Television Standards Example of InterlacedAnalog Signals Video:There are three systems of analog television:• Pal – used in Hong Kong• NTSC – used in Canada and USA• SECAM – used in EuropeEach system is incompatible with the otherFrames – all the lines of definitionFields – how much information is shown on the screen at any giventimeInterlace – only shows half the information at one time, split into oddand even numbers (the highest number is 1080i)Progressive – everything shown at once (e.g. 1080p). If it isprogressive, the field and the frame will be the same
Television StandardsAnalog SignalsWavelength – The distance from one wave to another.Frequency – The number of waves that pass a point each second.Amplitude – The amount of energy measured in a sound wave.Widescreen Aspect Ratios• Aspect ratios are changeable using ANAMORPHIC which squeezes the image.• The ratio stays the same all the way through.• Pan and scan helps keep the action in the middle of the screen.• Pixel Aspect Ratio - This tool helps calculate the pixel aspect ratio of video formats.
Television StandardsAnalog SignalsThe analog signal can be split into a component signal or a compositesignal.A component signal is when the signal is broken up into different bits,the sound then travels through the component.A composite signal is when everything is stored in one cable.The strengths of a component signal is that the color quality is muchmore noticeable then a component signal. The weakness of acomponent signal is that it does not give satisfactory video signal whenbeing transferred Component Signal Composite Signal
Television StandardsDigital Signals A digital signal is a constant waveform signal used in any formof digital communication.There are different cables used to transfer digital signals, eachcome with a few strengths and weaknesses.DVI Connector – DVI stands for Digital Visual Interface, it is usedto maximize the picture quality of digital.Advantages• Analog or digital• Deliver signals discreetly together with synced informationDisadvantages• No audio• No Blu-ray support
Television StandardsDigital SignalsHDMI Connecter – HDMI stands for High Definition MultimediaInterface, it is used for transferring encoded uncompressed numericalinformation. Advantages• They are popular because it is easy to use and includes a lot of functions• They are high definition and have high quality videos which make people want to use HDMI’s more• HDMI’s carry video and audio in one cable which is much more convenient then having a separate cable for eachDisadvantages• HDMI’s can be quite expensive which is not good in a domestic market• In order to have an HDMI cable you need to have an HDMI player to get the video to work
Broadcast SystemsTerrestrial TV (also known as broadcast systems) – Usually sent as radio signals from an antennae; needs a tuner with an areal to receive.Advantages• Usually free• More channels• High image qualityDisadvantages• Broadcasting is limited• A lot of interference• Limited color range
Broadcast SystemsSatellite TV – is when the signal is broadcasted then directed by a satellite dish.Advantages• Analog or digital• Can broadcast over vast distances• High quality• Choice of programsDisadvantages• Requires a satellite receiver• Signal can be affected by bad weather• Installation required
Broadcast SystemsCable TV – is a system providing television programs to consumers via radio frequency signals.Advantages• Can be transmitted through phone, internet and radio• Better signal = additional hardware• On demand service• Bad weather doesn’t affectDisadvantages• TV signal received through cables• Expensive• Limited subscribers• Less channels
Broadcast SystemsDigital TV – Generally, the transmission of digital TV signals rather then analog.There are two basic types:SDTV (Standard Definition Television) – is a digital format that provides high quality images.HDTV (High Definition Television) – provides higher image quality and offers a wide format.They can be received via areal cables, satellite or internet.Advantages• Can be encrypted• Can be interactiveDisadvantages• Needs antennae upgrade for a strong digital signal• Needs new equipment, old – style analog TV sets can’t receive digital signals
Broadcast SystemsInternet TV – Programs transmitted via internet, usually by traditional broadcasters.Advantages• Only requires internet access• Can watch a program any time• Fewer ads• Disadvantages• Not everything is available everywhere• Students can watch under aged programs• Inaccurate advertising
Digital RecordingCamera Type:DSLRAdvantages• Excellent image quality• Changeable lens (huge advantage)• Cheap• Big sensor (much better image quality)• Hack able (can play around with it)Disadvantages• Not designed for filming• Doesn’t have certain features• Big sensor (slows it down)• Over heats quickly (after 7 minutes it turns off)• Lines of definition (neutral)
Digital RecordingCamera Type:CamcordersAdvantages• Easy to operate - straightforward• Designed for filming• Time saving• Easier storage• Cost effectiveDisadvantages• Quite limited functions• Not designed for photography
Digital RecordingCamerasISO• How fast or sensitive the light is to the film• The darker it is, the higher the number• The more sensitive the film is, the more noise is visibleAperture• The aperture is the size of the hole• The focus lens allows more light or less lightShutter Speed• The length of the time the image is exposed• Dark – long shutter speed• Bright – short shutter speedThese are the three things that affect exposure
Digital EditingFile, Size and CompressionFile – A collection of information that can be stored on the computer.There are many different file types that can store differentinformation.Size – The bigger they are, the slower they are and the harder to store.Some files take quite some time to upload as the files are too big e.g.uploading a mov file to YouTube.Compatibility – Not all files are compatible with all hardware/softwareThere are two types of compression:LOSSLESS – Every single bit of data that was in the file remains afterthe file is uncompressed.LOSSY – On the other hand, when the LOSSY files get uncompressed,only part of the information remains.
Digital EditingAudio RecordingMP3 FileAdvantages• Can be played by many type of devices e.g. CD players and iPods• High reliability• Mp3 files can be downloaded easily• Free or very cheap• Mp3 files are shared easilyDisadvantages• Takes up quite a lot of storage space• The downloaded file may skip at unexpected areas
Digital EditingAudio RecordingWAV FileAdvantages• LOSELESS files• Can be easily edited and changed to your taste of music• High reliabilityDisadvantages• Limited to 4 gigabytes• Usually very large files• Limited space• Takes quite a bit of time to download
Digital EditingComparing Software Programs• Adobe Photoshop Elements – The advantages are its easy to use and can be imported using many various ways. The disadvantage is that the program doesn’t have live chat.• Photo Studio – The advantages are it has a lot of editing options and is organized. The disadvantage is it doesn’t have many ways to share the edited file.• Pixelmator – The advantages are it is very easy to use and has a lot of output capabilities. The disadvantages are there arent as much editing options as the other programs.• Acom – The advantages are the program contains a lot of help and support and has a lot of output capabilities. The disadvantage is that there arent many ways to organize the file.