Otzik

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  • SFC Improvement 2% per year
  • Expert group (about 40 persons) from all aviation system stakeholders (manufacturing industry, airlines, airports, service providers, regulators, the research establishments and academia )
  • Program involving industry, research institutes and others Budget: 1.6 billion € (2007-2013)
  • Fischer Tropsch Fuels
  • procedure strongly dependent on A/C type precise timing required for configuration changes (Gear/Flaps) precise vertical guidance required during complete APR upcoming Systems needed (Auto Slat/Flap System)
  • Otzik

    1. 1. Aviation and the Environment Presented by Martin Otzik Technische Universität Berlin Berlin Institute of Technology Chair of Flight Guidance and Air Transportation April 28th, 2009 Orlando, Florida, USA
    2. 2.
    3. 3. <ul><li>“ Air transport must aim to become an industry that does not pollute — zero emissions! “ </li></ul>Giovanni Bisignani IATA Director General and CEO IATA Annual General Meeting 2007 Vancouver
    4. 4. Agenda <ul><li>Aviation Growth and Resulting Environmental Impact </li></ul><ul><li>Research Strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Technology Fields Addressed </li></ul><ul><li>Regulatory Measures </li></ul><ul><li>Challenges for Training </li></ul>
    5. 5. Agenda <ul><li>Aviation Growth and Resulting Environmental Impact </li></ul><ul><li>Research Strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Technology Fields Addressed </li></ul><ul><li>Regulatory Measures </li></ul><ul><li>Challenges for Training </li></ul>
    6. 6. Aviation Growth Sources: Airbus 2007, Global Market Forecast 2007 – 2026; IATA, ICAO
    7. 7. Goals of GHG Emission Reduction <ul><li>Kyoto Protocol: (compared to 1990 level) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>8% European Union by 2012 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>7% USA by 2012 (not ratified) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Obama Administration’ Agenda: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>80% reduction of GHG emissions by 2050 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>IATA: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Aviation Zero Emission by 2050 </li></ul></ul>
    8. 8. Carbon Footprint - No Problem? Percentage of anthropogenic CO 2 emissions Aviation 2% Other Transportation Sources 13% Other Sources 85% Source: IPCC, “ Aviation and the Global Atmosphere”
    9. 9. Yes, there‘s a problem. <ul><li>Continuing growth of global aviation </li></ul><ul><ul><li> Emissions will outgrowth efficiency gain </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Radiative Forcing Index </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Includes other emissions: Ozone, methane, contrails, soot, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cirrus cloud effects not fully understood </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> Total radiative forcing index: 2.2 – 3.7 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Aviation’s carbon footprint increases! </li></ul>
    10. 10. Air Traffic and Carbon Dioxide 2 % SFC gain per year
    11. 11. The Industry has understood! Signed by: ACI, CANSO, IATA, ICCAIA, Airbus, Boeing, Bombardier, Embraer, CFM, GE, Pratt & Whitney. Rolls-Royce, ATAG
    12. 12. Agenda <ul><li>Aviation Growth and Resulting Environmental Impact </li></ul><ul><li>Research Strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Technology Fields Addressed </li></ul><ul><li>Regulatory Measures </li></ul><ul><li>Challenges for Training </li></ul>
    13. 13. ACARE Goals for 2020 <ul><li>Environmental </li></ul><ul><li>Goals </li></ul><ul><li>50% less fuel and CO 2 </li></ul><ul><li>50% less noise </li></ul><ul><li>80% less NO X </li></ul><ul><li>Reduction of environmental impact </li></ul><ul><li>Air Transport System </li></ul><ul><li>Efficiency Goals </li></ul><ul><li>Three times more movements </li></ul><ul><li>99% on schedule performance in all weather conditions </li></ul>ACARE (Advisory Council for Aeronautics Research in Europe) = Expert group from all aviation system stakeholders
    14. 14. Contribution Towards ACARE Fuel Efficiency Target Aircraft 20 – 25% Engines 15–20% 0 % 50 Technology Status 2000 Vision 2020 Goal L/D Weight Config. ATM/Ops Specific Fuel Consumption Source: Sustainable Aviation Progress Report 2006 ATM 5–10%
    15. 15. Clean Sky Joint Technology Initiative <ul><li>- 10 to 20 % fuel burn </li></ul><ul><li>- 5 to 10 dB noise </li></ul><ul><li>Reduction of drag </li></ul><ul><li>New aircraft config. </li></ul><ul><li>Aircraft energy concepts </li></ul><ul><li>Green trajectories </li></ul><ul><li>Improved ground ops </li></ul><ul><li>New ops management </li></ul><ul><li>Contra fan </li></ul><ul><li>Open rotor </li></ul><ul><li>Alternative fuels </li></ul>
