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10.development of urogenital system


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10.development of urogenital system

  1. 1. Development of Urogenital System
  2. 2. • Functionally, the urogenital system can be divided into two entirely different components: the urinary system and the genital system. • Embryologically and anatomically, however, they are intimately related. • Both develop from a common mesodermal ridge (intermediate mesoderm) and the cloaca. • Initially the excretory ducts of both systems enter a common cavity, the cloaca.
  3. 3. Development of Urinary System
  4. 4. Development of Urinary System  Urinary system is derived from the intermediate mesoderm and cloaca.  Epithelium of the urinary system is derived from the intermediate mesoderm.  After the folding of embryonic disc and formation of peritoneal cavity, the intermediate mesoderm forms a bulging on the posterior abdominal wall called nephrogenic cords or urogenital ridge.  It is covered by epithelium lining the peritoneal cavity (coelomic epithelium).  It extends from cervical to sacral region.
  5. 5.     At varying stage of development, a number of important structures are formed in relation to nephrogenic cord as follows: Excretory tubules Mesonephric duct Paramesonephric duct Gonad
  6. 6. Cloaca  Cloaca is subdivided into the ventral primitive urogenital sinus and dorsal primitive rectum by the urorectal septum.  Primitive urogenital sinus is subdivided into a cranial part, called vesico-urethral canal and a caudal part, called the definitive urogenital sinus.  The openings of mesonephric ducts lie at the junction of these two subdivisions.  The definitive urogenital sinus is further divided into a cranial pelvic part and a caudal phallic part.
  7. 7. Development of kidney systems  -  Three kidney systems are formed in a cranial-to-caudal sequence during intrauterine life in humans: Pronephros Mesonephros, and Metanephros The first of these systems is rudimentary and nonfunctional; the second may function for a short time during the early fetal period; the third forms the permanent kidney.
  8. 8. Pronephros  At the beginning of the fourth week, the pronephros is represented by 7 to 10 solid cell groups in the cervical region.  These groups form vestigial excretory units, nephrotomes, that regress before more caudal ones are formed.  By the end of the fourth week, the pronephric system will disappear.
  9. 9. Mesonephros  The mesonephros and mesonephric ducts are derived from intermediate mesoderm from upper thoracic to upper lumbar (L3) segments.  Early in the 4th week of development, the first excretory tubules of the mesonephros appear.  They lengthen rapidly, form an S-shaped loop, and acquire a tuft of capillaries that will form a glomerulus at their medial extremity.  Around the glomerulus, the tubules form Bowman’s capsule, and together these structures constitute a renal corpuscle.
  10. 10.  Laterally, the tubule enters the longitudinal collecting duct known as the mesonephric or wolffian duct.  While caudal tubules are still differentiating, cranial tubules and glomeruli show degenerative changes, and by the end of the 2nd month, the majority have disappeared.  In the male, a few of the caudal tubules and the mesonephric duct persist and participate in formation of the genital system, but they disappear in the female.
  11. 11. Metanephros: The Definitive Kidney  The third urinary organ, the metanephros or permanent kidney, appears in the 5th week.  Its excretory units develop from metanephric mesoderm in the same manner as in the mesonephric system.  The development of the duct system differs from that of the other kidney systems.
  12. 12. Formation of Collecting System  Collecting ducts of the permanent kidney develop from the ureteric bud, an outgrowth of the mesonephric duct close to its entrance to the cloaca.  The bud penetrates the metanephric tissue, which is molded over its distal end as a cap.  The ureteric bud form a dilation called ampulla. The ampulla devides repeatedly.  First 3-5 generations of branches fuse to form pelvis of kidney.  Next division - major calyces and further divisions - minor calyces and collecting tubules (1 to 3 millions).
  13. 13.  These buds continue to subdivide until 12 or more generations of tubules have formed.  During further development, collecting tubules of the fifth and successive generations elongate considerably and converge on the minor calyx, forming the renal pyramid.  The ureteric bud gives rise to the ureter, the renal pelvis, the major and minor calyces, and approximately 1 to 3 million collecting tubules.
  14. 14. Formation of Excretory System  Each collecting tubule is covered by Metanephric cap.  Under the inductive influence of tubule, cells of tissue cap forms renal vesicles, which in turn is converted into ‘S’ shaped tubule.  Capillaries grow into the pocket at one end of the S and differentiate into glomeruli.  These tubules, together with their glomeruli, form nephrons, or excretory units.
