Performance evaluation methodsToday it is widely recognized that a manager who wants to improve organizationalperformance ...
• Are staff meeting places appropriate? Can one room accommodate the entire staff atone time?• Is the work setting reasona...
• Another view is that technology will solve the prospective energy shortage and greatlyreduce damage to the environment r...
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Performance evaluation methods


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Performance evaluation methods

  1. 1. Performance evaluation methodsToday it is widely recognized that a manager who wants to improve organizationalperformance must concern himself with the total environment in which employees work.He must be sensitive to the need for change in the physical and social surroundings inwhich work is performed, as well as to questions of compensation, hours of work,incentives, recognition, and the like.The importance of the physical setting-plant layout, lighting, ventilation, and so forth-onproductivity was an early concern of scientific managers.There is very complex and subtle interdependence of(a) Management efforts to introduce change,(b) Workers perceptions of such efforts, and(c) Organizational efficiency. Unfortunately, the impact of this important insight-as wellas a limited understanding of the way space and other aspects of the physicalenvironment affect people-led to inferences that the physical setting hardly mattered.Today space planners and organizational development experts have found in a broaderapproach to the physical environment natural and fruitful areas for collaboration in theirefforts to improve organizational effectiveness.A broad view of the work environment requires a firm to consider the convenience andesthetics of plant or office location just as important as the efficiency and attractivenessof the plant itself, but for most managers plant or office location is a given. For them themore direct and continuing concerns are likely to be light, ventilation, noise level, layoutof work space, and the trappings of status. Some of the major considerations are summedup in the following questions.• Is the workplace big enough to give employees easy access to all necessary material andto allow them to perform their jobs without getting in each others way?• Does the workplace contain all the necessary materials and provide reasonable access toless frequently used resources such as copying machines?• Is there sufficient flexibility in the rooms to accommodate special needs and to permiteasy adjustments as conditions change?• How effective is the management of distance in facilitating the flow of work, in needsfor privacy, in facilitating essential communication, in establishing a friendly socialclimate and (if required) conferring status?
  2. 2. • Are staff meeting places appropriate? Can one room accommodate the entire staff atone time?• Is the work setting reasonably free of distraction from noise, smells, and interruptions?• Within the constraints imposed by the nature of the workplace, have efforts been madeto make the setting orderly and esthetically pleasing through the use of light, color,materials, effective arrangements, comfort of seating, and so forth, that give somesemblance of organization and permit logical relationships while providing opportunityfor variety?• Within constraints imposed by work flow and other production requirements, is theemployee given the maximum freedom to control the arrangement and aesthetics of hiswork area?• Should more be done to make people sensitive to their setting and to involve them inimproving it?One major obstacle to improving physical setting is often passivity rather than activeopposition to change. A passive attitude stems from personal characteristics, such as unawareness of what can be changed or an acceptance of the status quo. It results from anabsence of any analysis of whether an inherited arrangement has any lack of analysis ofthe impact of the work setting on performance and the fear of raising questions aboutissues that may seem to lie outside ones prerogatives.• The importance of work in an individual life will decline, perhaps to the point whereother activities will absorb most of his energies and will be the source of self-satisfactionand status. There has been a great decline in the proportion of an employee life that isspent on the job: The workweek is shorter by a third; vacations are longer; and workersgenerally enter the labor force later and retire earlier than they did in the past. The stepfrom a reduction in hours worked to a substantial decline in the importance of productionand distribution activities is admittedly a big one; but in the long run the link betweenwork performance as presently defined, consumption, self-fulfillment, or status could besevered. In such a setting there would be continuing efforts to eliminate the physical andpsychic discomforts and hazards associated with work but perhaps less attention to effortsto make work interesting and satisfying since these factors would count for little.• Work will continue to be a central focus for most people in the labor force, but the twinneeds to humanize work and conserve energy will dampen the demand for goods andcontinue to increase the demand for services. The scale of an organization will become anincreasingly important consideration; resources will be treated as capital goods ratherthan income; and intermediate technologies will be developed that will be more congenialto man. In such a society one could envision increasing attention to job redesign, workerparticipation, and the like:
  3. 3. • Another view is that technology will solve the prospective energy shortage and greatlyreduce damage to the environment resulting from industrial production and populationgrowth; and population growth will taper off as economic welfare improves around theworld. Work will retain its role in society, even if more of the traditional production tasksare automated and a growing proportion of the population is engaged in services or in arevival of traditional handicrafts. Unmet demands for services will keep labor forceparticipation and employment high, and the work ethic will continue to have the samehold that it does today.• A variant of the first view above is that in the next century the distinction between workand non-work activities will fade.• Of a less sweeping and more specific nature is the prediction that the continuing rapidpace of technological and social change will necessitate a more flexible approach to theorganization of work-to the use of task forces for special projects, for example-and to adecline in the emphasis on hierarchical organizations. This, in turn, would increase theneed for better trained and more autonomous workers. To make such workers availablewould, in turn, require greater emphasis on training, particularly emphasis on skills thatenable workers to adapt more readily to different challenges, and less emphasis on thespecific tasks that now are the focus of training programs. However, in the absence ofsuccessful efforts to make workers more adaptable, the flexibility of organizationalapproaches to work might not be universally attractive.• An extension of the foregoing view is the vision of a more flexible boundary fororganizations-with a greater emphasis on sub-contracting; leasing of office space andequipment; and, for certain kinds of jobs, perhaps the possibility of more work beingdone at home (which could be linked easily to offices through new communicationstechnology). Workers in such an environment would have a smaller sense of attachmentto employing organizations and perhaps less pressure to conform to organizationaldemands for conformity. : Over 200 ebooks, templates, forms forperformance appraisal.