus can be born ‘premature baby’.
  28. 28. 35th- 38th Weeks  Fat increase considerably.  The skin is covered by a whitish, fatty substance (vernix caseosa) composed of secretory products from sebaceous gland.  Head circumference is the largest of all body parts
  29. 29. Time of birth   280 days or 40 weeks after the onset of last normal menstrual period More accurately, 266 days or 38 weeks after fertilization. Preterm : born before 37 weeks of gestation Post term or post maturity : born after 42 weeks of gestation

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