Judicial Review Federalism Constitution

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Judicial Review Federalism Constitution

  1. 1. JUDICIAL REVIEW, FEDERALISM, AND THE CONSTITUTION Dr. Michelle D. Deardorff Jackson State University The Hamer Institute June 29, 2010
  2. 2. Mississippi American History Standards <ul><li> Explain how and why powers are distributed and shared between national and state governments in the federal system </li></ul><ul><li> Recognize the importance of the “rule of law” for the protection of individual rights and the common good </li></ul><ul><li> Analyze the political values and principles of American democracy as expressed in basic documents </li></ul><ul><li> Assess the importance of certain traits of character in a democracy </li></ul><ul><li> Determine origins and resolutions of political conflict in the United States </li></ul>
  3. 3. Shared Functions of Government Separation of Powers Shared Legislative EXECUTIVE Shared Executive Functions ADMINISTRATIVE AGENCIES Functions Shared Executive Shared Judicial Functions Functions CONGRESS JUDICIARY Shared Legislative Functions Shared Judicial Functions
  4. 4. <ul><li>EXECUTIVE LEGISLATIVE JUDICIARY </li></ul>Shared Functions of Government Separation of Powers
  5. 5. Shared Functions of Government Federalism Shared Concurrent Powers Some powers are just for the states Some powers are just for the national government
  6. 6. The Judiciary in the New Constitution <ul><li>Article III, Section 1 </li></ul><ul><li>The judicial Power of the United States, shall be vested in one supreme Court , and in such inferior Courts as the Congress may from time to time ordain and establish. The Judges, both of the supreme and inferior Courts, shall hold their Offices during good Behaviour, and shall, at stated Times, receive for their Services, a Compensation, which shall not be diminished during their Continuance in Office. </li></ul><ul><li>Article III, Section 2 </li></ul><ul><li>The judicial Power shall extend to all Cases, in Law and Equity, arising under this Constitution, the Laws of the United States, and Treaties made, or which shall be made, under their Authority;-to all Cases affecting Ambassadors, other public ministers and Consuls;- to all Cases of admiralty and maritime Jurisdiction;- to Controversies to which the United States shall be a Party;- to Controversies between two or more States;- between a State and Citizens of another State;-between Citizens of different States;- between Citizens of the same State claiming Land under Grants of different States, and between a State, or the Citizens thereof, and foreign States, Citizens or Subjects. </li></ul><ul><li>In all Cases affecting Ambassadors, other public Ministers and Consuls, and those in which a State shall be Party, the supreme Court shall have original Jurisdiction. In all the other Cases before mentioned, the supreme Court shall have appellate Jurisdiction, both as to Law and Fact, with such Exceptions, and under such Regulations as the Congress shall make. </li></ul><ul><li>The Trial of all Crimes, except in Cases of Impeachment, shall be by Jury; and such Trial shall be held in the State where the said Crimes shall have been committed; but when not committed within any State, the Trial shall be at such Place or Places as the Congress may by Law have directed. </li></ul>
  7. 7. The Federal Judiciary
  8. 8. <ul><li>EXECUTIVE LEGISLATIVE JUDICIARY </li></ul><ul><li>• appoints • approves • decides </li></ul><ul><li>Judges Judges cases </li></ul><ul><li>• enforces • sets courts </li></ul><ul><li>decisions jurisdiction </li></ul><ul><li>• sets budgets </li></ul>Shared Functions of Government The Judiciary—Article III
  9. 9. PEDAGOGY <ul><li>How can we teach these difficult, yet important concepts, in exciting and engaging ways? </li></ul><ul><li>How do we make these theories applicable for students when they confront them in later eras of American History? </li></ul><ul><li>The Case Study method as a potential solution </li></ul>
  10. 10. Marbury v. Madison <ul><li>As you watch this portion </li></ul><ul><li>of the film, consider how </li></ul><ul><li>Chief Justice John Marshall </li></ul><ul><li>takes advantage of a political </li></ul><ul><li>conflict to strengthen the </li></ul><ul><li>power of the courts among </li></ul><ul><li>the other three branches . </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>EXECUTIVE LEGISLATIVE JUDICIARY </li></ul><ul><li>• appoints • approves • decides </li></ul><ul><li>Judges Judges cases </li></ul><ul><li>• enforces • sets courts </li></ul><ul><li>decisions jurisdiction </li></ul><ul><li>• sets budgets </li></ul>Shared Functions of Government The Judiciary—Article III
  12. 12. <ul><li>EXECUTIVE LEGISLATIVE JUDICIARY </li></ul><ul><li>• appoints • approves • decides </li></ul><ul><li>Judges Judges cases </li></ul><ul><li>• enforces • sets courts • judicial </li></ul><ul><li>decisions jurisdiction review </li></ul><ul><li>• sets budgets </li></ul>Shared Functions of Government The Judiciary—Article III