    16. 16. Agenda <ul><li>Aviation Growth and Resulting Environmental Impact </li></ul><ul><li>Research Strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Technology Fields Addressed </li></ul><ul><li>Regulatory Measures </li></ul><ul><li>Challenges for Training </li></ul>
    17. 17. Airframe and Aircraft Systems Development Expected CO 2 reduction Composite Materials - 4% <ul><li>Aerodynamics </li></ul><ul><li>passive and active flow control </li></ul><ul><li>Laminar flow fuselage </li></ul>-15% <ul><li>More Electric Aircraft </li></ul><ul><li>Decentralized hydraulics </li></ul><ul><li>Electric ECS and Anti Ice </li></ul><ul><li>New power management </li></ul>- 3% (plus significant reduction in operating costs)
    18. 18. Still Room For Engine Improvement Source: Development of the BPR and SFC (Martens 2007 )
    19. 19. Innovative Engines – Near future Geared Turbofan (GTF) SFC: -6 to -10% (compared to 2000 Status) Noise: -15 to -20 EPNdB Mass: +8 to +10% Entry into Service: 2013 as P&W PurePower PW1000G Mitsubishi Regional Jet and Bombardier CSeries
    20. 20. Innovative Engines – Far Future SFC: -16 to -20% (compared to 2000 status) Noise: -18 to -22 EPNdB (compared to Chapter 4) NOX: -50% CAEP/6 Higher Mass To be realized not before 2035 Engines with Intercooler and Heat Exchanger
    21. 21. Alternative Fuel Options <ul><li>IATA Goal: 10% alternative fuels by 2017 </li></ul>Fossil Renewable       Source: Airbus Drop In – Synth. Fuels Non „Drop In“ - Cryogenic CTL Approved 04/08 LNG <ul><li>Low energy content per unit volume </li></ul><ul><li>Availability </li></ul><ul><li>Infrastructure </li></ul>GTL Test flight 02/08 BTL 4 test flights 02/08 to 01/09 LH 2 Ethanol 35% lower energy content
    22. 22. ATC/ATM – Current Initiatives Single European Sky ATM Research (2005 – 2020) Next Generation Air Trans- portation System (2005 – 2025) Elimination of Fragmentation Security Goals: More Capacity, Increased Safety, Higher Efficiency, Less Delays System Wide Information Management Trajectory Based Operation
    23. 23. Agenda <ul><li>Aviation Growth and Resulting Environmental Impact </li></ul><ul><li>Research Strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Technology Fields Addressed </li></ul><ul><li>Regulatory Measures </li></ul><ul><li>Challenges for Training </li></ul>
    24. 24. Airport Emission Charges <ul><li>Emission charges at 15 European airports </li></ul><ul><li>Yet no implementation outside Europe </li></ul>* Approximate fees (emissions only) per landing; A320-200 with CFM-56 engines, B777-300 with GE-90 engines Airports (selection) Effective Fees* A320 B777 Switzerland Zürich 1997 0 USD 265 USD Sweden Stockholm 1997 85 USD 507 USD Germany Frankfurt 2008 48 USD 286 USD UK Heathrow 2004 39 USD 233 USD France Euroairport 2003 58 USD (bonus) 451 USD
    25. 25. Emission Trading Scheme - ETS <ul><li>Aviation will be included in the European ETS from 2012 </li></ul><ul><li>All Airlines flying from/to and within EU </li></ul><ul><li>Legal problems of including non EU Airlines (ATA: “European Aviation ETS illegal”) </li></ul><ul><li>5.3 billion EUR annual cost for European airlines (AEA estimates) </li></ul><ul><li>EU: Demand growth drop from 142% (business as usual) to 135% (ETS) in 2020 </li></ul>Source: CE Delft, „Giving wings to emission trading”; July 2005 Increase per flight in 2012 Short haul Medium haul Long haul Aircraft Operating Cost (USD) 35 – 105 70 – 210 340 – 1025 Ticket Price (USD) 0.30 – 1.05 0.60 – 2.25 1.50 – 4.35
    26. 26. Average Fuel Consumption of the World Passenger Fleet
    27. 27. Agenda <ul><li>Aviation Growth and Resulting Environmental Impact </li></ul><ul><li>Research Strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Technology Fields Addressed </li></ul><ul><li>Regulatory Measures </li></ul><ul><li>Challenges for Training </li></ul>
    28. 28. Innovative Noise Abatement Procedures <ul><li>e.g. Segmented Continuous Descent Approach procedure </li></ul><ul><li>precise timing required for configuration changes </li></ul><ul><li>precise vertical guidance required (APPR) </li></ul><ul><li>upcoming systems needed (Auto Slat/Flap System) </li></ul>Source: DLR-FT (Braunschweig)
    29. 29. Conclusion For Future Green Operations <ul><li>more complex procedures require more system knowledge and understanding </li></ul><ul><li>additional systems needed such as enhanced HMI and ASFS (Auto Slat/Flap System) </li></ul><ul><li>all together higher automation levels </li></ul><ul><li> more specialized training needed </li></ul>
    30. 30. Aviation and the Environment Martin Otzik Technische Universität Berlin martin.otzik@ilr.tu-berlin.de Chair of Flight Guidance and Air Transportation Flying Green is Possible!

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