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Detecting online grooming and radicalisation

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Presented at the Society of Evidence Based Policing (SEBP) Conference, Milton Keynes, 2018

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Detecting online grooming and radicalisation

  1. 1. Detecting online grooming and radicalisation Harith Alani http://people.kmi.open.ac.uk/harith/ @halani harith-alani @halaniSEBP Conference, Open University, 1st March Feb 2018
  2. 2. Social Analytics
  3. 3. RadicalisationGrooming
  4. 4. Child Grooming Premeditated behaviour intending to secure the trust of a minor as a first step towards future engagement in sexual conduct.
  5. 5. Claire Lilley, Ruth Ball, Heather Vernon, The experiences of 11-16 year olds on social networking sites, NSPCC 2014 “findings show that approximately 190,000 UK children (1 in 58) will suffer contact sexual abuse by a non- related adult before turning 18, with approximately 10,000 new child victims of contact sexual abuse being reported in the UK each year.” CEOP: Child Exploitation & Online Protection Centre NSPCC - National Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children
  6. 6. “50% of all 11 and 12 year-olds in the UK use a social networking site, according to our research. This is because it's easy for children to access sites intended for older users.” https://www.nspcc.org.uk/preventing-abuse/keeping-children-safe/share-aware/
  7. 7. https://www.statista.com/statistics/271348/facebook-users-in-the-united-kingdom-uk-by-age/
  8. 8. Child Protection Tools Passive Tools ActiveTools
  9. 9. Notes about Grooming! • From April 2017, sexual communications with a child is a criminal offence • At any moment, there are around 750,000 predators active online (International Centre for Missing & Exploited Children, 2017) • On average, grooming conversations consist of over 2000 lines and 17000 words, spanning many weeks and month (Gupta et al. 2012) • Increasing children’s awareness and understanding of online grooming behaviour is key to protecting children online (Izura et al. 2017) • Most people are unable to identify predatory behaviours when they are present (Winters & Jeglic, 2017)
  10. 10. Online Grooming https://www.thinkuknow.co.uk/parents/articles/Online-grooming/
  11. 11. Signs of Online Grooming https://www.thinkuknow.co.uk/14_plus/Need-advice/Online-grooming/
  12. 12. Predator: hey whats up?… Predator: I like your pic, very cute Predator: so you're in san diego? 13-yr-old-girl: not far Predator: ok, you like older guys? 13-yr-old-girl: thers nice or bad ppl all ages Predator: have some pics if you want to see Predator: do your parents look on your computer? Predator: so are you by yourself or is someone else there with you? Predator: so it should just be us, our little secret Predator: so have you ever snuck out? 13-yr-old-girl: not rlly lol Predator: yeah, what about tonight? Predator: think you could sneak out tonight? Predator: well if the wrong person found out then I'd be screwed 13-yr-old-girl: im not a teller lol Predator: I know, just wouldn't want your dad to find out Predator: if you are still up why not sneak out for a few minutes Predator: but that's the fun of it 13-yr-old-girl: fun to sneak? Predator: yes Predator: so your dad doesn't know Predator: would take a nap but I leave for bible study around 6:30 Predator: I know I'm bad, going to bible study and talking about sex with you Predator: yeah, there's nothing wrong with us being friends, we have the same lord remember ;) Predator: would take me like an hour and a half to get there Predator: see you in a little while Grooming in Action ~700 message Over a 5 month period Full conversation: http://www.perverted-justice.com/?archive=bravesfan34581 Content blocking unhelpful
  13. 13. Olson’s Theory of Luring Communication Olson, L. N., Daggs, J. L., Ellevold, B. L. and Rogers, T. K. K. (2007), Entrapping the Innocent: Toward a Theory of Child Sexual Predators’ Luring Communication. Communication Theory, 17: 231–251
