Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

It All Started In Seattle , Take Two


Published on

The accepted underlying theory of project management has been called obsolete. What has replaced it?

Published in: Business, Technology
  • Be the first to comment

It All Started In Seattle , Take Two

  1. 1. It All Started in Seattle, Take Two Shifting Project Management Paradigms <ul><ul><li>Hal Macomber, Project Reformer </li></ul></ul>
  2. 2. Underlying Theory Is Obsolete <ul><li>2002 PMI Research Forum Lauri Koskela and Greg Howell </li></ul><ul><li>Management as Planning </li></ul><ul><li>Input-Process-Output </li></ul><ul><li>Thermostatic Control – Set it and Forget it </li></ul>
  3. 3. Where Do We Start? <ul><li>Search Amazon for books on leadership: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Leadership is an Art </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Monday Morning Leadership </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Primal Leadership </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>21 Irrefutable Laws of Leadership </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Leadership Pipeline </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>… and 62,650 others! </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Let’s go back to the beginning… </li></ul>
  4. 4. Why the Interest in Theory? It is with the intent of explaining past behavior and predicting future behavior that we are interested in theory.
  5. 5. <ul><li>Frederick Taylor – “The Principles of Scientific Management” (1911)‏ </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Work methods, measurement and simplification </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Henri Fayol – “General and Industrial Administration” (1916)‏ </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Synthesized various tenets of organization and management </li></ul></ul>Foundations of Traditional Project Management
  6. 6. Underlying Assumptions <ul><li>Principles exist which if implemented by any organization will ensure efficient operation and administration </li></ul><ul><li>There is one best way </li></ul><ul><li>Organizational intelligence is resident only in management </li></ul>
  7. 7. 100 Year Old Theory: Successful Management Requires 5 Basic Functions <ul><ul><li>To forecast and plan the future and to prepare plans of action </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To organize the structure, people, and material </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To command activity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To coordinate, unify, and harmonize effort </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To control to assure policies and plans were followed Henri Fayol, circa 1900, France </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Fayol’s 14 Principles <ul><li>Specialization – division of labor </li></ul><ul><li>Authority with responsibility </li></ul><ul><li>Discipline </li></ul><ul><li>Unity of command </li></ul><ul><li>Unity of direction </li></ul><ul><li>Subordination of individual interests </li></ul><ul><li>Remunerations </li></ul><ul><li>Centralization </li></ul><ul><li>Chain/line of authority </li></ul><ul><li>Order </li></ul><ul><li>Equity </li></ul><ul><li>Lifetime jobs (for good workers)‏ </li></ul><ul><li>Initiative </li></ul><ul><li>Esprit de corps </li></ul>
  9. 9. IPO Theory Is Incomplete <ul><li>Reductionism, breaking larger work into smaller pieces, misses the interaction of people with people as they go about doing their work </li></ul><ul><li>Application to human interaction and information processes ignores conversational action </li></ul>
  10. 10. Traditional Project Management “Command and Control Model” <ul><li>Management foresees future state of world (goal state)‏ </li></ul><ul><li>Centralized planning is performed to articulate steps needed to take current world state to goal state. </li></ul><ul><li>Directives are issued to implement plan in real world. </li></ul><ul><li>Control is exercised by monitoring progress against plan and issuing additional directives as needed to keep to plan. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Planning Model of Activity Current State Goal State Intermediate State Intermediate State Model World Real World Plan Implementation Planning Current State Goal State Intermediate State Intermediate State Action Planning Planning Plan Implementation Plan Implementation Action Action
  12. 12. Project Management per PMI ® Initiating Processes Closing Processes Management Everyday Activity
  13. 13. Leadership in the Traditional Context <ul><li>Mainly involves external motivation of workers towards the imposed goal through use of incentives and punishment </li></ul>
  14. 14. The Essential Shift <ul><li>The work of business is making and keeping commitments. - Fernando Flores </li></ul>
  15. 15. Linguistic Acts: Grammar of Action Statement of fact. Includes an offer to provide evidence. “ All tasks were completed as promised.” Assertion Offering an opinion with or without any basis for the assessment. “ We are making good progress.” Assessment Statement of commitment to provide something specific by a specific time. “ You can have the crane at noon.” Promise Calling for a statement of commitment. “ Please deliver the submittal on Thursday.” Request Creating a space of action. ” We will put a man on the moon and bring him back safely in this decade.” Declaration Definition Example Action
  16. 16. Conversation for Action
  17. 17. Conversation for Action
