Black nationalism - TAH Grant Summer 2012

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There are four major strains of thought in the universe of Black Nationalism. Those strains are Cultural Black Nationalism., Religious Black Nationalism, Political Black Nationalism, and Economic Black Nationalism. We will explore what has been described as the three periods of Black Nationalism. The first period was pre-classical African Nationalism or what has been called Pan-Negro Nationalism.
After the Revolutionary War the second period occurred which was characterized by a critical mass of Africans brought to New England and Pennsylvania by the European Colonizers. This period witnessed the development of the Free African Society, African Masonic Lodges and Black Churches. These institutions were founded and developed by individuals such as Prince Hall and Richard Allen. The Post-Reconstruction Era marked the third period of Black Nationalism which was associated with the flowering of a variety of African American clergy circles. This period ushered in what has been described as modern-day Black Nationalism. Indeed, the term “Black Nationalism” has been used in American History to describe a body of social thought, attitudes, and actions ranging from the simplest expressions of ethnocentrism and racial solidarity to the comprehensive and sophisticated ideologies of Pan-Negroism to Pan-Africanism.” We will trace the development of Black Nationalism through the thinking of people such as Richard Allen, Marcus Garvey, George Padmore, Malcolm X, Elijah Muhammad, Reverend Albert Cleage and the phenomenon know as Black Power.

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Black nationalism - TAH Grant Summer 2012

