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‫مرحبا‬
Welcome!
1
BUILDING A NEW ECONOMY:
CREATING VALUE FROM WASTE
Professor Steve Halls
Sohar University
Sultanate of the Oman
Context for Industrial Transformation?
• The price of oil (and gas) is increasing (and it has been
predicted to rise to US...
The Challenge
• In Sohar and Al-Batinah as whole, industrial growth, is a vital
factor for economic improvement, raising t...
What is waste?
5
Something we do not
want and we throw it
away!
But we have used
materials and energy
in producing it!
Plastic Waste
6
Food waste
7
Mixed Industrial Waste
8
E-Waste
9
Problem
10
• What can be done with these wastes?
Solution
• These wastes can be transformed into valuable products
or materials
11
‘Old’ System
Coffee
Plantation
Fertilizer
Water
Pesticide
Beans (3.7%)
Caffeine -“waste”
Wastewater
12
Integrated Resource Recovery (IR2) System
Coffee
Plantation
Organic Fertilizer
Water
Natural Pesticide
Water &
“Waste”
Mus...
ASNAES
POWER
STATION
(1500 MW)
Uses almost 90%
of primary energy
content of coal
ELECTRICAL
ENERGY
(40%)
80,000 tons/yr of...
Waste - to - Products
15
Example of Steel slag wastes ‘new’ products and use
16
Slow-cooled
slag (lumpy)
Road (surface, base, filler),
railway ball...
The multiple synthetic conversion routes of products
from waste feedstock.
17
Example of products from wastes by Gasification
18
Example of chemicals produced from wastes
19
AJourney!
،‫ه‬َ‫ر‬ْ‫ف‬َ‫س‬‫ه‬َ‫ل‬ْ‫ح‬ ِ‫ر‬
20
Sohar, Oman – Kwinana, Western Australia
21
Australia
22
From Sohar
‫اإلتجاه‬ ‘Kwinana Industrial Complex’
23
10 km
Note: Hope Valley area
will be home to
Latitude 32 the largest
eco-industr...
Loading/Unloading Jetty & Tank farm
24
Aerial view of part of Kwinana Industrial Complex
25
Kwinana Industrial Complex, WesternAustralia
26
• Established since early 1950’s, home to heavy process
industries and the...
27
Industrial Integration in 1990
WESFARMERS
CSBP
FERTILIZERS
AMMONIA
AMMONIUM NITRATE
SODIUM CYANIDE
CHLOR-ALKALI
CHLORIN...
28
Kwinana Industrial Integration in 2010
INDUSTRIES THAT SERVICE MANY
INDUSTRIES*
CBI CONSTRUCTORS: FABRICATION, CONSTRUC...
Outcome
• More jobs – now and future
• More economic resilience
• More amenities
• New products
• Reduced operating costs
...
Needs
• More general and specific education to meet demand
• On-going R&D to take novel waste streams and transform
into v...
Latitude 32 - an IR2-based Industrial complex
31
• Discrete setting where companies locate for maximum
resource recovery e...
Latitude 32 - an IR2-based Industrial complex
32
• Resource Exchange
Networks
Eco-Efficiency at each facility
Resource R...
The Opportunity
• Globally there is an urgent need to develop and deploy
technologies, which allows waste to be transforme...
Anew industrial model - Products from Wastes
34
New Business and
Products from Wastes
Nutrient
Recovery &
Augmentation
New...
IR2 – Purpose &Aim
• Integrated Resource Recovery (IR2) produces
efficient transformation of wastes and can be used
to gen...
IR2 - Principle and Outcome
• The ‘waste’, which provides jobs and income through
producing a valuable product, in effect,...
Turning Waste into Business Opportunities
37
• Critical Assets on sustainable IR2 agenda
– Access to Land (e.g. Sohar Free...
Benefits of IR2
• Removes an environmental hazard
• No cost for waste disposal
• Creates employment opportunities
• Can be...
IR2 - Industries to benefit
• A number of industries (where wastes are produced) are
potential beneficiaries.
 Aquacultur...
Barriers/Limitations
• Poorly defined and limited number of markets (at present)
• Consumer lack of awareness
• Regulator ...
IR2 Strategy
41
• Objectives
 Develop integrated technology systems to treat waste streams
suitable for adoption at enter...
Recommendations
To overcome the previously mentioned challenges
stakeholders need to play different roles in the
industria...
Recommendations
The most effective measures to induce a significant impact
of IR2-based production on all industries are:
...