  13. 13. Teaching Marbury & Checks and Balances <ul><li> primary documents </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.streetlaw.org//en/Page.Landmark.Marbury.activities.usingdocs.aspx </li></ul><ul><li> political cartoons </li></ul><ul><li>http://www. streetlaw .org//en/Page.Landmark. Marbury .activities.cartoon. aspx </li></ul><ul><li> fictional conversation between Jefferson and Adams </li></ul><ul><li>http: //hubpages .com/hub/Marbury-v-Madison-The-First-Landmark-Supreme-Court-Decision </li></ul><ul><li> historical reenactment of Marbury case </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rXwTrArJ1zM </li></ul><ul><li> student-created interpretations of case </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ICr0Ty2epjE&feature=related </li></ul><ul><li>http://www. youtube .com/watch? v=v4QNeAMHPVs &feature=related </li></ul>
  14. 14. McCulloch v. Maryland <ul><li>As you watch this </li></ul><ul><li>portion of the film, </li></ul><ul><li>consider how this </li></ul><ul><li>evolution of federalism </li></ul><ul><li>may impact the nation’s </li></ul><ul><li>understanding and </li></ul><ul><li>preservation of slavery . </li></ul>
  15. 15. Teaching Federalism <ul><li>The Roots of Federalism </li></ul><ul><li>http://www. youtube .com/watch? v=PZ_6fiZDNv8 &feature=channel </li></ul><ul><li> Simulation with primary documents </li></ul><ul><li>http://www. streetlaw .org//en/Page.Landmark.McCulloch.activities. youcall . aspx </li></ul><ul><li> Historical Reenactment of McCulloch </li></ul><ul><li>http://www. youtube .com/watch? v=r_Ja-4rsB3A </li></ul>
  16. 16. Preamble poster Mike Wilkins, Preamble , 1987
  17. 17. Federalism and Slavery <ul><li>Fugitive Slave Clause </li></ul><ul><li>of the Constitution </li></ul><ul><li>Article 4, §2, ¶ 3 </li></ul><ul><li>No Person held to Service or Labour in one State, under the Laws thereof, escaping into another, shall, in Consequence of any Law or Regulation therein, be discharged from such Service or Labour, but shall be delivered up on Claim of the Party to whom such Service or Labour may be due. </li></ul><ul><li>Found in the portion of the Constitution dealing with interstate relations, Article IV. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Federalism and Slavery <ul><li>Fugitive Slave Act of 1793 </li></ul><ul><li>This act </li></ul><ul><li>Imposed on a state the duty to return fugitives upon official demand, </li></ul><ul><li>Enabled a slave owner to cross state lines, apprehend the alleged fugitive, and after providing proof to a judge, reclaim and remove the enslaved person. </li></ul><ul><li>The federal law provided no requirement for due process. </li></ul><ul><li>4) Several states enacted state laws prohibiting kidnapping of black citizens or providing the requirement of due process before individuals were forcibly removed from the state. </li></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>Prigg v. Pennsylvania (1842) </li></ul><ul><li>• first constitutional challenge to the Fugitive Slave Act of 1793 </li></ul><ul><li>• challenges the constitutionality of Pennsylvania’s “personal liberty” statute which limited power of slave catchers. Prigg was convicted of the kidnapping of Margaret Morgan and her children by the state of Pennsylvania. </li></ul><ul><li>• under principles of federalism-- the federal law is constitutional, a state law in conflict with the statute was impermissible, slave owners can recapture fugitive slaves on their own initiatives and own devices. </li></ul><ul><li>• Judicial review was used to find the Pennsylvania law unconstitutional. </li></ul>Judicial Review, Federalism, and Slavery
  20. 20. ASSESSMENT QUESTIONS <ul><li>What is the historical significance of Marbury v. Madison ? </li></ul><ul><li>How does the Marshall Court establish the new understanding of federalism? </li></ul><ul><li>How does the Marshall Court institutionalize the judiciary? </li></ul>
  21. 21. Additional Teaching Resources <ul><li>• Teaching with Documents: Constitution Workshop </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.archives.gov/education/lessons/constitution-workshop/index.html </li></ul><ul><li>• Teaching Landmark Cases of the U.S. Supreme Court </li></ul><ul><li>http://www. streetlaw .org//en/Landmark. aspx </li></ul>
  22. 22. Bibliography <ul><li>Clinton, Robert Lowry. 1989. Marbury v. Madison and Judicial Review . University of Kansas Press. </li></ul><ul><li>Dewey, Donald O. 1970. Marshall v. Jefferson: The Political Background of Marbury v. Madison . Alfred A. Knopf. </li></ul><ul><li>Ellis, Richard L. 2007. Aggressive Nationalism: McCulloch v. Maryland and the Foundation of Federal Authority in the Young Republic . Oxford University Press. </li></ul><ul><li>Irons, Peter. 2006. A People’s History of the Supreme Court . Penguin Books. </li></ul><ul><li>Lively, Donald F. 1992. The Constitution and Race . Praeger Publishing. </li></ul><ul><li>Sloan, Cliff and David McKean. 2009. The Great Decision: Jefferson, Adams, Marshall, and the Battle for the Supreme Court . New York: Public Affairs. </li></ul>

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