  14. 14. Predator: hey whats up?… Predator: I like your pic, very cute Predator: so you're in san diego? 13-yr-old-girl: not far Predator: ok, you like older guys? 13-yr-old-girl: thers nice or bad ppl all ages Predator: have some pics if you want to see Predator: do your parents look on your computer? Predator: so are you by yourself or is someone else there with you? Predator: so it should just be us, our little secret Predator: so have you ever snuck out? 13-yr-old-girl: not rlly lol Predator: yeah, what about tonight? Predator: think you could sneak out tonight? Predator: well if the wrong person found out then I'd be screwed 13-yr-old-girl: im not a teller lol Predator: I know, just wouldn't want your dad to find out Predator: if you are still up why not sneak out for a few minutes Predator: but that's the fun of it 13-yr-old-girl: fun to sneak? Predator: yes Predator: so your dad doesn't know Predator: would take a nap but I leave for bible study around 6:30 Predator: I know I'm bad, going to bible study and talking about sex with you Predator: yeah, there's nothing wrong with us being friends, we have the same lord remember ;) Predator: would take me like an hour and a half to get there Predator: see you in a little while Approach Grooming Trust Development Isolation Physical Approach Physical Approach
  15. 15. Predator: hey whats up?… Predator: I like your pic, very cute Predator: so you're in san diego? 13-yr-old-girl: not far Predator: ok, you like older guys? 13-yr-old-girl: thers nice or bad ppl all ages Predator: have some pics if you want to see Predator: do your parents look on your computer? Predator: so are you by yourself or is someone else there with you? Predator: so it should just be us, our little secret Predator: so have you ever snuck out? 13-yr-old-girl: not rlly lol Predator: yeah, what about tonight? Predator: think you could sneak out tonight? Predator: well if the wrong person found out then I'd be screwed 13-yr-old-girl: im not a teller lol Predator: I know, just wouldn't want your dad to find out Predator: if you are still up why not sneak out for a few minutes Predator: but that's the fun of it 13-yr-old-girl: fun to sneak? Predator: yes Predator: so your dad doesn't know Predator: would take a nap but I leave for bible study around 6:30 Predator: I know I'm bad, going to bible study and talking about sex with you Predator: yeah, there's nothing wrong with us being friends, we have the same lord remember ;) Predator: would take me like an hour and a half to get there Predator: see you in a little while Approach Grooming Isolation Physical Approach Physical Approach Can we automatically identify these stages? Trust Development
  16. 16. Identifying Grooming Stages “think you could sneak out tonight?“ Grooming Trust Development Physical Approach other Automatic Classifiers Yes NoNoNo
  17. 17. Dataset • 50 transcripts of conversations between convicted predators and volunteers who posed as minors • Conversations vary between 83 to 12K lines. • Each predator line manually labelled by two annotators. • Annotations labels: 1)Trust development, 2) Grooming, 3) Seek physical approach, 4) Other. Trust Dev. Grooming Phys. Approach Other 1225 3304 2700 3304sentences Dataset
  18. 18. Processing Chat Text • Challenges in processing chat-room conversations – Use of irregular and ill-formed words. – Use of chat slang and teen-lingo – Use of emoticons. Generated a list of over 1K terms and definitions: Chat term Translation Emoticon Translation ASLP Age, sex, location, picture :’-( I’m crying AWGTHTHTTA Are we going to have to go through this again? o/o High five BRB Be right back @_@ I’m tired, trying to stay awake CWOT Complete waste of time ( ‘}{‘ ) kiss
  19. 19. Analysis Features & Results Results - with all features: Feature Description N-gram word combinations extracted from text (N=1,2,3) Part-of-speech tagging noun, verb, adjective, plural, etc. sentiment average sentiment of terms in sentence length number of words in sentence Psycho-linguistic Patterns 62 psycho-linguistic patterns in English (swearing, sexual, agreement, etc.) - Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count (LIWC) Semantic frames Type of event, relation, or entity in text, e.g., secrecy, desirability, emotion, kinship - SEMAFOR Trust Development Grooming Phys. Approach average Precision 79.2% 87.6% 87.2% 84.7% Recall 82.3% 88.8% 88.7% 86.6% F1 80.7% 88.2% 87.9% 85.6% Cano, E; Miriam, F.; and Alani, H (2014). Detecting child grooming behaviour patterns on social media. SocInfo, Barcelona, Spain.