Summary
● There is a unique opportunity to bring about significant
financial and job impacts to the Omani economy, target
...
IR2 Revisited
45
Employment
+
Let’s make waste history!
46
‫استماعكم‬ ‫حسن‬ ‫على‬ ‫أشكركم‬
47
Thank you for your kind attention!
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Building a New Economy: Creating Value from Waste

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Building a New Economy: Creating Value from Waste

  1. 1. ‫مرحبا‬ Welcome! 1
  2. 2. BUILDING A NEW ECONOMY: CREATING VALUE FROM WASTE Professor Steve Halls Sohar University Sultanate of the Oman
  3. 3. Context for Industrial Transformation? • The price of oil (and gas) is increasing (and it has been predicted to rise to US$ 100/barrel by the end of 2012 and over US$200/barrel by 2020) • It is now widely agreed that “Peak Oil” has been reached (or will do so in the next 2 – 5 years) • It is necessary for industry, governments and consumers to realize that to ensure the provision of manufactured products; using fossil fuels without causing inflationary pressures on the economy - it will be necessary to develop alternatives to fossil fuels, so that economic development can be maintained. • Additionally by switching to these alternatives valuable fossil fuels can be allocated to priority areas, where no substitution is economically viable. 3
  4. 4. The Challenge • In Sohar and Al-Batinah as whole, industrial growth, is a vital factor for economic improvement, raising the quality of life, and employment generation. • However, due to the rapid expansion of Sohar, in particular the port area and associated FreeZone, there is very real probability of significant increase in waste production as a result • How can this be managed in an environmentally friendly manner? Disposal or transformation? • Can wastes be transformed to produce products and materials that were previously made using oil or gas? 4
  5. 5. What is waste? 5 Something we do not want and we throw it away! But we have used materials and energy in producing it!
  6. 6. Plastic Waste 6
  7. 7. Food waste 7
  8. 8. Mixed Industrial Waste 8
  9. 9. E-Waste 9
  10. 10. Problem 10 • What can be done with these wastes?
  11. 11. Solution • These wastes can be transformed into valuable products or materials 11
  12. 12. ‘Old’ System Coffee Plantation Fertilizer Water Pesticide Beans (3.7%) Caffeine -“waste” Wastewater 12
  13. 13. Integrated Resource Recovery (IR2) System Coffee Plantation Organic Fertilizer Water Natural Pesticide Water & “Waste” Mushrooms Earthworms Human Consumption Chickens, Cattle, etc. Manure Biogas = energy Horticulture Beans 13
  14. 14. ASNAES POWER STATION (1500 MW) Uses almost 90% of primary energy content of coal ELECTRICAL ENERGY (40%) 80,000 tons/yr of gypsum (recovered from the station’s sulphur dioxide scrubber) 170,000 tons/yr of flyash and clinker (residues from coal burning) HEAT (STEAM - 60%) DISTRICT HEATING SYSTEM STATOIL REFINERY (40% of its needs for tank & pipe heating) NOVO NORDISK - Pharmaceutical & enzyme manufacturer ETHANE & METHANE BY-PRODUCTS FERTILIZERSLUDGE FISH- PONDS GYPROC - A company producing wallboards CONSTRUCTION & ROAD BUILDING 225,000 tons/yr =19,000 tons of oil 14,000 tons/yr 215,000 tons/yr EXCESS HEAT SLUDGE ENERGY FOR DRYING OVENS KALUNDBORG INDUSTRIAL ECOSYSTEM, DENMARK 14
  15. 15. Waste - to - Products 15
  16. 16. Example of Steel slag wastes ‘new’ products and use 16 Slow-cooled slag (lumpy) Road (surface, base, filler), railway ballast Aggregate for concrete Harbour construction material Ground-improving material (for deep seat) Cobblestone Cement clinker material Quenched slag (granulated slag) Portland and BF cement (cement mix) Cement clinker material Concrete admixture Lightweight porous concrete (ALC) Improvement of soft ground and sea-bottom sludge (surface and deep seat) Fine aggregate for concrete and asphalt Semi-quenched slag (expanded slag) Aggregate for lightweight concrete Lightweight backfill, reclamation material Other (heat insulation) Calcium silicate fertilizer Mineral wool Other (glass, tile, roof-tile, etc.) Stabilization of subgrade and subbase courses, filler course Calcium silicate fertilizer Harbour construction material (lightweight backfill) Civil ensineering material (lightweight backfill) Other (ceramic material)
