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Industrial applications of enzymes


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Industrial applications of enzymes

  1. 1. BiologyPresented By:- Hamail Ghayam Sohaib
  2. 2. Industrial Applications Of Enzymes• Enzymes are used in the chemical industry and other industrial applications when extremely specific catalysts are required. However, enzymes in general are limited in the number of reactions they have evolved to catalyze and also by their lack of stability in organic solvents and at high temperatures. As a consequence, protein engineering is an active area of research and involves attempts to create new enzymes with novel properties, either through rational design or in vitro evolution. These efforts have begun to be successful, and a few enzymes have now been designed "from scratch" to catalyze reactions that do not occur in nature.
  3. 3. Application-Enzymes-Used1. Food Processing2. Amylases from fungi and plants.3. Production of sugars from starch, such as in making high-fructose corn syrup. In baking, catalyze breakdown of starch in the flour to sugar. Yeast fermentation of sugar produces the carbon dioxide that raises the dough.
  4. 4. Application-Enzymes-Used1. Baby Foods2. Trypsin3. To predigest baby foods
  5. 5. Application-Enzymes-Used1. Brewing Industry2. Enzymes from barley are released during the mashing stage of beer production.3. They degrade starch and proteins to produce simple sugar, amino acids and peptides that are used by yeast for fermentation.
  6. 6. Application-Enzymes-Used1. Fruit Juices2. Cellulases & Pectinases3. Clarify fruit juices.
  7. 7. Application-Enzymes-Used1. Dairy Industry2. Lipases3. Is implemented during the production of Roquefort cheese to enhance the ripening of the blue-mold cheese.
  8. 8. Application-Enzymes-Used1. Meat Tenderizers2. Papain3. To soften meat for cooking
  9. 9. Application-Enzymes-Used1. Starch Industry2. Amylases, Amyloglucosideases & Glucoamylases3. Converts starch into glucose and various syrups.
  10. 10. Application-Enzymes-Used1. Paper Industry2. Amylases, Xylanases, Cellulases & Ligninases3. Degrade starch to lower viscosity, aiding sizing and coating paper. Xylanases reduce bleach required for decolorizing; cellulases smooth fibers, enhance water drainage, and promote ink removal; lipases reduce pitch and lignin-degrading enzymes remove lignin to soften paper.
  11. 11. Application-Enzymes-Used1. Biofuel Industry2. Cellulases3. Used to break down cellulose into sugars that can be fermented (see cellulosic ethanol).
  12. 12. Application-Enzymes-Used1. Biological Detergent2. Primarily Proteases, produced in an extracellular form from bacteria.3. Used for presoak conditions and direct liquid applications helping with removal of protein stains from clothes.
  13. 13. Application-Enzymes-Used1. Contact Lens Cleaners2. Proteases3. To remove proteins on contact lens to prevent infections.
  14. 14. Application-Enzymes-Used1. Rubber Industry2. Catalase3. To generate oxygen from peroxide to convert latex into foam rubber.
  15. 15. Application-Enzymes-Used1. Photographic Industry2. Protease (Ficin)3. Dissolve gelatin off scrap film, allowing recovery of its silver content.
  16. 16. Application-Enzymes-Used1. Molecular Biology2. Restriction Enzymes, DNA Ligase & Polymerases3. Used to manipulate DNA in genetic engineering, important in pharmacology, agriculture and medicine. Essential for restriction digestion and the polymerase chain reaction. Molecular biology is also important in forensic science.