Intro biochemvet2

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Intro biochemvet2

  1. 1. Veterinary Biochemistry 09/05/10 Introduction 2
  2. 2. <ul><li>Chemistry of Living Things </li></ul><ul><ul><li>C,H,O,N = 96% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All biological compounds are based on hydrocarbon chains </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>C-C-C-C-C-C </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Chains are very long </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4 Main types of biological compounds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Proteins </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Carbohydrates </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lipids </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nucleic Acids </li></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Proteins </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Composed of amino acid building blocks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>COOH group </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>NH 2 Group </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protein = Many amino acids hooked together </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Special covalent bond = peptide bond </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Links C-N-C </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Only found in proteins </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Proteins = polypeptides </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>As 2 amino acids are hooked together one HOH is removed = dehydration synthesis or condensation </li></ul></ul></ul>Protein
  4. 4. A.A. + A.A.  dipeptide + HOH (A.A. + A.A.) 1001  polypeptide + 1001 HOH
  5. 5. <ul><ul><li>Functions of proteins </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Structure of cells </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Enzymes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Muscles </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cell Membranes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Some Hormones </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>insulin </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Carbohydrates = sugars and starches </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Composed of monosaccharides (single sugars) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>m.s.+m.s.  disaccharide + HOH </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dehydration synthesis </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(m.s.+m.s.  polysaccharide+many HOH (polysaccharide = starch) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Examples of monosaccharides </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Glucose </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fructose </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Galactose </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Examples of disaccharides </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sucrose </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lactose </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Maltose </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><ul><ul><li>Energy source </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fast energy from monosaccharides </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Energy Storage </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Starches </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ie: animal starch = glycogen </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ie: plant starch = amylose </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Structure </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cellulose </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Makes plant cell walls </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Made of glucose </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cannot be digested by animals </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Most abundant organic molecule </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Chitin </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Makes up insect shells </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Made of glucose </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Lipids = fats, oils, waxes and steroids </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fats made of glycerol+3 fatty acids glycerol+3 fatty acids  fat+3 HOH </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dehydration Synthesis </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Functions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Long term energy storage </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Migratory animals </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Insulation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cushion for vital organs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cell membranes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hormones = steroids </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Protection </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Leaves of plants </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Nucleic Acids = DNA + RNA </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Made of 3 components </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>5-C sugar </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Phosphate </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nitrogen Base </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Together these make 1 nucleotide </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nucleotides = Building Blocks </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nucleotides hook together via Dehydration Synthesis </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Functions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Carries genetic code/blueprint </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. To be Continued….

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