  18. 18. Conversations for Action <ul><li>Interplay of requests and promises directed towards explicit cooperative action </li></ul><ul><li>Conversation as a ‘dance’ </li></ul><ul><li>Request with conditions of satisfaction </li></ul><ul><li>Five possible responses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Accept conditions, i.e. promising to satisfy them </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reject conditions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ask to negotiate a change (Counteroffer)‏ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Originator withdraws request </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Originator modifies request </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Conversations for Action <ul><li>At each state of conversation there is a small set of possible actions determined by previous history </li></ul><ul><li>Relevant acts are linguistic </li></ul><ul><li>What is not said is listened to as much as what is said </li></ul><ul><li>Conditions of satisfaction are not objective realities </li></ul><ul><li>Does not say what should be done or deal with consequences </li></ul>
  20. 20. New Management Perspective <ul><li>Management is that process of openness, listening, and eliciting commitments, which includes concern for the articulation and activation of the network of commitments, primarily produced through promises and requests, allowing for the autonomy of the productive unit. - Fernando Flores, 1982 </li></ul>
  21. 21. 100 Years Later: Management as Designers of Systems of Coordination of Action <ul><li>Management is that process of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Openness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Listening </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eliciting commitments </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Concerned for the: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Articulation of the network of commitments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Activation of the network of commitments </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Produced through: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Promises </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Requests </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Allowing for the autonomy of the productive units Fernando Flores, 1982, Berkeley, CA </li></ul>
  22. 22. Management in the New Paradigm <ul><li>Design of organization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Means of communication between sub-units </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Structure of physical, political, and cultural setting of action </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Manager is designer, coordinator, and enabler of autonomous activities </li></ul>
  23. 23. Leadership in the New Paradigm <ul><li>Ability to make apparent the opportunity for a better future. </li></ul><ul><li>Create organizational environment conducive to building trust necessary for individuals to connect their interests and innovate together. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Stuck in Newtonian World <ul><li>Early last century, Frederick Taylor applied Newtonian physics, the science of his day, to management. One hundred years later, as Mr. Snowden, Director IBM, laments, “We haven’t yet grown out of this.” Mark Buchanan, Power Laws and the New Science of Complexity Management , Strategy+Business , Spring 2004 </li></ul>
  25. 25. Competing Paradigms <ul><li>Periods of revolutionary change begin with anomalies that the established paradigm is unable to explain, leading eventually to the development of a competing, and ultimately victorious new paradigm. - Thomas Kuhn </li></ul>
  26. 26. AEC Project Work: Current Perspective <ul><li>People come together as strangers, or they don’t come together at all </li></ul><ul><li>Highly fragmented and specialized skilled labor </li></ul><ul><li>Reductionist and deterministic </li></ul><ul><li>Seek certainty over clarity </li></ul>
  27. 27. AEC Project Work: A New Perspective <ul><li>People work collaboratively </li></ul><ul><li>Project roles based on talents and interests </li></ul><ul><li>Iterative and refining planning practices </li></ul><ul><li>Seek clarity over certainty </li></ul>
  28. 28. Characterizing Leadership <ul><li>Fayol </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Determining futures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Motivating workers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Carrot </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stick </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Encouraging the subordinating of interests & intentions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Master skill: order-giving </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Flores </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Co-creating futures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Building trust </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cultivating commitment-making </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Deepening relatedness </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uncovering and aligning interests & intentions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Master skill: listening </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Cultivating Commitment-Making <ul><li>The problem of trust is not the loss of confidence but the failure to cultivate commitment-making - Solomon & Flores </li></ul><ul><li>The Aim: Commitment-making as the predisposition among team members </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A context of accountability for the greater goals/promises of the project </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A habit of making and keeping commitments </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Your Action: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Invite team members to make requests, promises and offers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Explore the basis for promising reliably </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Reliable Promises <ul><li>Access to competence to perform </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge-based estimate to do task </li></ul><ul><li>Capacity and authority to allocate </li></ul><ul><li>Authority to say no </li></ul><ul><li>No private unspoken conversations in conflict with promise </li></ul><ul><li>Responsibility </li></ul>
  31. 31. Seeking Clarity Over Certainty <ul><li>The future is uncertain and unknowable </li></ul><ul><li>Projects, in spite of our speculation, are never deterministic, rather they are stochastic </li></ul><ul><li>In matters involving people we can never be right or wrong, only effective or ineffective </li></ul><ul><li>By embracing uncertainty we have the opportunity to continue to create our future as the future unfolds </li></ul>
  32. 32. Peter Drucker on Promising Unless commitments are made, there are only promises and hopes but no plans. -- Peter Drucker
  33. 33. Develop Acute Listening <ul><li>Effective (masterful) listening is effortless </li></ul><ul><li>Becoming effective takes practice </li></ul><ul><li>Build on your strengths </li></ul>
  34. 34. Top Ten Listening Skills <ul><ul><ul><li>10. Stop talking. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>9. Put all your energy into listening. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>8. Notice your own filters when listening. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>7. Don't argue mentally. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>6. Inhibit your impulse to immediately answer questions. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>5. Adjust to the situation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>4. When in doubt about whether to listen or speak, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>keep listening. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>3. Don't assume you have to do anything but listen. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2. Work at listening. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1. Listen generously with a willingness to be influenced - The Project Leaders’ Studio™ </li></ul></ul></ul>
  35. 35. Ten Rules for Project Managers <ul><ul><ul><li>10. Adopt practices for exploring a variety of perspectives. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>9. Stay close to your customer. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>8. Take care of your project team. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>7. Keep your eye on the overall project promises. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>6. Build relationships intentionally. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>5. Tightly couple learning with action. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>4. Coordinate meticulously. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>3. Collaborate. Really collaborate. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2. Listen generously. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1. Embrace uncertainty. - Reforming Project Management </li></ul></ul></ul>
  36. 36. Learning, Listening, & Action Action Listening Learning Leadership Guided Development Commitment Conversations Master Skill
  37. 37. The Leadership Journey <ul><li>It is about mastery </li></ul><ul><li>It is always about engaged action </li></ul><ul><li>It always involves your learning and others </li></ul><ul><li>It takes a commitment to practice even when no apparent progress is visible </li></ul><ul><li>It cannot be done alone </li></ul>
  38. 38. Project Leadership Bibliography Five Essential Books <ul><li>Building Trust , Robert Solomon & Fernando Flores </li></ul><ul><li>Embracing Uncertainty: The Essence of Leadership , Phillip Clampitt & Robert DeKoch </li></ul><ul><li>First, Break All the Rules , Marcus Buckingham & Curt Coffman </li></ul><ul><li>The Blind Men and the Elephant, Mastering Project Work , David A. Schmaltz </li></ul><ul><li>The Five Dysfunctions of a Team , Patrick Lencioni </li></ul>
  39. 39. Project Leadership Bibliography Six Essential Papers <ul><li>A Language/Action Perspective on the Design of Cooperative Work, Terry Winograd, Human-Computer Interaction 3:1 (1987-88), 3-30. </li></ul><ul><li>Competing Construction Management Paradigms , Glenn Ballard & Gregory Howell, Construction Research Conference, ASCE, 2003. </li></ul><ul><li>Leadership and Project Management: Time for a Shift from Fayol to Flores , Gregory Howell, Hal Macomber, Lauri Koskela, & John Draper, IGLC-12, August 2004. </li></ul><ul><li>Managing Project Uncertainty: From Variation to Chaos , Arnoud De Meyer, Christoph H. Lock, & Michael T. Pich, Sloan Management Review , Winter 2002. </li></ul><ul><li>Predicting the Unpredictable , Eric Bonabeau, Harvard Business Review , March 2002. </li></ul><ul><li>The Underlying Theory of Project Management is Obsolete , Lauri Koskela & Gregory Howell, Project Management Research Forum, PMI, 2002. </li></ul>