The reformation, part 2

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The reformation, part 2

  1. 1. The Reformation
  2. 2. The Reformation <ul><li>Renaissance Ideals challenged Church authority </li></ul><ul><li>Printing Press spreads secular ideas </li></ul><ul><li>German States difficult for Pope to control. </li></ul><ul><li>Merchants – new, powerful class, resent paying church taxes. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Church Problems <ul><li>Many leaders corrupt </li></ul><ul><li>Spend more money on themselves </li></ul><ul><li>Spend huge sums of money as Patrons of the arts </li></ul><ul><li>Popes are raising armies and fighting wars. </li></ul><ul><li>Often do not follow own church doctrine </li></ul>
  4. 4. Martin Luther <ul><li>Has issue with the Church sale of INDULGENCES – You don’t have to make up for your sins. </li></ul><ul><li>Writes “95 Theses” and nails them on a church in Wittenburg, Germany – attacks Church’s corruption. </li></ul><ul><li>Theses are copied and spread throughout Germany. </li></ul><ul><li>Ideas gain momentum and provide further challenges to the Church </li></ul>
  5. 6. Luther’s Beliefs <ul><li>Personal Interpretation of the Bible </li></ul><ul><li>Religious freedoms for all Christians. </li></ul><ul><li>Independence from Catholic Church. </li></ul><ul><li>You could be saved based on FAITH alone </li></ul><ul><li>The Bible is the final authority, not the church </li></ul><ul><li>Priests should be able to marry </li></ul>
  6. 7. Religious Reaction <ul><li>Pope Leo X excommunicates Luther for his ideas in 1520. </li></ul>
  7. 8. Secular Reaction <ul><li>Holy Roman Emperor Charles V issues the EDICT OF WORMS which declared Luther an outlaw and a heretic (someone who does something contrary to religious doctrine) </li></ul>
  8. 9. Reaction! <ul><li>HRE Charles the V goes to war against Princes who support Luther’s Ideas. </li></ul><ul><li>Charles wins, but cant bring people back to church. </li></ul><ul><li>Peace of Augsburg: Allows each region to determine their own religion </li></ul>
  9. 10. Great Britain <ul><li>Henry VIII needs a divorce to seek a new wife to give him an heir – Pope refuses </li></ul><ul><li>“ Act of Supremacy” makes Henry official head of English Church (Anglican) </li></ul>
  10. 11. Great Britain Cont <ul><li>Henry’s son only rules 5 years – dies. </li></ul><ul><li>Henry’s daughter, Mary – a devout catholic – assumes throne </li></ul><ul><li>Persecutes many Protestants – “Bloody Mary.” </li></ul>
  11. 12. England, cont <ul><li>Henry’s daughter Elizabeth assumes throne. </li></ul><ul><li>Continues Protestant reforms. </li></ul><ul><li>Has to deal with a Spanish invasion (Spanish Armada) -- Wins </li></ul>
  12. 13. Catholic Reformation <ul><li>Council of Trent: </li></ul><ul><li>Church’s interpretation of Bible Final </li></ul><ul><li>Christians need good works and faith for salvation. </li></ul><ul><li>Bible and church traditions were final authorities. </li></ul><ul><li>Indulgences were valid expressions of faith. </li></ul>

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