  20. 20. “child sexual exploitation and abuse (CSEA) affects all sections of society and in particular requires a response which incorporates protecting the potential victims of these crimes.“ NCA report 2016-17 http://www.nationalcrimeagency.gov.uk/publications/814-national-crime-agency-annual-report-2016-17/
  21. 21. Date, event, location 21 Online Radicalisation Is the process by which individuals are introduced to ideological messages and belief systems that encourage movement from mainstream beliefs toward extreme views, primarily through the use of online media [US Dept. of Justice]
  22. 22. 22
  23. 23. Distribution of Offline & Online ISIS Activists in Europe
  24. 24. Research on Online Radicalisation 24 Mapping ISIS media command [Winter 2015] Network of female ISIS supporters and wives of Western foreign fighters [Klausen 2015] ISIS’s social media presence ISIS online recruitment steps [Berger 2015] Stages of radicalization Journey to violent-radicalisation [Bartlett et al 2010] In-group peer pressure Exist on the fringes of the community Identify crisis Distribution of jihad videos Shallow conception of Islam Network of ISIS official accounts, 2014 [Berger and Morgan 2015] Radicalisation models [King & Taylor 2011]
  25. 25. Identifying Signals of Radicalization • Automatic approaches for detecting radicalised individuals on social media Machine Learning ApproachesLexicon-based Approaches Stance Label ‫اﻟﺧﻼﻓﺔ‬ ‫دوﻟﺔ‬ ISIS Shirk Caliphate Islamic State ‫ارھﺎب‬ Radicalization Lexicon
  26. 26. Knowledge Graphs • Extract and use the semantic interdependencies and relations between words to learn patterns of radicalisation. x xSyria ISIS'(ISIL) Abu'Bakr'Al1Baghdadi birthPlace leader Muslim_Brotherhood_ of_Syria ideology ideology Pan1Islamism Military_intervention_against_ISIL rdf1schema#seeAlsoplace location headquarters ISIS Syria Terrorism Group Country (Military Intervention Against ISIS, place, Syria) Entities Concepts Semantic Relations
  27. 27. Automatic classification of social media accounts Machine Learning Algorithm Non-violent Radical Non-Radical Violent Radical
  28. 28. Kurdish Jihadist Pro-Assad Secular/ Moderate Fig. 1: Syrian account network (652 nodes, 3,260 edges). Four major categories; Jihadist (gold, right), Kurdish (red, top), Pro-Assad (purple, left), and Secular/Moderate opposition (blue, center). Black nodes are members of multiple communities. Visualization was performed with the OpenOrd layout in Gephi. contrast with the polarization analyzed in certain studies of mainstream political activism [3], [10], the three communities found few references to these from the liberal and conservative blogs), but suggested that they could be considered in future O’Callaghan et al. 2014 625 Users 2.4M Users 154K EU Users 104M Tweets Sharing Incitement Material Using Extremist Language 566 pro-ISIS users 566 anti-ISIS or neutral users Data Collection and Analysis NOT gold standard
  29. 29. Evaluation Results • Adding semantics graphs enhances overall classification performance
  30. 30. Signals of Radicalisation
  31. 31. Graph Patterns
  32. 32. Distribution of semantics in Tweets of pro/anti ISIS users
  33. 33. Date, event, location 33 Online Radicalisation Is the process by which individuals are introduced to ideological messages and belief systems that encourage movement from mainstream beliefs toward extreme views, primarily through the use of online media [US Dept. of Justice]
  34. 34. content from friend & followees Influence of Radicalisations authored posts timeline content from websites
  35. 35. “We cannot allow this ideology the safe space it needs to breed – yet that is precisely what the internet, and the big companies that provide internet-based services provide” Theresa May
  36. 36. http://trivalent-project.eu/ TRIVALENT – EU project (May 2017-April 2020) Terrorism Prevention via Radicalisation Counter-narrative Harith Alani http://people.kmi.open.ac.uk/harith/ h.alani@open.ac.uk Twitter: @halani Miriam FernandezHassan Saif Elizabeth Cano Work by …

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