Frederick Herzberg


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Frederick Herzberg

  1. 1. Frederick Herzberg 1923 2000 -
  2. 2. <ul><li>Herzberg (1923-2000) attended the City College of New York, however, he left part way through his studies to join the army. </li></ul><ul><li>As a patrol sergeant, he witnessed the Nazi concentration camp at Dachau. It has been suggested that this experience, as well as the talks he had with other Germans living in the area, was what triggered his interest in motivation. </li></ul><ul><li>When Herzberg returned from the war, he went back to City College and eventually graduated in 1946. </li></ul>His Life
  3. 3. <ul><li>He then moved to the University of Pittsburgh to undertake post-graduate studies in science and public health. He earned his PhD in psychology. </li></ul><ul><li>He started his research on the workplace while teaching as a professor of psychology at Case Western Reserve University in Cleveland. </li></ul><ul><li>He then later moved to the University of Utah where he held the position of professor of management in the college of business. </li></ul><ul><li>He proposed his “Two Factor” theory in 1959. </li></ul>His Life (Continued)
  4. 4. <ul><li>Herzberg’s Two factor theory, also known as Herzberg's Motivation-Hygiene Theory, states that there are certain factors which cause job satisfaction and a different set of factors which cause job dissatisfaction. Not just simply opposing reactions to the same set of factors. </li></ul><ul><li>This theory on job attitudes was born out of Maslow’s theory of motivation. </li></ul><ul><li>Since it was first proposed, it has had a dramatic effect on both theoretical and practical attitudes towards management. </li></ul>What Is The Two Factor Theory?
  5. 5. <ul><li>Herzberg managed to sum up his theory with the following phrase: </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;We can expand ... by stating that the job satisfiers deal with the factors involved in doing the job , whereas the job dissatisfiers deal with the factors which define the job context .&quot; </li></ul>Two Factor Theory
  6. 6. <ul><li>Basically, what Herzberg is saying is that “motivator factors” affect job satisfaction but have little influence on dissatisfaction and hygiene factors affect job dissatisfaction but have little influence on satisfaction. </li></ul>Two Factor Theory
  7. 7. <ul><li>Pay and Benefits </li></ul><ul><li>Company Policy and Administration </li></ul><ul><li>Relationships with co-workers </li></ul><ul><li>Physical Environment </li></ul><ul><li>Supervision </li></ul><ul><li>Status </li></ul><ul><li>Job Security </li></ul>Hygiene Factors
  8. 8. <ul><li>Achievement </li></ul><ul><li>Recognition </li></ul><ul><li>Work Itself </li></ul><ul><li>Responsibility </li></ul><ul><li>Promotion </li></ul><ul><li>Growth </li></ul>Motivator Factors
  9. 11. <ul><li>There are 10 main principles relating to Hygiene Dynamics. These are: </li></ul><ul><li>Hygiene factors focus on the context in which the job is done, the conditions that surround the doing of the job. The underlying dynamic of hygiene is the avoidance of pain from the environment. </li></ul><ul><li>When hygiene factors deteriorate to a level below that which the employee considers acceptable, then job dissatisfaction ensues. Hygiene factors directly affect job attitudes, primarily satisfaction and dissatisfaction. </li></ul>Hygiene Dynamics
  10. 12. <ul><li>3 . When these factors have been satisfied or provided to a level which the employee considers acceptable, there will be no dissatisfaction, but neither will there be significant positive attitude. </li></ul><ul><li>4. People are made dissatisfied by a bad environment, but they are seldom made satisfied by a good environment. </li></ul><ul><li>5. The prevention of dissatisfaction is just as important as encouragement of motivator satisfaction. </li></ul><ul><li>6. Hygiene factors operate independently of motivation factors. An individual can be highly motivated in his work and be dissatisfied with his work environment. </li></ul>
  11. 13. <ul><li>7. All hygiene factors are equally important, although their frequency of occurrence differs considerably. </li></ul><ul><li>8. Hygiene improvements have short-term effects. Any improvements result in a short-term removal of, or prevention of, dissatisfaction. </li></ul><ul><li>9. Hygiene needs are cyclical in nature and come back to a starting point. This leads to the &quot;What have you done for me lately?&quot; syndrome. </li></ul><ul><li>10. Hygiene needs have an escalating zero point and no final answer. </li></ul>
  12. 14. <ul><li>Herzberg concluded that money is not a motivator in the way that the primary motivators are, such as achievement and recognition. </li></ul><ul><li>However many people argue that money is a primary motivator, despite what people may think. </li></ul><ul><li>For all people there are bigger more sustaining motivators than money. </li></ul>To What Extent Is Money A Motivator?
  13. 15. <ul><li>A survey published in the Times Newspaper 2004, interviewed 1,000 staff from companies employing more than 500 workers, and found many to be bored, lacking commitment and looking for a new job. Pay actually came fifth in the reasons people gave for leaving their jobs. </li></ul><ul><li>Money is certainly important and does drive people, if you lack a decent existence or need a house or holiday but beyond this, money is not a suitable motivator in itself. </li></ul>To What Extent Is Money a Motivator? (continued)
  14. 16. <ul><li>The Motivator-Hygiene concept is still highly regarded. However, satisfaction and dissatisfaction are generally no longer considered to exist on separate scales. </li></ul><ul><li>The separation of satisfaction and dissatisfaction has shown to have been an artifact of the Critical Incident Technique (CIT) used by Herzberg to record events . </li></ul>CRITCISMS
  15. 17. <ul><li>It has also been noted that the theory does not allow for individual differences, such as a particular personality trait, which would affect an individuals' unique responses to motivation or hygiene factors. </li></ul><ul><li>A number of behavioral scientists have also pointed to inadequacies in the theory. The most basic criticism is that this theory contains the assumption that happy and satisfied workers produce more. </li></ul>CRITCISMS (continued)
  16. 18. <ul><li>“ The Motivation to Work ”, Frederick Herzberg </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Motivation through design of work“, Hackman J. R., & Oldham </li></ul><ul><li>A Path-Goal Approach to Productivity“, Basil S. Georgopolous, Gerald M. Mahoney, and Nyle W. Jones, Jr </li></ul>Bibliography
  17. 19. Thank You For Listening Bob, Lucy, Shelley