FOREST CERTIFICATION:BIOLOGICAL BENEFITS ORJUST LANDOWNER COSTS?              D. Stuart Hale              Department of Fo...
Outline   Introduction     Certification     Sustainable   forest management (SFM)   Current Knowledge     Landowner ...
Introduction   What is forest certification?     “theprocess of verifying that a forest      meets the requirements of a...
What is sustainable management?   “The stewardship and use of forests and forest    lands in a way, and at a rate, that m...
Certification programs   Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) – 257 million acres   Programme for the Endorsement of Forest ...
Certification in the Americas   United States:     109   million acres or ~15% of forests       FSC  has ~25 million ac...
Why be certified?   Market benefits     Eco-labeling     Consumer   demand   Recognition and credibility   Improved f...
Requirements of certification   Adherence to objectives and principles      Sustainable harvests levels     Compliance ...
Requirements of certification   Management plan     Inventory, description of      resources, explanation of management...
Chain of Custody                   Source: ATFS
Landowner costs   Administrative     Additional   timber sale preparation and staff      knowledge     Auditing and mon...
Biological considerations   Forest certification is    used a tool for    conservation (Brown    2001).   How are ecolog...
Management applications   Spatial analysis of    fragmentation and loss    of forest cover     Cumulative   impact      ...
Management applications   Variable retention    forestry     Retentioncorridors     Scattered retention     Marked buf...
Management applications   Maintenance and protection of representative    areas of existing forest types   High Conserva...
Ecological considerations   Account for cumulative impacts   Retain and ensure continuous forest environment    and repr...
Future directions   Proliferation of certification systems     Increased   awareness and desire   Competition between s...
Conclusions   Requirements of certification influence forest management    actions (Cubbage 2008).   Certification promo...
Questions        D. Stuart Hale Copyright © 2013. All rights reserved.
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Forest Certification: Biological Benefits or Just Landowner Costs?

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Presentation outlining the benefits and costs of forest certification and sustainable forest management. First presented at the University of Tennessee - Knoxville on October 6, 2010.

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Forest Certification: Biological Benefits or Just Landowner Costs?

  1. 1. FOREST CERTIFICATION:BIOLOGICAL BENEFITS ORJUST LANDOWNER COSTS? D. Stuart Hale Department of Forestry, Wildlife, and Fisheries University of Tennessee—Knoxville
  2. 2. Outline Introduction  Certification  Sustainable forest management (SFM) Current Knowledge  Landowner costs  Current management  Ecological considerations Future Directions Conclusions
  3. 3. Introduction What is forest certification?  “theprocess of verifying that a forest meets the requirements of a standard” (Nussbaum and Simula 2005).  Current systems ~15 years old  Voluntary  Verified and audited by third parties  “Sustainable management”
  4. 4. What is sustainable management? “The stewardship and use of forests and forest lands in a way, and at a rate, that maintains their biodiversity, productivity, regeneration capacity, vitality and their potential to fulfill, now and in the future, relevant ecological, economic and social functions, at local, national, and global levels, and that does not cause damage to other ecosystems.” - Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations
  5. 5. Certification programs Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) – 257 million acres Programme for the Endorsement of Forest Certification (PEFC) – 500 million acres  Sustainable Forestry Initiative (SFI) – 151 million acres  The American Tree Farm System (ATFS) – 30 million acres  Canadian Standards Association (CSA) – 188 million acres  Other international organizations – 41 million acres798 million acres total or ~8-10 % of world’s forests Source: Cubbage 2008
  6. 6. Certification in the Americas United States:  109 million acres or ~15% of forests  FSC has ~25 million acres  SFI has ~54 million acres  ATFS has ~30 million acres Canada:  188 million acres or ~45% of forests Central and South America:  Brazil ~1.5%; Bolivia ~2.9%; Argentina ~0.6%
  7. 7. Why be certified? Market benefits  Eco-labeling  Consumer demand Recognition and credibility Improved forest management  Beyond BMPs Promotion and verification of good forestry Improved external relations
  8. 8. Requirements of certification Adherence to objectives and principles  Sustainable harvests levels  Compliance with laws and regulations  Protect water quality  Provide for habitat and species diversity  Provide for social, economic, and ecologic benefits
  9. 9. Requirements of certification Management plan  Inventory, description of resources, explanation of management Auditing, monitoring, and assessment  Adaptive management  Third party audits Chain of Custody (COC)  Certificationmust be maintained throughout process for marketed goods to be certified
  10. 10. Chain of Custody Source: ATFS
  11. 11. Landowner costs Administrative  Additional timber sale preparation and staff knowledge  Auditing and monitoring  Opportunity costs  Additional paper work in COC Forgone harvests  Could be 20% or more of harvestable timber$1-8 per acre depending on property size and certificationprogram (Cubbage 2002)
  12. 12. Biological considerations Forest certification is used a tool for conservation (Brown 2001). How are ecological principles applied in harvest of certified stands? Is certified timber management ecologically better than other timber management?
  13. 13. Management applications Spatial analysis of fragmentation and loss of forest cover  Cumulative impact analysis Ensure that managed forests do not result in the loss of native ecosystems
  14. 14. Management applications Variable retention forestry  Retentioncorridors  Scattered retention  Marked buffers Areas of retention may not be the best quality as a result of trying to maximize economic returns
  15. 15. Management applications Maintenance and protection of representative areas of existing forest types High Conservation Value Forests (HCVF)  Focal species management  Endangered, threatened, species of concern  Desirable species
  16. 16. Ecological considerations Account for cumulative impacts Retain and ensure continuous forest environment and representative structures including early, mid-, and late successional habitats Additional environmental protection measures  SMZs  Exotic species  Genetically modified organisms (GMOs)  Chemical use Opportunity to enhance forest health and promote biodiversity
  17. 17. Future directions Proliferation of certification systems  Increased awareness and desire Competition between systems  Market impacts Evolution of systems and management  Systems and policy Convergence  Includingwith Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) Source: Hansen 2006
  18. 18. Conclusions Requirements of certification influence forest management actions (Cubbage 2008). Certification promotes biodiversity (Gullison 2003) “…certification is broadening the scope of forestry—making it more comprehensive with an increased emphasis on ecological and social considerations.” (Hartsfield and Ostermeier 2003) Cost are significant but most participants state a willingness to maintain certification (Cubbage et al. 2008) Therefore forest certification has and will continue to havepositive biological impacts
  19. 19. Questions D. Stuart Hale Copyright © 2013. All rights reserved.

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