  17. 17. The multiple synthetic conversion routes of products from waste feedstock. 17
  18. 18. Example of products from wastes by Gasification 18
  19. 19. Example of chemicals produced from wastes 19
  20. 20. AJourney! ،‫ه‬َ‫ر‬ْ‫ف‬َ‫س‬‫ه‬َ‫ل‬ْ‫ح‬ ِ‫ر‬ 20
  21. 21. Sohar, Oman – Kwinana, Western Australia 21
  22. 22. Australia 22 From Sohar
  23. 23. ‫اإلتجاه‬ ‘Kwinana Industrial Complex’ 23 10 km Note: Hope Valley area will be home to Latitude 32 the largest eco-industrial/IR2 park in the Southern hemisphere 7 km From Sohar
  24. 24. Loading/Unloading Jetty & Tank farm 24
  25. 25. Aerial view of part of Kwinana Industrial Complex 25
  26. 26. Kwinana Industrial Complex, WesternAustralia 26 • Established since early 1950’s, home to heavy process industries and their suppliers of products and services • Currently 10 km coastal strip • Adjacent to Cockburn Sound Deep water port facilities Sensitive marine environment • Surrounded by Cockburn, Kwinana and Rockingham communities • Southern end of the Perth Metro Area ~ 1.5 million inhabitants Drought affected
  27. 27. 27 Industrial Integration in 1990 WESFARMERS CSBP FERTILIZERS AMMONIA AMMONIUM NITRATE SODIUM CYANIDE CHLOR-ALKALI CHLORINE & CAUSTIC SODA BP REFINERY OIL PRODUCTS BOC GASES OXYGEN NITROGEN HYDROGEN WMC NICKEL REFINERY NICKEL AIR LIQUIDE OXYGEN NITROGEN TIWEST PIGMENT PLANT TITANIUM DIOXIDE NU-FARM/COOGEE CHEM. CHLOR-ALKALI CHLORINE & CAUSTIC SODA CAUSTIC SODA AMMONIUM SULPHATE SULPHUR HYDROGEN NITROGEN HYDROGEN CARBON DIOXIDE NITROGEN LIME OXYGENNITROGEN ALCOA WORLD ALUMINA ALUMINA COCKBURN CEMENT CEMENT & LIME LIME SULPHURIC ACID CARBON DIOXIDE SULPHUR CAUSTIC SODA CHLORINE SULPHURIC ACID HYDROGEN AMMONIA CARBONDI OXIDE NITROGEN
  28. 28. 28 Kwinana Industrial Integration in 2010 INDUSTRIES THAT SERVICE MANY INDUSTRIES* CBI CONSTRUCTORS: FABRICATION, CONSTRUCTION FREMANTLE PORTAUTHORITY: PORT FACILITIES TRANSFIELD SMP:FABRICATION, CONSTRUCTION WATER CORPORATION: WATER SUPPLY, SEWAGE TREATMENT KWINANA POWER STATION & EDISON MISSION:ELECTRICITY SULPHURIC ACID WESFARMERS CSBP FERTILIZERS AMMONIA AMMONIUM NITRATE SODIUM CYANIDE CHLOR-ALKALI CHLORINE & CAUSTIC SODA BP REFINERY OIL PRODUCTS WASTE GASES BOC GASES OXYGEN NITROGEN HYDROGEN WMC NICKEL REFINERY NICKEL AIR LIQUIDE OXYGEN NITROGEN ARGON CARBON DIOXIDE TIWEST PIGMENT PLANT TITANIUM DIOXIDE NU-FARM/ COOGEE CHEM. CHLOR-ALKALI CHLORINE & CAUSTIC SODA CAUSTIC SODA CAUSTIC SODA AMMONIUM SULPHATE SULPHUR HYDROGEN NITROGEN HYDROGEN LPG COOGEE CHEMICALS INORGANIC CHEMICALS TANK TERMINALLING ARGON CARBON DIOXIDE NITROGEN CARBON DIOXIDE LIME LUBE OIL OXYGEN OXYGEN FLOCCULANT AVENTIS CROP SCIENCES AGRICULTURAL CHEMICALS GASOLINE COMPONENTS CHEMICALS GENERAL SUMMIT FERTILIZERS FERTILIZERS NITROGEN OXYGEN EDISON MISSION ENERGY ELECTRICITY CAUSTIC SODA OXYGENNITROGEN NITROGEN AMMONIUM CHLORIDE COPPER SULPHATE GRANULATED PRODUCTS HYDROCHLORIC ACID ALCOA WORLD ALUMINA ALUMINA COCKBURN CEMENT CEMENT & LIME AUST. FUSED MATERIALS FUSED ALUMINA FUSED ZIRCON ALUMINA LIME SHINAGAWA THERMAL CERAMICS REFRACTORIES FUSED ALUMINA SILICA FUME WESFARMERS LPG PROPANE BUTANE CIBA SPECIALTY CHEMICALS FLOCCULANT MILLENNIUM PERFORMANCE CHEMICALS HIGH PURITY ZIRCON POWDERS SODIUM SILICATE SODIUM SILICATE SULPHUR SODIUM SILICATE STEAM FUEL GAS AMMONIA SULPHURIC ACID CHLORINE KERO- SENESCARBON DIOXIDE CARBON DIOXIDE CARBON DIOXIDE MOLTEN SULPHUR AMMONIA SULPHUR NITROGEN HYDROCHLORIC ACID SULPHURIC ACID CO-OPERATIVE BULK HANDLING GRAIN STORAGE SHIP LOADING NATURAL GAS HYDROCHLORIC ACID NITROGEN STEAM SODIUM ALUMINATE SULPHURIC ACID CAUSTIC SODA HYDROCHLORIC ACID NITROGEN ALUMINA CAUSTIC SODA SODIUM HYPOCHLORITE NUFARM LIMITED PESTICIDES CAUSTIC SODA PESTICIDES AMMONIA ONE STEEL MARKET MILLS PATIO TUBING OXYGEN DIESEL OILS CHLORINE LIME DIESEL OILS TYCO WATER STEEL PIPES CEMENT DIESEL OILS LUBE OILS PROPANE OXYGEN NITROGEN HYDROGEN CARBON DIOXIDE LPG SULPHURIC ACID HYDROGEN SULPHUR KWINANA POWER STATION ELECTRICITY TRANSFIELD SMP FABRICATION CONSTRUCTION NITROGEN OXYGEN LPG STEEL PRODUCT HYDROCHLORIC ACID CAUSTIC SODA AMMONIA SULPHURIC ACID HYDROGEN WAXES CARBON DIOXIDE CONDENSATE LUBE OIL NITROGEN NITROGEN AMMONIUM SULPHATE GRANULATED PRODUCTS SULPHUR COPPER SULPHATE FERROUS SULPHATE SULPHURIC ACID SULPHURIC ACID STEAM WAXES CARBON DIOXIDE DEMINERALISED WATER CAUSTIC SODA CAUSTIC SODA
