Pre-operational children (2-7 years old)The teacher should. . .• Use concrete examples (mathematics using sticks and stones)• Make directions explicit and precise, short instructions and using action• Provide opportunity for student interactions• Give opportunity to children to do hands-on practice• Provide a wide range of experiences (visit interesting places)
Concrete operational children (7-11 years old)The teacher should. . .• Continue to use concrete materials (use 3D models)• Give opportunities for children to manipulate the objects• Use technology to engage students in practicing classroom skills• Presentations and readings are brief and well organized (short stories>longer>complex stories)• Use familiar examples that are related to children’s experience• Present problem solving that require logical and analytical thinking. (discuss open-ended questions that stimulate thinking)
Formal operational children (11 years old and above)The teacher should. . .• Continue to use concrete materials (use 3D models)• Give opportunities for children to explore alternative answers and develop hypothesis• Give opportunities for children to solve problems and provide reasons scientifically• Do not concentrate on facts only but also teach broad concept
Zone of Proximal• Assessment should be focused on the Zone of Proximal of a child.• Teachers should give exercises or asks of varying difficulties to determine the level of which to begin instruction
• Use Zone of Proximal Development in teaching .• Teaching should begin at lower limit, so that the child can reach the goal with help.• Teachers offer help only when needed.• Give support and motivation for the children to try and apply the skills to achieve the goals.
• Encourage help from skilled peers.• Children can get the support and help from peers who already understood the skills• Monitor and encourage children’s use of private speech.• Guide the children to apply theirs ideas in self-talking to the appropriate situation that needs a solution.
• Give meaningful instructions.• Relate the lesson to the daily experiences.• Reduce memorizing• Guide the children to apply knowledge in real situation.
• Daily read aloud sessions• Ask an open-ended question• Encourage student to describe the event or retell stories.• Discuss words meaning
THAT’S ALL!GAMBATTEE IN S.B.E AND HAPPY HOLIDAY~!