  15. 15.  The proximal end of each nephron forms Bowman’s capsule, which is deeply indented by a glomerulus.  The distal end forms an open connection with the collecting tubules.  Continuous lengthening of the excretory tubule results in formation of the proximal convoluted tubule, loop of Henle, and distal convoluted tubule.
  16. 16.  Hence, the kidney develops from two sources: 1) Metanephric mesoderm, which provides excretory units and 2) Ureteric bud, which gives rise to the collecting system.
  17. 17. Ascent of kidney  Definitive human kidney develops from the metanephros in the sacral region.  Ascends due to the differential growth of the abdominal wall.  Final position is in the lumbar region.  The hilum faces medially.  The metanephros, at first, receives blood supply from lateral sacral arteries, but with its ascent, branch of the aorta at the level of L2 take over the supply.
  18. 18. Congenital anomalies  Agenesis  Duplication  Anomalies in shape Horse shoe kidney Pancake kidney Lobulated -  -  Anomalies in position Present in sacral region May be in thoracic region Congenital polycystic kidney
  19. 19. Development of Ureter  Derived from the part of ureteric bud that lies between pelvis of kidney and vesico-urethral canal i.e., intermediate mesoderm.  The connective tissue & muscles are derived from the intermediate mesoderm of the metanephric cap.
  20. 20. Congenital anomalies  Ureter may be duplicated partially or completely.  Abnormal opening of ureter.  Post- caval ureter - Right sided hydronephrosis.
  21. 21. Development of Urinary bladder  Epithelium of the bladder – develops from the cranial part of the vesico-urethral canal (endoderm).  Epithelium of trigone – derived from the absorbed mesonephric ducts (mesoderm)  Muscular and serous walls – derived from splanchnopleuric mesoderm. Initially, bladder is continuous with allantois, but when the lumen of allantois is obliterated, a thick fibrous cord, the urachus remains. It connects the apex of bladder to umbilicus, in adult called as median umbilical ligament.
  22. 22.  The caudal portions of the mesonephric ducts are absorbed into the wall of the urinary bladder.  Consequently, the ureters, initially outgrowth from the mesonephric ducts, enter the bladder separately.  As kidneys ascend, the orifices of the ureters move farther cranially; those of the mesonephric ducts move close together to enter the prostatic urethra and in males becomes the ejaculatory ducts.  Since both the mesonephric ducts and ureters originate in the mesoderm, the mucosa of the bladder formed by incorporation of the ducts (the trigone of the bladder) is also mesodermal.  With time, the mesodermal lining of the trigone is replaced by endodermal epithelium, so that finally, the inside of the bladder is completely lined with endodermal epithelium.
  23. 23. Congenital anomalies  Urachal fistula, urachal cyst or sinus: The lumen is persist in the urachus.
  24. 24.  Extrophy of bladder or ectopia vesicae
  25. 25. Development of Urethra  Male Urethra: a. From urinary bladder upto the openings of ejaculatory ducts – derived from caudal part of vesicourethral canal. Posterior wall derived from absorbed mesonephric ducts. b. Rest of prostatic urethra and membranous urethra derived from the pelvic part of definitive urogenital sinus. c. Penile part of the urethra - derived from the phallic part of definitive urogenital sinus. d. The most terminal part - derived the ECTODERM
  26. 26.  Female urethra - Derived from the caudal part of vesico-urethral canal. - As it corresponds to the prostatic part of male urethra, may receive slight contribution from pelvic part of urogenital sinus.
  27. 27. Development of Prostate  Develops from large number of buds arising from the epithelium of the prostatic urethra, i.e. caudal part of the vesico-urethral canal and from pelvic part of definitive urogenital sinus.  Buds arising from the mesodermal part of prostatic urethra (posterior wall above the openings of ejaculatory ducts) form inner glandular zone.  Buds arising from the rest of prostatic urethra (endoderm) form the outer glandular zone.  Muscles and connective tissue are derived from surrounding mesenchyme, which also form capsule of the gland.  Inner zone : Benign prostatic hypertrophy Outer zone : Carcinoma 
  28. 28. Female homologues of Prostate  Urethral gland – developed from buds arising from the caudal part of vesico-urethral canal.  Paraurethral glands of Skene – develops from buds arising from the urogenital sinus
  29. 29. Development of Genital system
  30. 30. Paramesonephric duct or Mullerian duct  The paramesonephric duct arises as a longitudinal invagination of the coelomic epithelium of nephrogenic cord.  Cranially, the duct opens into the abdominal cavity with a funnel like structure.  Caudally, it first runs lateral to the mesonephric duct, then crosses it ventrally to grow medially.  Then the two ducts meet and fuse in the mid line to form Uterovaginal canal (uterine canal).  The caudal end of this canal projects into the posterior wall of definitive urogenital sinus.