  29. 29. Outcome • More jobs – now and future • More economic resilience • More amenities • New products • Reduced operating costs • Less waste and pollution • Happier local communities • A cleaner and better life for all! 29
  30. 30. Needs • More general and specific education to meet demand • On-going R&D to take novel waste streams and transform into value-added products • Environmental monitoring • Innovative permitting (i.e. Bubble approach – whole industrial estate) 30
  31. 31. Latitude 32 - an IR2-based Industrial complex 31 • Discrete setting where companies locate for maximum resource recovery efficiency A community of businesses that cooperate with each other and with the local community to efficiently share waste resources (information, materials, energy, water, infrastructure and natural habitat), leading to economic gains, gains in environmental quality and equitable enhancement of human resources for the business and the local community Embedded in regional waste exchange networks, or eco- industrial networks
  32. 32. Latitude 32 - an IR2-based Industrial complex 32 • Resource Exchange Networks Eco-Efficiency at each facility Resource Recovery and Reuse, enhanced through Industrial clustering Supportive infrastructure Eco-services provider • Park Design and Management Integration into Natural Ecosystems Green Facilities Design Environmental Management System for park management
  33. 33. The Opportunity • Globally there is an urgent need to develop and deploy technologies, which allows waste to be transformed into valuable products - e.g. fertilizers; construction materials; industrial chemicals and materials etc... Where possible the generation of energy and protect the environment and create employment opportunities at the same time. 33
  34. 34. Anew industrial model - Products from Wastes 34 New Business and Products from Wastes Nutrient Recovery & Augmentation New Materials Composite Materials (Organic and inorganic) Biofuels & Lubricants Water Reuse and Recovery Bioplastics Biofilms & Biomembranes Building Materials
  35. 35. IR2 – Purpose &Aim • Integrated Resource Recovery (IR2) produces efficient transformation of wastes and can be used to generate energy - these wastes will become essential requirements for industries in the future given the imperative of sustainable development. • The aim of IR2 is to develop an industrial system, which prevents pollution and enhances employment opportunities, income and industry sustainability from wastes. 35
  36. 36. IR2 - Principle and Outcome • The ‘waste’, which provides jobs and income through producing a valuable product, in effect, becomes a ‘resource’. • The major focus of this approach is to maximise the utilisation of waste steams and produce valuable by products. • This is a systems (i.e. holistic) approach with a high degree of reliability and flexibility, which presents sustainability options for industries to adapt to their needs depending on circumstances. • IR2 leads to robust, resilient, healthy ecosystems whilst meeting the needs of people and supports our environment. 36
  37. 37. Turning Waste into Business Opportunities 37 • Critical Assets on sustainable IR2 agenda – Access to Land (e.g. Sohar Freezone) – Good R&D and education (e.g. Sohar University) – Incubator and Enterprise creation (e.g. Sohar University) – Business opportunities through • Eco-Efficiency: smarter operations • Industrial Ecology: better collaboration • Innovation: leaner and cleaner products and services • IR2: resource efficiency, material substitution, zero waste
