TAH Grant Summer 2012: World war i homefront


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TAH Grant Summer 2012: World war i homefront

  1. 1. World War I: The Home Front
  2. 2. Growth of Government
  3. 3. The War Industries Board and War Socialism
  4. 4. Bernard BaruchThe Experience of the War Industries Board points to the desirability of investing some government agency with the powers to encourage, under strict government supervision, such cooperation and coordination in industry as should tend to increase production, eliminate waste, conserve natural resources, improve the quality of products, promote efficiency in operation, and thus reduce costs to the ultimate consumer.
  5. 5. Powers• Allocate scarce resources• Control the flow of raw materials• Order factories to convert to war production• Set prices• Demand levels of efficiency• Coordinate purchasing• Organize railroad shipping• Cost Plus Contracts• No bid contracts• Relaxing of Anti-Trust laws to encourage concentration in production• Food Administration• The power to compel compliance
  6. 6. The War Labor Board
  7. 7. Powers• Granted workers the right to organize• Empowered the government to arbitrate contracts• Limited the power of workers to strike• It supported the 8 hour day and overtime pay• It supported equal pay for women• It does not have the power to compel compliance
  8. 8. The Committee on Public Information: The Creel Commission, 1917-1919
  9. 9. Activities• 75,000 community speakers• Daily newspaper• Feature length films• Posters
  10. 10. Civil Liberties• "The war power is of necessity an inherent power in every sovereign nation. It is the power of self- reservation and that power has no limits other than the extent of the emergency."• A. Mitchell Palmer December 1918
  11. 11. Expanded Federal Power• The Espionage Act• The Sedition Act• The Trading with the Enemies Act These impacted the press and the mail service• Deportation of aliens• The Draft• Citizen’s and local government groups used violence and intimidation• Lots of anti German activity leading to at least one lynching of a German American in St Louis• Wide spread attacks on peace groups, socialists, and radical labor and political organizations
  12. 12. Taking Direction from the TopWoodrow Wilson Theodore RooseveltWoe be to the man He who is not with us absolutely and withoutwho seeks to stand reserve of any kind, isin our way in this day against us, and should beof high resolution treated as an alien enemy. Our bitterest experiencewhen every principle should teach us for awe hold dearest is to generation to crush underbe vindicated and our heal every movement that smacks in the smallestmade secure. degree of playing the German game.
  13. 13. The Red Summer of 1919• Labor and Post War Conditions: The Seattle General Strike, Boston Police Strike, The Great Steel Strike• The creation of a US Communist party• Some bombings in the mails by fringe anarchists• The Red Scare and Palmer Raids: All things progressive tied to anti-Communism and the emergence of Herbert Hoover• Massive deportations of immigrants suspected of leftist activity without any due process, culminating in the executions of Sacco and Vanzetti in 1927• More than 20 race riots occurred in 1919, marking a distinct change in the pattern of racial violence in the US
  14. 14. Other Critical WWI Era changes• Immigration from Europe greatly reduced leading to immigration restriction legislation in 1924• The association of all progressive activity with Communism• The Great Migration• Woman Suffrage