  31. 31. Development of Uterus and Uterine tubes  Epithelium of the uterus : develops from the fused paramesonephric ducts ( utero-vaginal canal).  Myometrium : derived from surrounding mesoderm.  Fundus of uterus : formed by partial merging of the unfused horizontal parts of the two paramesonephric ducts within the myometrium.  Uterine tubes : develop from unfused parts of paramesonephric ducts.  The point of invagination into coelomic epithelium remains as the abdominal opening, where fimbria are formed.
  32. 32. Congenital anomalies      Uterus: Complete duplication of uterus (uterus didelphys) or partial duplication (bicornuate uterus) Unicornuate uterus Uterine tubes: Absent on one or both sides Partially or completely duplicated on one or both sides Atresia of the tubes
  33. 33. Development of Vagina  Shortly after the solid tip of the paramesonephric ducts reaches the urogenital sinus, two endodermal swellings called sinovaginal bulbs, grow out from the pelvic part of the sinus.  These sinovaginal bulbs, proliferate and fuse to form a solid vaginal plate.  By the fifth month, the vaginal outgrowth is entirely canalized.  The wing-like expansions of the vagina around the end of the uterus, the vaginal fornices, are of paramesonephric origin.
  34. 34.  Thus, the vagina has a dual origin, with the upper portion derived from the uterine canal and the lower portion derived from the urogenital sinus.  The lumen of the vagina remains separated from that of the urogenital sinus by a thin tissue plate, the hymen.  Both surfaces of hymen are lined by endoderm.
  35. 35. Congenital anomalies  Duplication of vagina  Vaginal atresia  Rectovaginal fistula or vesicovaginal fistula
  36. 36. Paramesonephric ducts in Male  Remains rudimentary in male.  Greater part disappears.  Cranial end of each duct persists as a small rounded body attached to the testis called Appendix of testis.  It has been considered that the prostatic urticle represents the utero-vaginal canal and therefore homologous of the uterus, however, it is now believed to correspond mainly to vagina ( and possibly part of uterus).
  37. 37. Development of external genitalia  In 3rd week of development, mesenchymal cells from primitive streak migrate around the coacal membrane to form a pair of elevated cloacal folds.  Cranial to the cloacal membrane the folds unite to form genital tubercle.  Caudally, the folds are subdivided into urethral folds anteriorly and anal folds posteriorly.  Meantime, another pair of elevations the genital swellings appear on each side of urethral folds.
  38. 38. Development of Male external genitalia  Genital tubercle becomes cylindrical, which is now called the phallus. Undergoes enlargement to form penis.  As the phallus grows, the glans become visible by the appearance of coronary sulcus.  Prepuce is formed from ectoderm.  During this elongation, the phallus pulls the urethral folds forward so that they form the lateral wall of the urethral groove.  This groove extends along the undersurface of the elongated phallus but does not reach the most distal part, glans.
  39. 39.  The epithelial lining of the groove which originates in the endoderm, forms the urethral plate.  At 3rd month, the two urethral folds close over the urethral plate, forming the penile urethra.  This canal does not extend to the tip of the phallus.  Most distal end of the urethra is formed from the ectodermal cells from the tip of glans, forming external urethal meatus.  The genital swellings fuse in the midline to form scrotal sac into which the testis later descend.
  40. 40. Congenital anomalies  Hypospadias  Epispadias  Phimosis
  41. 41. Development of Female external genitalia  Genital tubercles : clitoris.  Genital swellings : labia majora  Urethral folds : labia minora  Urogenital membrane breaks down and establishes continuity between urogenital sinus and the exterior.
  42. 42. Congenital anomalies  Clitoris may be absent, bifid or double.  Labia minora may show partial fusion.  Urethra may open into anterior wall of vagina, equivalent to hypospadias.
  43. 43. Priomordial Germ Cells & Gonads  Priomordial germ cells are formed in the epiblast during the 2nd week of development, then move to wall of the Yolk sac.  During 4th week they move to developing gonads.  Gonads do not develop as long as primordial germ cells do not reach them.  These cells have an inducing effect on the gonad.  Shortly before and during arrival of primordial germ cells, the epithelium of the genital ridge proliferates, and epithelial cells penetrate the underlying mesenchyme.  Here they form a number of irregularly shaped cords, the primitive sex cords.  In both male and female embryos, these cords are connected to surface epithelium, and it is impossible to differentiate between the male and female gonad. Hence, the gonad is known as the indifferent gonad.
