Plc (introduction and logic)

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Plc (introduction and logic)

  1. 1. 1
  2. 2. DEFINITION•Programmable logic controllers, also calledprogrammable controllers or PLCs, are solid-state members of the computer family, usingintegrated circuits instead of electromechanicaldevices to implement control functions.•They are capable of storing instructions, suchas sequencing, timing, counting, arithmetic,data manipulation, and communication, tocontrol industrial machines and processes. 2
  3. 3. 3
  4. 4. Small modular PLC courtesy ABB courtesy Backmannmounted on DIN-rail, 24V supplycheaper (€5000)not water-proof,no ventilatorextensible by a parallel bus (flat cable or rail) 4
  5. 5. Simple PLCnetwork binary inputs analog inputs / outputs binary outputs 5
  6. 6. PLC in a cabinet CPU1 CPU2 serial connectionsredundantfield busconnection inputs/outputs 6
  7. 7. Global players 7
  8. 8. • The control system had to be price competitive.• It had to be capable of sustaining an industrialenvironment.• The I/O interfaces had to be easily replaceable.• The controller had to be designed in modular form, sothat subassemblies could be removed easily forreplacement or repair.• It needed the capability to pass data to a central system.• The system had to be reusable.• The method used to program it had to be simple. 8
  9. 9. TODAY’S PROGRAMMABLE CONTROLLERS• Faster scan times.• Small, low-cost.• High-density input/output (I/O) systems.• Intelligent, microprocessor-based.• Mechanical design improvements.• Special interfaces.•Peripheral equipment has improved operator interfacetechniques. 9
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  11. 11. Programmable controller block diagram 11
  12. 12. Block diagram of major CPU components 12
  13. 13. Graphic Representation of a Scan 13
  14. 14. Input/Output Interface 14
  15. 15. 15
  16. 16. Personal Computer Used as a Programming Devices 16
  17. 17. Typical programmable controller applications 17
  18. 18. 18
  19. 19. PLC PRODUCT APPLICATION RANGES 19
  20. 20. LADDER DIAGRAMS AND THE PLC 20
  21. 21. 21
  22. 22. 22
  23. 23. Typical programmable controller features and benefits. 23
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  25. 25. Programmable controller I/O connection diagram showingno physical connections between the inputs and outputs. 25
  26. 26. Remote I/O station installation 26
  27. 27. EASE OF MAINTENANCE AND TROUBLESHOOTING 27
  28. 28. Failures in a PLC-based system 28
  29. 29. A programming device being used to monitorinputs and outputs, with highlighted contacts indicating an ON condition. 29
  30. 30. 30
  31. 31. DECIMAL NUMBER SYSTEM 31
  32. 32. BINARY NUMBER SYSTEM 32
  33. 33. 33
  34. 34. ASCII Coderepresentation of the character Z 34
  35. 35. Binary Coded Decimal (BCD)(Thumbwheel switch) 35
  36. 36. Gray codeIt is one of a series of cyclic codes known as reflected codes andis suited primarily for position transducers 36
  37. 37. 37
  38. 38. Binary Concept Using Positive LogicBinary Concept Using Negative Logic 38
  39. 39. AND Gate 39
  40. 40. OR Gate 40
  41. 41. NOT Function 41
  42. 42. 42
  43. 43. 43
  44. 44. 44
  45. 45. 45
  46. 46. 46
  47. 47. Hardwired relay logic circuit 47
  48. 48. ADDRESSES USED IN PLCS 48
  49. 49. CONTACT SYMBOLS USED IN PLCS 49
  50. 50. 50
  51. 51. Multiple contactsfrom a PLC output coil 51

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