  1. 1. Teaching American History Grant Jackson Public Schools Dr. Leslie Burl McLemore
  2. 2. ―Got something to tell you, oh Lord, babyBaby you know that aint rightYou cook cornbread for your husbandAnd biscuits for your man"Biscuits for your man, biscuits for yourman‖Catfish Blues - John Lee Hooker
  3. 3. There are four major strains of thought in the universe of Black Nationalism: Cultural Black Nationalism, Religious Black Nationalism, Political Black Nationalism, and Economic Black Nationalism. We will explore what has been described as the three periods of Black Nationalism. The first period was pre-classical African Nationalism or what has been called Pan-Negro Nationalism. After the Revolutionary War, the second period occurred which was characterized by a critical mass of Africans brought to New England and Pennsylvania by the European Colonizers. This period witnessed the development of the Free African Society, African Masonic Lodges and Black Churches. These institutions were founded and developed by individuals such as Prince Hall and Richard Allen. The Post- Reconstruction Era marked the third period of Black Nationalism, which was associated with the flowering of a variety of African American clergy circles. This period ushered in what has been described as modern-day Black Nationalism. Indeed, the term ―Black Nationalism‖ has been used in American History to describe a body of social thought, attitudes, and actions ranging from the simplest expressions of ethnocentrism and racial solidarity to the comprehensive and sophisticated ideologies of Pan-Negroism to Pan-Africanism. We will trace the development of Black Nationalism through the thinking of people such as Richard Allen, Marcus Garvey, George Padmore, Malcolm X, Elijah Muhammad, Reverend Albert Cleage and the phenomenon known as Black Power.
  4. 4.  Trace the origins of Black Nationalism. What role did the Black Church play in the development of Black Nationalism? How would you compare the various strains of Black Nationalism? In what ways do they impact each other? How will Black Nationalism evolve in the future? Will it fade away over time?
  5. 5. Black Nationalism
  6. 6.  loyalty and devotion to a nation; especially: a sense of national consciousness exalting one nation above all others and placing primary emphasis on promotion of its culture and interests as opposed to those of other nations or supranational groups a nationalist movement or government  Merriam –Webster Dictionary
  7. 7.  Black Nationalism (BN) advocates a racial definition (or redefinition) of national identity, as opposed to multiculturalism. There are different indigenous nationalist philosophies but the principles of all African nationalist ideologies are unity, and self-determination or independence from European society. Martin Delany is considered to be the grandfather of African nationalism. Marcus Garveys Universal Negro Improvement Association of the 1910s and 1920s was the most powerful black nationalist movement to date, claiming 11 million members.
  8. 8.  A movement that seeks to unify African people or people living in Africa, into a "one African community‖. Differing types of Pan-Africanism seek different levels of economic, racial, social, or political unity.
  9. 9. Four Major Strains
  10. 10.  Born Ronald McKinley Everett July 14, 1941 African American professor Africana Studies, activist and author Creator of the pan-African and African American holiday of Kwanzaa Karenga was a major figure in the Black Power movement of the 1960s and 1970s Co-founded the black nationalist and social change organization US which means "Us Black people― Chair of the Africana Studies Department at California State University, Long Beach Director of the Kawaida Institute for Pan African Studies
  11. 11.  April 1, 1949 - May 27, 2011 Soul and Jazz poet, musician and author; known for his spoken word His collaborative efforts with musician Brian Jackson featured a musical fusion of jazz, blues, and soul, as well as lyrical content concerning social and political issues of the time Artistically influence to many contemporary musicians
  12. 12.  The Black Arts Movement (BAM) is the artistic branch of the Black Power movement. Started in Harlem by writer and activist Amiri Baraka (born Everett LeRoi Jones). Time magazine describes the Black Arts Movement as the "single most controversial moment in the history of African-American literature – possibly in American literature as a whole‖ It inspired black people to establish their own publishing houses, magazines, journals and art institutions. It led to the creation of African-American Studies programs within universities
  13. 13.  Jaramogi Abebe Agyeman 1911 - February 20, 2000 Christian leader, political candidate, newspaper publisher, political organizer and author Founder of the Shrine of the Black Madonna Church and Cultural Centers Studied Sociology at Wayne State University Bachelor of Divinity from Oberlin Graduate School of Theology in 1943
  14. 14.  Born Elijah Robert Poole October 7, 1897– February 25, 1975 The sixth of thirteen children Religious leader, mentor to Malcolm X Led the Nation of Islam from 1934 until his death in 1975 1931 attended speech on Islam and Black Empowerment by Wallace D. Fard 1934 – Name minister of Islam 1934 – the Nation of Islam published its first newspaper, Final Call to Islam 1942 – Arrested for failure to register for the draft during WWII 1972 – Nation of Islam net worth of $75 Million
  15. 15. Black Nationalism
  16. 16.  The Nation of Islam is a syncretic religious movement founded in Detroit, Michigan by Wallace D. Fard Muhammad in July 1930. Its stated goals are to improve the spiritual, mental, social, and economic condition of African Americans in the United States and all of humanity. Its critics accuse it of being black supremacist and anti-Semitic After Fards departure in June 1934, the Nation of Islam was led by Elijah Muhammad, who established mosques called Temples, Schools named Muhammad University of Islam, businesses, farms and real estate holdings in the United States and abroad.
  17. 17.  May 19, 1925 – February 21, 1965 African American Muslim Minister and human rights activist Became a member of the Nation of Islam in 1952 For 12 years, he was the face of the Nation of Islam As a spokesman for the Nation of Islam he taught black supremacy and advocated separation of black and white Americans—in contrast to the civil rights movements emphasis on integration.
  18. 18.  An activist-teacher-writer native of Brooklyn’s Bed-Stuy One of the founding members of the Black Panther Party as well as an activist within the Student Nonviolent Committee (SNCC) and the Black Arts Movement of the Sixties He became one of the first Black Studies directors in 1969 when he was hired to chair Sarah Lawrence College’s Black Studies program. A founding member of the Black Student Congress, African Heritage Studies Association, African Liberation Support Committee, The Black New York Action Committee, Black Liberation Press, and The New York Algebra Project.
  19. 19. The Republic of New Afrika (RNA), was a social movement that proposed three objectives. Creation of an independent African-American- majority in the southeastern United States. Payment of several billion dollars in reparations from the US government for the damages inflicted on Africans and their descendants A referendum of all African Americans in order to decide what should be done with regard to their citizenship
  20. 20.  May 2, 1930 – January 18, 2010 Black separatist, advocate for reparations, and President of the Republic of New Afrika (RNA) ―The Father of Reparations‖
  21. 21.  August 1887 – June 10, 1940 Jamaican political leader, publisher, entrepren eur and orator President of the Universal Negro Improvement Association and African Communities League Founded the Black Star Line Part of the Back-to Africa Movement which promoted the return of the African to their ancestral lands Diaspora
  22. 22.  Black nationalist fraternal organization A "social, friendly, humanitarian, charitabl e, educational, institutional, constructive and expansive society, and is founded by persons desiring to do the utmost to work for the general uplift of the people of African ancestry of the world The broad mission of the UNIA-ACL led to the establishment of numerous auxiliary components, among them the Universal African Legion, the African Black Cross Nurses; African Black Cross Society; the Universal African Motor Corps; the Black Eagle Flying Corps; the Black Star Steamship Line; the Black Cross Trading and Navigation Corporation; as well as the Negro Factories Corporation.
  23. 23.  June 29, 1941 – November 15, 1998 A prominent leader of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) Honorary Prime Minister of the Black Panther Party ―Black Power‖ 1960 – Attend Howard University 1961 – Participated in the Freedom Rides of the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) At age 19, he became the youngest detainee in the summer of 1961 1964 – offered a full scholarship to Harvard but turned it down
  24. 24.  Founded in Oakland, California by Huey Newton and Bobby Seale on October 15, 1966 African-American revolutionary leftist organization active in the United States from 1966 until 1982. Became an icon of the counterculture of the 1960s
  25. 25. 1. We want freedom. We want power to determine the destiny of our black Community.2. We want full employment for our people.3. We want an end to the robbery by the white man of our black Community.4. We want decent housing, fit for shelter of human beings.5. We want education for our people that exposes the true nature of this decadent American society. We want education that teaches us our true history and our role in the present-day society.
  26. 26. 6. We want all black men to be exempt from military service.7. We want an immediate end to POLICE BRUTALITY and MURDER of black people.8. We want freedom for all black men held in federal, state, county and city prisons and jails.9. We want all black people when brought to trial to be tried in court by a jury of their peer group or people from their black communities, as defined by the Constitution of the United States.10. We want land, bread, housing, education, clothing, justice and peace. And as our major political objective, a United Nations-supervised plebiscite to be held throughout the black colony in which only black colonial subjects will be allowed to participate for the purpose of determining the will of black people as to their national destiny.
  27. 27.  February 17, 1942 – August 22, 1989 Co-Founded the Black Panther Party for Self Defense The youngest of seven children from Monroe, Louisiana As a student at Merritt College in Oakland, Newton became involved in politics Instrumental in getting the first African American history course adopted Member of Phi Beta Sigma Fraternity
  28. 28.  October 22, 1936 Co-Founded the Black Panther Party Joined the U.S. Air Force in 1955 Attended Merritt College in 1962 where he joined the Afro-American Association (AAA) One of the original "Chicago Eight" defendants charged with conspiracy and inciting to riot, in the wake of the 1968 Democratic National Convention, in Chicago
  29. 29.  How has Black Nationalism helped to inform the national dialogue today? How can we utilize the thinking of the Black Nationalist to provide a pathway to more open society? How have we integrate the thinking of the Black Nationalist into the national conversation?

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