  44. 44. Development of testis  Each testis develops from the coelomic epithelium.  If the embryo is genetically male, the primordial germ cells carry an XY sex chromosome complex.  The primitive sex cords continue to proliferate and penetrate deep into the medulla to form the testis or medullary cords.  Toward the hilum of the gland, the cords break up into a network of tiny cell strands that later give rise to tubules of the rete testis.
  45. 45.  A dense layer of fibrous connective tissue, the tunica albuginea, separates the testis cords from the surface epithelium.  In the 4th month, testis cords are now composed of primitive germ cells and sustentacular cells of Sertoli derived from the surface epithelium of the gland.  Interstitial cells of Leydig, derived from the original mesenchyme of the gonadal ridge, lie between the testis cords.  Testis cords remain solid until puberty, when they acquire a lumen, thus forming the seminiferous tubules.
  46. 46. Duct system of testes  We know most of the mesonephric tubules degenerate.  Some of these that lie near the testis persist and, along with the mesonephric duct, form the duct system of the testis.  The ends of seminiferous tubules anastomose with one another to form the rete testes.  Rete testes, in turn, establishes contact with persisting mesonephric tubules which form the vasa efferentia.
  47. 47.  Cranial part of the mesonephric duct becomes highly coiled on itself to form the epididymis.  Its distal part forms the ductus deferens.  Seminal vesicle arise on either side as a diverticulum from the lower end of the mesonephric duct.  The part of the mesonephric duct that lies between its opening into the prostatic urethtra and the origin of this diverticulum, forms the ejaculatory duct.
  48. 48. Ejaculatory duct
  49. 49. Congenital anomalies Testes - Absent on one or both sides. Duplicated Two testes may be fused together Ectopia : Femoral canal, Perineum behind the scrotum, Under the skin of lower part of abdomen. Duct system of testis - Seminiferous tubules fail to connect with vasa efferentia Ductus deferens may be absent
  50. 50. Descent of Testes  Testes develop in relation to lumbar region of the posterior abdominal wall.  During fetal life they gradually descend to the scrotum.  Reach iliac fossa during 3rd month.  Lie at the site of deep inguinal ring up to 7th month.  Pass through the inguinal canal during 7th month.  Normally in the scrotum by the end of 8th month.
  51. 51. Factors controlling the descent of testes Not entirely clear.  Differential growth of body wall.  The gubernaculum  Processus vaginalis  Hormones secreted by pars anterior of the hypophysis cerebri.
  52. 52. Congenital anomalies  Congenital indirect inguinal hernias  Cryptorchidism  Hydrocele
  53. 53. Development of ovary  The primitive sex cords dissociates into small masses.  The cells of each mass surrounds one primordial germ cell or oocyte, to form a primordial follicle.  These sex cords then undergo regression and replaced by a new set of cortical cords arising from the coelomic epithelium.  Interstitial gland cells differentiates from mesenchyme of the gonad.  As no tunica albuginea is formed, the germinal epithelium may contribute to the ovary even in the postnatal life.
  54. 54. Congenital anomalies  Absent on one or both sides  Duplicated  May descend in to the inguinal canal or even into labium majus Descent of ovary
  55. 55. Fate of Mesonephric duct (Wolffian duct) and tubules in the Male Mesonephric ducts (Wolffian ducts) gices rise to :          Ureteric buds from which the ureters, pelces, calyces and collecting tubules of the kidneys. Tigone of the bladder Posterior wall of the part of the prostatic urethra, cranial to the openings of the ejaculatory ducts. Epididymis Ductus deferens Seminal vesicals Ejaculatory ducts Mesodermal part of prostate Appendix of epididymis
  56. 56. Remnants of mesonephric tubules     Vasa efferentia Superior aberrant ductules Inferior aberrant ductules Paradidymis
  57. 57. Fate of Mesonephric duct (Wolffian duct) and tubules in the Female Vestigial structures like :  Epoophoron  Paroophoron
  58. 58. Control of differentiation of genital organs The factors that determine whether a male or female genital system will develop are as follow:  Sex chromosome i.e., XX for female and XY for male  Y chromosome contains testis determining gene called the SRY (sex determining region on Y) gene on its short arm.  SRY protein is the testis determining factor, under its influence male development occurs.  In its absence, female development is established.