Regulatory approaches in the femto environment


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Femtocells Asia 2010, 8-9 March 2010, held on SINGAPORE

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Regulatory approaches in the femto environment

  1. 1. Regulatory Approaches in the Femto Environment Arief Hamdani Gunawan Femtocells Asia 2010 March 8 th – 9 th , Singapore
  2. 2. Agenda <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Standards and Implementation </li></ul><ul><li>Regulatory Issues </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Human Protection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interconnection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Charging </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ownership and Provider </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Frequency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other Issue </li></ul></ul>Femtocells Asia 2010 March 8 th – 9 th , Singapore
  3. 3. Introduction <ul><li>As the revenues from voice tend to diminish, high competition forces mobile operators (MOs) to seek new revenue generating sources through innovation in services and technologies. </li></ul><ul><li>The commercialization of femtocells was investigated in 2008 (through tenders, technical trials, and business models) by MOs worldwide. </li></ul><ul><li>Femtocells or femto access points (FAPs) are miniature base stations connected to an MO’s network via a broadband connection (e.g., asymmetric digital subscriber line [ADSL]), typically designed for use in residential or small office/home office (SOHO) environments </li></ul>
  4. 4. Femtocell Standards <ul><li>Most air interfaces included in the global ITU-R IMT family have active programmes to develop standards for femtocells. These include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>3GPP standards for Home Node-B, which is a WCDMA femtocell. Both FDD and TDD options are likely and a TD-SCDMA variant is also planned. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3GPP standards for Home eNode-B, which is an LTE femtocell. Both FDD and TDD options are envisaged. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3GPP2’s programme for femtocells for cdma2000, cdma2000 1x, HRPD, 1x EV-DO and UMB. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>WiMAX Forum’s programme for WiMAX femtocells based on IEEE standards. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In all cases femtocell standards will support deployments in all of the existing licensed spectrum bands in which macrocells operate. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Important 3GPP Standards <ul><li>3GPP TR 25.820, “3G Home NodeB Study Item Technical Report. </li></ul><ul><li>3GPP TS 22.220, “Service Requirements for Home NodeBs (UMTS) and eNodeBs (LTE). </li></ul><ul><li>3GPP TS 25.467, “UTRAN Architecture for 3G Home Node B (HNB); Stage 2 UTRAN Architecture for 3G Home NodeB (HNB). </li></ul>
  6. 6. A Typical Femto Solution HLR AAA FAP UE SEGW FGW CS/PS CN Service Network ISP Network (ADSL) IPsec tunnel Uu Iu or A/Gb D’ Option 1 Option 3 Option 2 AAA = Authentication, Authorization, and Accounting CS/PS CN = Circuit Switch / Packet Switch Core Network FGW = Femto Gateway HLR = Home Location Register SeGW/Sec =GW Security Gateway UE = User Equipment IEEE Communications Magazine . September 2009
  7. 7. Femto-subsystem reference architecture - example - FAP Mobile device Home GW FGW Femto Management System FAP-MS FGW-MS F L Fa SeGW Access Network Radio i/f Fm Fg CS core PS core Subscriber Databases Fb-cs Fb-ps Fr HPLMN Core Network IMS core Fb-ims HPLMN RAN
  8. 8. Human Protection (1/2) <ul><li>Since femtocells are in essence base stations, public concern regarding the levels of RF radiation may appear. </li></ul><ul><li>According to 3GPP TS25.104, the maximum output power of FAPs should range between 17–20 dBm (without/with transmit diversity or multipleinput multipleoutput [MIMO]). </li></ul><ul><li>In addition, FAPs must comply with the guidelines for human exposure to electromagnetic emissions issued by the International Commission on NonIonizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) and other relevant regulatory authorities. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Human Protection (2/2) <ul><li>Given the low output power of FAPs, they could be considered to have the same level of radio frequency (RF) exposure risk as WiFi access points, commonly used in home/office environments, thus facilitating wide market adoption. </li></ul><ul><li>In this context, MOs could be relieved of reporting (to a regulator) femto base station locations and functional characteristics (e.g., operating frequency, output power, antenna polarization). </li></ul>Class license and/or Certification can be used as the approach to provide human protection
  10. 10. Interconnection <ul><li>Point of Interconnection in the Last Mile might be introduced through FAP. </li></ul><ul><li>Point of Interconnection in the First Mile might be introduced through FGW and may refer to OLO model. </li></ul><ul><li>Similar to the traffic carrier / transitter. </li></ul>The reference offering interconnection might be related to the charging model offering
  11. 11. Charging <ul><li>Cellular Price: FAP function is to provide RAN, therefore mobile operator should provide the FAP functionality to the end user. </li></ul><ul><li>Data Price: FAP is the additional equipment that can be equipped in user side, in this case the end user may provide FAP functionality. </li></ul><ul><li>Combination: FAP functionality might be introduced by mobile operator, user, and telco. </li></ul><ul><li>Transparent (no additional charging method) </li></ul>The charging might be related to the ownership and provider of the FAP
  12. 12. Ownership and Provider <ul><li>User </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Open </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Referred to the technical spec./Certification </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Benefit: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Freedom of choice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Speed up penetration </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Operator </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DSL Operator </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mobile Operator </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Benefit: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Low technical risk </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Customer education </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintaining QoS </li></ul></ul>Ideal for mature market and shared band model Ideal for trial & first implementation and exclusive band model
  13. 13. Frequency <ul><li>Shared band. </li></ul><ul><li>Based on Class license. </li></ul><ul><li>May implement in nation wide. </li></ul><ul><li>Exclusive Band. </li></ul><ul><li>Based on the Regulation on the License Regime. </li></ul><ul><li>May implement in zones. </li></ul>Ideal condition for Telco and FAP user ownership model Ideal condition for Mobile Operator
  14. 14. Other Issues <ul><li>Roaming issues. </li></ul><ul><li>Fraud issues. </li></ul><ul><li>FAP availability and affordability. </li></ul><ul><li>Introductory time: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Overlay (immediately) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Embedded in 3.9G/4G </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Thank You Arief Hamdani Gunawan [email_address] Femtocells Asia 2010 March 8 th – 9 th , Singapore