  38. 38. Benefits of IR2 • Removes an environmental hazard • No cost for waste disposal • Creates employment opportunities • Can be started as small-scale and enlarged using modular low cost technologies • Low infrastructure requirements (needs access to non-potable water, electricity, land, labour and easy transport access) • Low to medium skill requirement, workers can be easily trained • Management skills - same as other businesses but need to focus on marketing/selling in early stages • High level innovation opportunities to ‘generate’ new products or materials in novel ways • Cost-competitive with conventional industrial processes 38
  39. 39. IR2 - Industries to benefit • A number of industries (where wastes are produced) are potential beneficiaries.  Aquaculture  Chemical  Horticulture and Viticulture  Livestock systems  Meat and food processing industries  Metal industries  Mining  Municipal Governments  Oil & Gas  Pasture and Crop Industries  Ports  Wastewater and sewage treatment plants  Etc… 39
  40. 40. Barriers/Limitations • Poorly defined and limited number of markets (at present) • Consumer lack of awareness • Regulator ‘unfamiliarity’ of technologies • Competition from conventional products – no price point differential (at present) • Competition for land • Little experience in work force • Lack of education and training providers – formal and informal • Technical issues – durability and breakdown • Cheap energy (watch this space closely!) 40
  41. 41. IR2 Strategy 41 • Objectives  Develop integrated technology systems to treat waste streams suitable for adoption at enterprise based business levels and regional scale operator levels.  Mesh industrial production technologies with technologies developed for processing waste streams • Outcomes  Sustainable growth and increase in regional economies  Increase in company profits adding to GDP and creating new jobs and enterprises  Easily adopted by SMEs and large enterprises  Reduced environmental impact
  42. 42. Recommendations To overcome the previously mentioned challenges stakeholders need to play different roles in the industrialization process of IR2 systems.  Governments  Companies  Retail and business consumers  NGOs and public authorities option of IR2 -based products will be hard to accomplish.  Universities – Education, R&D, Incubation and Enterprise creation 42
  43. 43. Recommendations The most effective measures to induce a significant impact of IR2-based production on all industries are: Stimulate and fund needs-based research and technology development by Universities in conjunction with industry Create new markets for businesses to support IR2-based products and encourage competition Set up public-private partnerships to initiate private sector investments and reduce the delay between product development and commercialization Identify potential growth and impact areas for key industries and provide them with incentives to achieve specified targets, such as CO2 equivalents reduction Inform the public that IR2-based products are a realistic supplement to fossil-based products but that they cannot mitigate the rising demand for fossil fuels 43
  44. 44. Summary ● There is a unique opportunity to bring about significant financial and job impacts to the Omani economy, target industries and enterprises of all sizes, creating jobs, generating profit whilst sustainably recycling precious resources and protecting the environment. ● Thus, by adopting a proactive, collaborative approach to R&D, education, innovation, enterprise and employment the creation of a new industry that has enormous potential not only in Oman but also Gulf States can be achieved! 44
  45. 45. IR2 Revisited 45 Employment +
  46. 46. Let’s make waste history! 46
  47. 47. ‫استماعكم‬ ‫حسن‬ ‫على‬ ‫أشكركم‬ 47 Thank you for your kind attention!

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